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Host abundance of crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) and their role as phoronts of Acari (Arachnida) inhabiting fungal sporophores

  • Masahiro Sueyoshi (a1), Kimiko Okabe (a2) and Takeyuki Nakamura (a3)

We examined host abundance of limoniid flies between Agaricales (gill mushrooms) and Aphyllophorales (non-gilled fungi) and the importance of these flies as phoronts of mites inhabiting these fungal orders. Fungal sporophores were collected around transects established in five different-aged (13 to more than 100 years) forest stands from spring to fall in temperate forests of Japan. Limoniid flies and mites were collected from sporophores during transect sampling and reared from sporophores in the laboratory. All 11 limoniid species reared from sporophores used Aphyllophorales and six of these limoniid species also used Agaricales as their hosts. The total number of limoniid flies reared from Aphyllophorales was approximately seven times that reared from Agaricales. Eight of 15 Aphyllophorales species yielded multiple limoniid species. We conclude that Aphyllophorales are more important as hosts for fungivorous limoniid flies than Agaricales. Even a single fungal species can support more than one limoniid or mite species. One or two limoniid species are phoronts for one to three mite species inhabiting sporophores of Agaricales and Aphyllophorales. These flies have an important role as phoronts for some mite genera inhabiting fungal sporophores.

Nous avons comparé l'abondance des diptères limoniidés chez les champignons-hôtes agaricales (champignons à lamelles) et aphyllophorales (champignons sans lamelles) et déterminé l'importance de ces mouches comme phorontes des acariens qui habitent les champignons de ces deux ordres. Nous avons récolté des sporophores de champignons de part et d'autre de transects dans des boisés représentant des forêts tempérées japonaises de cinq âges différents (13 à plus de 100 ans) du printemps à l'automne. Nous avons obtenu les diptères limoniidés et les acariens en échantillonnant sur les transects et par élevage des sporophores en laboratoire. Les 11 espèces de limoniidés élevées à partir des sporophores utilisent toutes les aphyllophorales comme hôtes et six d'entre elles se retrouvent aussi sur les agaricales. Le nombre total de diptères limoniidés obtenus par élevage sur les aphyllophorales est d'environ sept fois le nombre obtenu sur les agaricales. Huit des 15 espèces d'aphyllophorales ont produit plusieurs espèces de limoniidés. Les aphyllophorales sont donc des hôtes plus importants pour les diptères limoniidés mycétophages que les agaricales. Une seule espèce de champignon peut même servir d'hôte à plus d'une espèce de limoniidés et d'acariens. Typiquement, une ou deux espèces de limoniidés servent de phorontes pour une à trois espèces d'acariens habitant les sporophores d'agaricales ou d'aphyllophorales. Ces mouches jouent un rôle important comme phorontes pour certains genres d'acariens qui vivent dans les sporophores de champignons.

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