Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Introduced Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

  • Christopher G. Majka (a1) and Jan Klimaszewski (a2)
Abstract

The fauna of introduced rove beetles (Staphylinidae) in the Maritime Provinces of Canada is surveyed. Seventy-nine species have now been recorded. Of these, 73 have been found in Nova Scotia, 29 on Prince Edward Island, and 54 in New Brunswick. Twenty-five species are newly recorded in Nova Scotia, 16 on Prince Edward Island, and 10 in New Brunswick, for a total of 51 new provincial records. Of these, 15 species, Tachinus corticinus Gravenhorst, Mycetoporus lepidus (Gravenhorst), Habrocerus capillaricornis (Gravenhorst), Aleochara (Xenochara) lanuginosa Gravenhorst, Gnypeta caerulea (C.R. Sahlberg), Atheta (Microdota) amicula (Stephens), Cordalia obscura (Gravenhorst), Drusilla canaliculata (Fabricius), Deleaster dichrous (Gravenhorst), Coprophilus striatulus (Fabricius), Carpelimus subtilis (Erichson), Leptacinus intermedius Donisthorpe, Tasgius (Rayacheila) melanarius (Heer), Neobisnius villosulus (Stephens), and Philonthus discoideus (Gravenhorst), are newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. Two of these, Atheta (Microdota) amicula and Carpelimus subtilis, are newly recorded in Canada. Leptacinus intermedius is removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick and Philhygra botanicarum Muona, a Holarctic species previously regarded as introduced in North America, is recorded for the first time in the Maritime Provinces. An examination of when species were first detected in the region reveals that, on average, it was substantially later than comparable dates for other, better known families of Coleoptera — an apparent indication of the comparative lack of attention this family has received. Some introduced species appear to be associated with the dry-ballast mechanism of introduction to the continent, while others are synanthropic and may have been inadvertently introduced in connection with agriculture, horticulture, or other processes associated with human activities. A substantial number are now established and well distributed, seemingly indicative of an early introduction into the region, the ability to successfully colonize a habitat and disperse within it, or a combination of these factors. Other species appear to be local in distribution, perhaps indicative of more recent introductions, more restricted ecological tolerances, a lesser ability to disperse, or a combination of these factors. These recent discoveries are discussed briefly in the context of the importance of taxonomic research and ongoing monitoring in order to detect and identify exotic species and monitor for new introductions and changes in existing native or introduced populations — all important in terms of assessing the risk of introductions to, and their impact on, native faunas and habitats.

La faune des staphylins (Staphylinidae) introduits dans les Provinces Maritimes du Canada est étudiée. Soixante-dix-neuf espèces ont maintenant été enregistrées. Parmi celles-ci, 73 ont été trouvées en Nouvelle-Écosse, 29 à l’Île-du-Prince-Édouard, et 54 au Nouveau Brunswick. Vingt-cinq espèces sont de nouvelles mentions en Nouvelle-Écosse, 16 à l’Île-du-Prince-Édouard, et 10 au Nouveau Brunswick pour un total de 51 nouvelles mentions provinciales. Parmi celles-ci, 15 espèces, Tachinus corticinus Gravenhorst, Mycetoporus lepidus (Gravenhorst), Habrocerus capillaricornis (Gravenhorst), Aleochara (Xenochara) lanuginosa Gravenhorst, Gnypeta caerulea (C.R. Sahlberg), Atheta (Microdota) amicula (Stephens), Cordalia obscura (Gravenhorst), Drusilla canaliculata (Fabricius), Deleaster dichrous (Gravenhorst), Coprophilus striatulus (Fabricius), Carpelimus subtilis (Erichson), Leptacinus intermedius Donisthorpe, Tasgius (Rayacheila) melanarius (Heer), Neobisnius villosulus (Stephens), and