Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

The Components of Predation as Revealed by a Study of Small-Mammal Predation of the European Pine Sawfly1

  • C. S. Holling (a1)

The fluctuation of an animal's numbers between restricted limits is determined by a balance between that animal's capacity to increase and the environmenta1 cheks to this increase. Many authors have indulged in the calculating the propressive increase of a population when no checks nrerc operating. Thus Huxley calculated that the progeny of a single Aphis in the course of 10 generations, supposing all survived,would “contain more ponderable substance than five hundred millions of stout men; that is, more than the whole population of China”, (in Thompson, 1929). Checks, however, do occur and it has been the subject of much controversy to determine how these checks operate. Certain general principles—the density-dependence concept of Smith ( 1955) , the competition theory of Nicholson (1933)—have been proposed both verbally and mathematically, but because they have been based in part upon untested and restrictive assumptions they have been severelv criticized (e.g. Andrewartha and Birch 1954). These problems could be considerably clarified if we knew the mode of operation of each process that affects numbers, if we knew its basic and subsidiary components. predation, one such process, forms the subject of the present paper.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

W. F. Blair 1941. Techniques for the study of mammal populations, J. Mamm. 22: 148157.

C. H. Buckner 1957. Population studies on small mammals of southeastern Manitoba. J. Mamm. 38: 8797.

T. Burnett 1951. Effects of temperature and host density on the rate of increase of an insect parasite. Amer. Nat. 85: 337352.

P. De Bach 1958. The role of weather and entomophagous species in the natural control of insect populations, J. Econ. Ent. 51: 474484.

P. De Bach , and H. S. Smith . 1941. The effect of host density on the rate of reproduction of entomophagous parasites, J. Econ. Ent. 34: 741745.

P. De Bach , and H. S. Smith . 1947. Effects of parasite population density on rate of change of host and parasite populations. Ecology 28: 290298.

P. L. Errington 1934. Vulnerability of bob-white populations to predation. Ecology 15: 110127.

P. L. Errington 1945. Some contributions of a fifteen-year local study of the northern bob-white to a knowledge of population phenomena. Ecol. Monog. 15: 134.

P. L. Errington 1946. Predation and vertebrate populations. Quart. Rev. Biol. 21: 144177, 221–245.

D. W. Hayne 1949. Two methods for estimating population from trapping records. J. Mamm. 30: 339411.

C. S. Holling 1955. The selection by certain small mammals of dead, parasitized, and healthy prepupae of the European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer (Goeff.). Can. J. Zool. 33: 404419.

C. S. Holling 1958b. Sensory stimuli involved in the location and selection of sawfly cocoons by small mammals. Can. J. Zool. 36: 633653.

D. S. MacLagan 1932. The effect of population density upon rate of reproduction, with special reference to insects. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 111: 437454.

R. F. Morris , W. F. Chesire , C. A. Miller , and D. G. Mott . 1958. Numerical response of avian and mammalian predators during a gradation of the spruce budworm. Ecology 39(3): 487494.

A. J. Nicholson 1933. The balance of animal populations, J. Anim. Ecol. 2: 132178.

A. J. Nicholson , and V. A. Bailey . 1935. The balance of animal populations. Part 1, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1935, p. 551598.

W. E. Ricker 1954. Stock and recruitment, J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 11: 559623.

F. W. Robertson , and J. H. Sang . 1944. The ecological determinants of population growth in a Drosophila culture. I. Fecundity of adult flies. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., B., 132: 258277.

M. E. Solomon 1949. The natural control of animal populations. J. Anim. Ecology 18: 135.

L. F. Stickel 1954. A comparison of certain methods of measuring ranges of small mammals. J. Mamm. 35: 115.

W. R. Thompson 1930. The principles of biological control. Ann. Appl. Biol. 17: 306338.

G. C. Varley 1947. The natural control of population balance in the knapweed gall-fly (Urophora jaceana). J. Anim. Ecol. 16: 139187.

Voûte, A. D. 1946. Regulation of the density of the insect populations in virgin forests and cultivated woods. Archives Neerlandaises de Zoologie 7: 435470.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 67 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1252 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.