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Factors affecting Velcro-covered balls when used as a sampling device for wool of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

  • Jeffrey G. Fidgen (a1), Ronald E. Fournier (a1), Mark C. Whitmore (a2), Chris J.K. MacQuarrie (a1) and Jean J. Turgeon (a1)...
Abstract

Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) has caused extensive mortality of hemlocks (Tsuga (Endlicher) Carrière; Pinaceae) in the eastern United States of America and was discovered recently in Nova Scotia, Canada. We evaluated the use of a Velcro-covered racquetball as a sampling device for A. tsugae wool. Specifically, we report on improvements to an earlier design and evaluate several factors seen in routine sampling that influence the ability of the ball to trap and retain adelgid wool. Velcro was found to be critical for trapping and retaining adelgid wool on the ball during flight and landing. Wooden beads, inserted in the ball, reduced deflection during flight and bounce during landing. Higher probability of trapping wool on the ball was associated with an ascent through the crown, with increasing diameter and density of ovisacs on branch tips, and with increasing abundance of woolly twigs on the forest floor. Higher probability of retaining wool on the ball was associated with Velcro surface area and with amount and location of wool loaded on the ball. These modifications improved detection surveys for A. tsugae in general.

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      Factors affecting Velcro-covered balls when used as a sampling device for wool of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)
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      Factors affecting Velcro-covered balls when used as a sampling device for wool of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)
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Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: (e-mail: jeff.fidgen@canada.ca)
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Subject Editor: Zoë Lindo.

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References
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