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Effect of apple-orchard structure on interception of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) flies by odor-baited traps

  • Juan Rull (a1) and Ronald J. Prokopy (a1)


We released marked mature male flies of the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), inside and outside of square blocks of apple trees, Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), to test the effect of orchard structure on the interception of flies by odor-baited red-sphere traps. The blocks were composed of large trees planted at low density, medium-sized trees planted at medium density, or small trees planted at high density. The experiment was carried out in six commercial apple orchards during summer in 1997 and 1998. Released flies moving into blocks were intercepted in large proportions by baited perimeter traps, thus preventing fly penetration into sphere-protected blocks. In 1997, proportions of intercepted flies were higher for traps in blocks of small and medium-sized trees than for traps in blocks of large trees. In 1998, a year with an unusually low fruit load, interception remained high, but there were no differences in proportions of flies intercepted by perimeter traps among blocks of trees of different sizes. Overall we conclude that the tendency of apple growers in Massachusetts to replace large trees planted at low density with small or medium-sized trees planted at high or medium density will not adversely affect behavioral control programs for apple maggot flies. In fact, this practice may enhance the effectiveness of these programs through increased interception of immigrant adults.

Nous avons relâché des mâles à maturité de la Mouche de la pomme, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), en dedans et en dehors de blocs carrés de pommiers, Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), afin de vérifier l’effet de la structure de la pommeraie sur la capture des mouches dans des pièges rouges et sphériques à odeur synthéthique. Les blocs étaient composés de gros arbres plantés à faible densité, d’arbres moyens plantés à densité moyenne et de petits arbres plantés à forte densité. Six vergers commerciaux ont servi à l’expérience durant les étés de 1997 et 1998. Les mouches relâchées se déplaçant vers les blocs étaient interceptées en grands nombres par des pièges placés en périphérie, empêchant ainsi la pénétration des mouches à l’intérieur des blocs protégés par les pièges. En 1997, la proportion de mouches interceptées a été plus forte dans les pièges installés dans les blocs d’arbres petits et moyens que dans les blocs de gros arbres. En 1998, année ou la mise à fruits a été particulièrement faible, les captures sont restées nombreuses, mais il n’y avait pas de différences dans les captures en périphérie entre les blocs de différentes tailles. De façon générale, nous concluons que la tendance des pomiculteurs du Massachusetts à remplacer les gros pommiers plantés à faible densité par des pommiers petits ou moyens plantés à densité forte ou moyenne n’affecte pas les programmes de lutte contre la Mouche de la pomme par contrôle du comportement. Et même, cette procédure peut améliorer l’efficacité de ces programmes par interception d’un plus grand nombre d’immigrants adultes.

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