Philonthus discoideus (Gravenhorst), sont de nouvelles mentions pour les Provinces Maritimes. Deux, Atheta (Microdota) amicula et Carpelimus subtilis, sont nouvelle mention au Canada. Leptacinus intermedius est retirée de la liste faunique du Nouveau Brunswick et Philhygra botanicarum Muona, une espèce Holarctique autrefois considérée comme étant introduite en Amérique du Nord, est mentionnée pour la première fois dans les Provinces Maritimes. Une étude portant sur le moment de leur première observation dans la région révèle que, celle-ci était en moyenne substantiellement plus tardive que les dates comparables pour d’autres familles mieux connues de Coléoptères — une indication apparente d’un manque de considération pour cette famille. Quelques espèces semblent avoir été introduites en cale sèche alors que d’autres sont synanthropiques et pourraient avoir été introduites par inadvertance au moyen de l’agriculture, l’horticulture, ou d’autres procédés associés à l’activité humaine. Une population substancielle est maintenant établie et bien distribuée, indiquant selon toute apparence sois une introduction précoce dans la région, ou sois une habileté à coloniser des habitats efficacement et de s’y disperser, ou une combinaison de ces facteurs. D’autres espèces sont distribuées localement, indiquant peut-être une introduction plus récente, une tolérance écologique plus restreinte, une moins bonne habileté à se disperser, ou encore une combinaison de ces facteurs. Ces découvertes récentes sont brièvement discutées dans un contexte qui considère l’importance des recherches taxonomiques et d’une surveillance continue, de façon à pouvoir détecter et identifier les espèces exotiques, surveiller les nouvelles introductions et les changements dans les populations indigènes existantes ou introduites — tous important pour permettre d’évaluer les risques et les impacts des introductions sur la faune et les habitats d’origine.

Copyright
Corresponding author
1 Corresponding author (e-mail: c.majka@ns.sympatico.ca).
References
Hide All
Alonso-Zarazaga, M.A. 2007. Fauna Europea: Coleoptera, Staphylinidae. Fauna Europaea version 1.3 [online]. Available from http://www.faunaeur.org [accessed 26 July 2007].
Assing, V., and Wunderle, P. 1995. A revision of the species of the subfamily Habrocerinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of the world. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 102(2): 307359.
Bain, A. 1998. A seventeenth-century beetle fauna from colonial Boston. Historical Archeology, 32(3): 3848.
Bain, A. 1999. Archeoentomological and archeo-parasitological reconstructions at llot Huny (CeEt-110): new perspectives in historical archeology (1850–1900). Ph.D. thesis, University of Laval, Québec City, Quebec.
Bousquet, Y. 1992. Bembidion femoratum Sturm and Amara communis (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) new to North America. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 100: 503509.
Brown, W.J. 1940. Notes on the American distribution of some species of Coleoptera common to the European and North American continents. The Canadian Entomologist, 72(4): 6578.
Brown, W.J. 1950. The extralimital distribution of some species of Coleoptera. The Canadian Entomologist, 82: 197205.
Brown, W.J. 1967. Notes on the extralimital distribution of some species of Coleoptera. The Canadian Entomologist, 99(1): 8593.
Burakowski, B., Mroczkowski, M., and Stefanska, J. 1979. Chrzaszcze Coleoptera. Kusakowate – Staphylinidae. Part 1. Katalog fauny Polski, Section XXIII, Volume 6. pp. 1310.
Burakowski, B., Mroczkowski, M., and Stefanska, J. 1980. Chrzaszcze Coleoptera. Kusakowate – Staphylinidae. Part 2. Katalog fauny Polski, Section XXIII, Volume 7. pp. 1272.
Burakowski, B., Mroczkowski, M., and Stefanska, J. 1981. Chrzaszcze Coleoptera. Kusakowate – Staphylinidae. Part 3: Aleocharinae. Katalog fauny Polski, Section XXIII, Volume 8. pp. 1330.
Campbell, J.M. 1973. A revision of the genus Tachinus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of North and Central America. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada No. 90.
Campbell, J.M. 1976. A revision of the genus Sepedophilus Gistel (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of America north of Mexico. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada No. 99.
Campbell, J.M. 1979. A revision of the genus Tachyporus Gravenhorst (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of North and Central America. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada No. 109.
Campbell, J.M. 1988. New species and records of North American Tachinus Gravenhorst (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). The Canadian Entomologist, 120: 231295.
Campbell, J.M., and Davies, A. 1991. Family Staphylinidae: rove beetles. In Checklist of beetles of Canada and Alaska. Edited by Y. Bousquet. Publication 1861/E, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. pp. 86124.
Casey, T.L. 1905. A revision of the American Paederini. Transactions of the Academy of Sciences of St. Louis, 15: 17248.
Chandler, D.S. 2001. University of New Hampshire insect and arachnid collections [online]. Available from http://insectcoll.unh.edu/ [accessed 26 July 2007].
Dearborn, R.G, and Donahue, C.P 1993. An annotated list of insects collected and recorded by the Maine Forest Service: order Coleoptera, beetles. Technical Report No. 32, Maine Forest Service, Augusta, Maine, United States of America.
Downie, N.M, and Arnett, R.H Jr., 1996. The beetles of northeastern North America. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, Florida.
Drugmand, D. 1989. Distribution et phenologie des Paderinae de Beligique (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). Documents de Travail de l'Institut Royal des Science Naturelles de Beligique, 55: 152.
Evans, J.D 1899. List of Coleoptera from Halifax, N.S. The Canadian Entomologist, 31: 320321.
Evenhuis, N.L 2007. Abbreviations for insect and spider collections of the world [online]. Available from http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/codens/codens-inst.html [accessed 26 July 2007].
Fauvel, A. 1878. Les staphylinides de l'Amerique du Nord. Bulletin de la Societe Linneenne de Normandie, 3(2): 167266.
Fowles, A.P 2004. Specialist Coleoptera of exposed riverine sediments (ERS) [online]. Available from http://thasos.users.btopenworld.com/ersqi.htm [accessed 21 September 2007].
Gouix, N., and Klimaszewski, J. 2007. Catalogue of aleocharine rove beetles of Canada and Alaska (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae). Pensoft, Sofia, Bulgaria.
Gusarov, V.I 2003. Revision of some types of North American aleocharines (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae), with synonymic notes. Zootaxa, 353: 1134.
Harrington, W.H 1891. Notes on a few Canadian Rhyncophora. The Canadian Entomologist, 23: 2127, 114.
Hatch, M.H 1953. The beetles of the Pacific Northwest. Part I: Introduction and Adephaga. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington, United Sates of America.
Herman, L.H 2001. Catalogue of the Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera): 1758 to the end of the second millennium. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History No. 265.
Hicks, E.A 1959. Checklist and bibliography on the occurrence of insects in birds' nests. Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa, United Sates of America.
Hoebeke, E.R 1985. A revision of the rove beetle tribe Falagriini of America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 93: 9131018.
Hoebeke, E.R 1988. A new species of rove beetle, Autalia phricotrichosa (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae) from Mexico, with a key to the New World species of Autalia. The Coleopterists Bulletin, 42(1): 8793.
Hoebeke, E.R 1990. First record of the Palearctic species Oxypoda opaca (Gravenhorst) from North America (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 97(4) [1989]: 448454.
Hoebeke, E.R 1995 a. Coprophilus striatulus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae): confirmation of establishment of a Palearctic oxyteline rove beetle in North America. Entomological News, 106: 15.
Hoebeke, E.R 1995 b. Three Palearctic species of Rugilus Leach in North America (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Paederinae): redescriptions, new synonymy, and new records. Insecta Mundi, 9(1–2): 6980.
Hoebeke, E.R, and Wheeler, A.G Jr., 1996 a. Adventive lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Canadian Maritime Provinces, with new eastern U.S. records of Harmonia quadripunctata. Entomological News, 107: 281290.
Hoebeke, E.R, and Wheeler, A.G Jr., 1996 b. Meligethes viridescens (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in Maine, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island: diagnosis, distribution, and bionomics of a Palearctic species new to North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98(2): 221227.
Hoebeke, E.R, and Wheeler, A.G Jr., 2000. Telmatophilus typhae (Fallen) (Coleoptera: Cryptophagidae), a Palearctic cattail specialist established in the Canadian Maritime Provinces. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 102: 398402.
Hoebeke, E.R, and Wheeler, A.G Jr., 2003. Sphaeroderma testaceum (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a Palearctic flea beetle new to North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 105: 990994.
Horion, A.D 1967. Faunistik der mitteleuropäischen Käfer. Band XI: Staphylinidae. 3. Teil: Habrocetinae bis Aleocharinae (ohne Subtribus Athetae)1. P.C.W. Schmidt, Uberlingen-Bodensee, Germany.
Johnson, P.J 1990. Notes on the naturalization of two species of European Byrrhidae (Coleoptera) in North America. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 98: 434440.
Jones, M. 1870. Nova Scotian Coleoptera: Part I. Proceedings of the Nova Scotia Institute of Natural Science, 2(3): 141155.
Kirby, W.F 1837. Part the fourth and last. The insects. In Fauna boreali-Americana or the zoology of the northern parts of British America, containing descriptions of the objects of natural history collected on the late northern land expeditions, under the command of Captain Sir John Franklin, RN. Edited by J. Richardson. Fletcher, Norwich, England. pp. xxxix+325.
Klimaszewski, J. 1984. A revision of the genus Aleochara Gravenhorst of America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 129: 1211.
Klimaszewski, J., Pelletier, G., Germain, C., Hébert, C., Humble, L.M, and Winchester, N.N 2001. Diversity of Placusa (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae) in Canada, with descriptions of two new species. The Canadian Entomologist, 133: 147.
Klimaszewski, J., Pelletier, G., and Sweeney, J. 2002. Genus Tinotus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae) from America north of Mexico: review of the types, distribution records, and key to species. The Canadian Entomologist, 134: 281298.
Klimaszewski, J., Sweeney, J., Price, J., and Pelletier, G. 2005. Rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in red spruce stands, eastern Canada: diversity, abundance, and descriptions of new species. The Canadian Entomologist, 137: 148.
Klimaszewski, J., Pelletier, G., Germain, C., Work, T., and Hebert, C. 2006. Review of Oxypoda species in Canada and Alaska (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae): systematics, bionomics and distribution. The Canadian Entomologist, 138: 737852.
Klimaszewski, J., Assing, V., Majka, C.G, Pelletier, G., Webster, R.P, and Langor, D. 2007. Records of adventive aleocharine beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae) found in Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, 139(1): 5479.
LeConte, J.L 1863. New species of North American Coleoptera: Part I. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 6(167): 192.
Lindroth, C.H 1957. The faunal connections between Europe and North America. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, United States of America.
Lindroth, C.H 1963. The fauna history of Newfoundland illustrated by carabid beetles. Opuscula Entomologica Supplementum No. 23.
Majka, C.G 2007. Quedius molochinus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 109: 949950.
Majka, C., and Klimaszewski, J. 2004. Phloeocharis subtilissima Mannerheim (Staphylinidae: Phloeocharinae) and Cephennium gallicum Ganglbauer (Scydmaenidae) new to North America: a case study in the introduction of exotic Coleoptera to the port of Halifax, with new records of other species. Zootaxa, 781: 115.
Majka, C.G, and Ogden, J. 2006. Brachygluta abdominalis (Aubé) newly recorded in Canada (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) with notes on other beach-drift beetles. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 108(4): 761764.
Majka, C.G, and Smetana, A. 2007. New records of introduced species of Quedius Stephens, 1829 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) from the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 109: 427434.
Majka, C.G, Klimaszewski, J., and Lauff, R.F 2006. New Coleoptera records from owl nests in Nova Scotia, Canada. Zootaxa, 1194: 3347.
Majka, C.G, Anderson, R.S, and McCorquodale, D.B 2007 a. The weevils of the Maritime Provinces of Canada, II: new records from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). The Canadian Entomologist, 139(3): 397442.
Majka, C.G, Bousquet, Y., and Westby, S. 2007 b. The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada: review of collecting, new records, and observations on composition, zoogeography, and historical origins. Zootaxa, 1590: 136.
Moore, I., and Legner, E.F 1975. A catalogue of the Staphylinidae of America North of Mexico (Coleoptera). University of California Division of Agricultural Sciences Special Publication No. 3015.
Muona, J. 1984. Review of Palearctic Aleocharinae also occurring in North America (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Entomologica Scandinavica, 15(2): 227231.
Muona, J. 1990. The Fennoscandian and Danish species of the genus Amischa Thompson (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Entomologisk Tidskrift, 111: 1724.
Newton, A.F 1987. Four Staphylinus (sensu lato) species new to North America, with notes on other introduced species (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin, 41(4): 381384.
Newton, A.F, Thayer, M.K, Ashe, J.S, and Chandler, D.S 2001. Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802. In American beetles. Volume 1: Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia. Edited by Arnett, R.H. Jr., and Thomas, M.C.. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, United States of America. pp. 272418.
Notman, H. 1920. Coleoptera collected at Windsor, Broome Co., N.Y., 26 May to 5 June 1918, with notes and descriptions. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 28(2): 178194.
Prévost, M.-A., and Bain, A. 2006. L'implantation d'une colonie terre-neuvienne au XVIIe siècle : l'apport des analyses archéobotanique et archéoentomologique. In La mesure du passé : contributions à la recherche en archéométrie (2000–2006). Edited by Bain, A., Chabot, J., and Moussette, M.. British Archaeological Reports. In press.
Pupedis, R.J 1997. Aquatic Insects of the West River and salt marshes of Connecticut. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Bulletin, 100: 162177.
Puthz, V. 1975. Stenus clavicornis (Scop.) neu für Nordamerika. Entomologische Blatter für Biologie und Systematik der Käfer, 71: 124.
Seevers, C.H 1951. A revision of the North American and European staphylinid beetles of the subtribe Gyrophaenae (Aleocharinae, Bolitocharini). Fieldiana Zoology, 32(10): 659762.
Sivasubramaniam, W., Wratten, S.D, and Klimaszewski, J. 1997. Species composition, abundance, and activity of predatory arthropods in carrot fields, Canterbury. New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 24: 205212.
Smetana, A. 1971. Revision of the tribe Quediini of America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 79: i–vi, 1303.
Smetana, A. 1982. Revision of the subfamily Xantholininae of America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 120: i–iv, 1389.
Smetana, A. 1995. Rove beetles of the subtribe Philonthina of America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) classification, phylogeny and taxonomic revision. Memoirs on Entomology International, 3: i–x, 1946.
Smetana, A. 2004. Hydrophiloidea-Staphylinoidea. In Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera. Volume 2. Edited by Lobl, I. and Smetana, A.. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark.
Wagner, J.A 1975. Review of the genera Euplectus, Pycnoplectus, Leptoplectus, and Acolonia (Coleoptera: Pselaphidae) including Nearctic species north of Mexico. Entomologica Americana, 49: 125207.
Wheeler, A.G, and Hoebeke, E.R 1994. First records from the Canadian Maritime provinces of three European insects injurious to ornamental plants. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 96: 749756.
Wright, B. 1989. The fauna of Sable Island. Nova Scotia Museum Curatorial Report, 68: 193.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed