Skip to main content
×
×
Home

LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS OF THE WHITE PINE CONE BORER, EUCOSMA TOCULLIONANA (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)

  • Peter de Groot (a1)
Abstract

The life history of the white pine cone borer, Eucosma tocullionana Heinrich, was studied from 1992 to 1994 in an eastern white pine seed orchard in Ontario. Adults flew from late May to early July, and egg laying commenced in mid-June. Oviposition coincided with the onset of white pine pollen release. Eggs were laid singly or in clusters on cones, with most of the eggs laid on the basal third of the cone. Head capsule measurements indicated five instars. Larvae fed in cones from mid-June to the end of August. Mature larvae exited the cones and dropped to the ground to pupate. The insect is univoltine. Parasitism by the Hymenoptera, Trichogramma and Apanteles, accounted for 5% of the eggs and 1% of the larvae, respectively. About 40% of the larvae died from being entrapped in resin. There were no significant differences in attack rates by E. tocullionana within the tree except in the middle level, where the south quadrant had significantly higher rates than the north quadrant.

Le cycle de vie du perce-cône du pin blanc, Eucosma tocullionana Heinrich, a été étudié de 1992 à 1994 dans un verger à graines de pins blancs en Ontario. Les adultes ont volé de la fin de mai au début de juillet. La ponte des oeufs a commencé à la mi-juin, coïncidant avec le début de la dispersion du pollen des pins blancs. Les oeufs ont été pondus isolément ou en amas sur les cônes, la majorité sur le tiers inférieur des cônes. Les mesures de la capsule céphalique ont indiqué cinq stades larvaires (instars). Les larves se sont nourries dans les cônes de la mi-juin à la fin d’août. À leur sortie des cônes, les larves matures sont tombées au sol pour la nymphose. Cet insecte est univoltin. Les hyménoptères Trichogramma et Apanteles ont parasité 5% des oeufs et 1% des larves respectivement. Environ 40% des larves sont mortes emprisonnées dans la résine. Aucune différence significative de l’ampleur des attaques par E. tocullionana au niveau de l’arbre n’a été mise en évidence, sauf dans la partie moyenne où les attaques étaient significativement plus nombreuses dans le quadrant sud comparativement au quadrant nord.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Barras, S.J., and Norris, D.M.. 1969. Bionomics of Eucosma monitorana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attacking red pine cones in Wisconsin. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 62: 12841290.
Camp, M.J., and Neal, J.W. Jr., 1993. The problem with shifting bases when using Dyar's rule. American Entomologist 39: 138139.
DeBoo, R.F., Sippell, W.L., and Wong, H.R.. 1971. The eastern pine-shoot borer, Eucosma gloriola (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in North America. The Canadian Entomologist 103: 14731486.
Dyar, H.G. 1890. The number of molts of lepidopterous larvae. Psyche 5: 420422.
Ebel, B.H., and Yates, H.O. III. 1973. Rearing and biological observations of a southern pine cone insect, Eucosma cocana (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 66: 8892.
Goyer, R.A., and Schenk, J.A.. 1970. Notes on the biology and habits of insect parasitoids associated with Eucosma rescissoriana (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) in northern Idaho. The Canadian Entomologist 102: 15461553.
Hedlin, A.F., Yates, H.O. III, Tovar, D. Cibrián, Ebel, B.H., Koerber, T.W., and Merkel, E.P.. 1981. Cone and Seed Insects of North American Conifers. Canadian Forest Service, United States Forestry Service, Secretaría de Agricultura y Recursos Hidráulicos, México.
Lyons, L.A. 1957. Insects affecting seed production in red pine. III. Eucosma monitorana Heinrich, Laspeyresia toreuta Groté (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae), Rubsaamenia sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and other insects. The Canadian Entomologist 89: 268274.
MacKay, M.R. 1959. Larvae of the North American Olethreutidae (Lepidoptera). The Canadian Entomologist 91 (Supplement 10): 1338.
Martin, J.E.H. 1977. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 1. Collecting, Preparing and Preserving Insects, Mites and Spiders. Canada Department of Agriculture Publication 1643.
Mattson, W.J. 1986. Competition for food between two principal cone insects of red pine, Pinus resinosa. Environmental Entomology 15: 8892.
Miller, W.E. 1987. Guide to the Olethreutine Moths of Midland North America (Tortricidae). U.S. Department of Agriculture Agriculture Handbook 660.
Ollieu, M., and Schenk, J.A.. 1966. The biology of Eucosma rescissoriana Heinrich in western white pine in Idaho (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). The Canadian Entomologist 98: 150164.
Powell, J.A. 1968. Host associations and taxonomy of Nearctic conifer cone moths in the genus Eucosma. Hilgardia 39: 136.
Sokal, R.R., and Rohlf, F.J.. 1995. Biometry: the Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. 3rd ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.
SYSTAT. 1996. SYSTAT 6.0 for Windows. Statistics. SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL.
Young, J.A., and Young, C.G.. 1992. Seeds of Woody Plants in North America. Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed