Aikens, K.R. 2008. Heterogeneity in a temperate forest canopy: describing patterns of distribution and depredation of arthropod assemblages. MSc. thesis. McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
Arnett, R.H.Thomas, M.C. 2001. American beetles, Vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, United States of America.
Arnett, R.H., Thomas, M.C., Skelley, P.E., Frank, J.H. 2002. American beetles, Vol. 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, United States of America.
August, P.V. 1983. The role of habitat complexity and heterogeneity in structuring tropical mammal communities. Ecology, 64: 1495–1507.
Basset, Y., Aberlenc, H.-P., Barrios, H., Curletti, G., Bérenger, J.-M., Vesco, J.-P., et al. 2001. Stratification and diel activity of arthropods in a lowland rainforest in Gabon. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 72: 585–607.
Beaulieu, F., Walter, D., Proctor, H.C., Kitching, R.L. 2010. The canopy starts at 0.5 metres: predatory mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) differ between rainforest floor soil and suspended soil at any height. Biotropica, 42: 704–709.
Bruhl, C.A., Gunsalam, G., Lisenmair, E. 1998. Stratification of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in a primary rain forest in Sabah, Borneo. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 14: 285–297.
Canham, C.D., Finzi, A.C., Pacala, S.W., Burbank, D.H. 1994. Causes and consequences of resource heterogeneity in forests: interspecific variation in light transmission by canopy trees. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research, 24: 337–349.
Chao, A., Chazdon, R.L., Colwell, R.K., Shen, T.-J. 2005. A new statistical approach for assessing compositional similarity based on incidence and abundance data. Ecology Letters, 8: 148–159.
Charles, E.Basset, Y. 2005. Vertical stratification of leaf-beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in two forest types in Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 21: 329–336.
Chazdon, R.L., Colwell, R.K., Denslow, J.S., Guariguata, M.R. 1998. Statistical methods for estimating species richness of woody regeneration in primary and secondary rain forests of NE Costa Rica. In Forest biodiversity research, monitoring and modeling: conceptual background and Old World case studies. Edited by F. Dallmeier and J.A. Comiskey. Parthenon Publishing, Paris. pp. 285–309.
Clarke, K.R. 1993. Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Australian Journal of Ecology, 18: 117–143.
Colwell, R.K. 2006. EstimateS: statistical estimation of specie richness and shared species from samples, version 8.0. User's guide and application published [online]. Available from http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates [accessed 20 December 2011].
DeVries, P.J., Murray, D., Lande, R. 1997. Species diversity in vertical, horizontal, and temporal dimensions of a fruit-feeding butterfly community in an Ecuadorian rainforest. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 62: 343–364.
Dondale, C.D.Redner, J.H. 1982. The sac spiders of Canada and Alaska, Araneae: Clubionidae and Anyphaenidae. Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Downie, N.M.Arnett, R.H. 1996. The beetles of northeastern North America. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, Florida.
Ehmann, W.J. 1994. Organization of spider assemblages on shrubs: an assessment of the role of dispersal mode in colonization. American Midland Naturalist, 131: 301–310.
Ellsworth, D.S.Reich, P.B. 1993. Canopy structure and vertical patterns of photosynthesis and related leaf traits in a deciduous forest. Oecologia, 96: 169–178.
Erwin, T.L. 1982. Tropical forests, their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species. The Coleopterists Bulletin, 36: 74–75.
Fortin, M.Maufette, Y. 2002. The suitability of leaves from different canopy layers for a generalist herbivore (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) foraging on sugar maple. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research, 32: 379–389.
Freeman, J.A. 1946. The distribution of spiders and mites up to 300 ft in the air. The Journal of Animal Ecology, 15: 69–74.
Gotelli, N.J.Colwell, R.K. 2001. Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecology Letters, 4: 379–391.
Gotelli, N.J.Entsminger, G.L. 2004. EcoSim: null models software for ecology, version 7 [online]. Acquired Intelligence Inc. and Kesey-Bear, Jericho, Vermont, United States of America. Available from http://garyentsminger.com/ecosim/index.htm [accessed 20 December 2011].
Grimbacher, P.S.Stork, N.E. 2007. Vertical stratification of feeding guilds and body size in beetle assemblages from an Australian tropical rainforest. Austral Ecology, 32: 77–85.
Gunnarsson, B. 1996. Bird predation and vegetation structure affecting spruce-living arthropods in temperate forest. Journal of Animal Ecology, 65: 389–397.
Halaj, J., Ross, D.W., Moldenke, A.R. 1998. Habitat structure and prey availability as predictors of the abundance and community organization of spiders in western Oregon forest canopies. Journal of Arachnology, 26: 203–220.
Holmes, R.T., Schutlz, J.C., Nothnagle, P. 1979. Bird predation on forest insects: an exclosure experiment. Science, 206: 462–463.
Klimaszewski, J.Majka, C.G. 2007. Euvira micmac a new species (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae), and first record of the genus in Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, 139: 147–153.
Larrivée, M.Buddle, C.M. 2009. Diversity of canopy and understorey spiders in north-temperate hardwood forests. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 11: 225–237.
Le Corff, J.L.Marquis, R.J. 1999. Differences between understorey and canopy in herbivore community composition and leaf quality for two oak species in Missouri. Ecological Entomology, 24: 46–58.
Lindo, Z.Winchester, N.N. 2006. A comparison of microarthropod assemblages with emphasis on oribatid mites in canopy suspended soils and forest floors associated with ancient western red cedar trees. Pedobiologia, 50: 31–41.
Longino, J.Nadkarni, N.M. 1990. A comparison of ground and canopy leaf litter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Neotropical montane forest. Psyche, 97: 81–94.
MacArthur, R.H.MacArthur, J.W. 1961. On bird species diversity. Ecology, 42: 594–598.
Marquis, R.J.Whelan, C.J. 1994. Insectivorous birds increase growth of white oak through consumption of leaf-chewing insects. Ecology, 75: 2007–2014.
McCune, B.Grace, J.B. 2002. Analysis of ecological communities. MjM Software Design, Gleneden Beach, Oregon, United States of America.
Molleman, F., Kop, A., Brakefield, P.M., De Vries, P.J., Zwaan, B.J. 2006. Vertical and temporal patterns of biodiversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in a tropical forest in Uganda. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15: 107–121.
Nadkarni, N.M., Parker, G.G., Rinker, B., Jarzen, D.M. 2004. The nature of forest canopies. In Forest canopies, 2nd ed.Edited by M.D. Lowman and H.B. Rinker. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America. pp. 3–23.
Oishi, M., Yokota, T., Teramoto, N., Sato, H. 2006. Japanese oak silkmoth feeding preference for and performance on upper-crown and lower-crown leaves. Entomological Science, 9: 161–169.
Paquin, P.Dupérré, N. 2003. Guide d'indentification des Araignées (Araneae) du Québec. Fabreries, Supplément, 11: 1–251.
Parker, G.G. 1995. Structure and microclimate of forest canopies. In Forest canopies: a review of research on a biological frontier. Edited by M. Lowman and N. Nadkarni. Academic Press, San Diego, California, United States of America. pp. 73–106.
Philpott, S.M., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., Perfecto, I. 2004. Impacts of major predators on tropical agroforest arthropods: comparisons within and across taxa. Oecologia, 140: 140–149.
Preisser, E., Smith, D.C., Lowman, M.D. 1999. Canopy and ground level insect distribution in a temperate forest. Selbyana, 19: 141–146.
Proctor, H.C., Montgomery, K.M., Rosen, K.E., Kitching, R.L. 2002. Are tree trunks habitats or highways? A comparison of oribatid mite assemblages from hoop-pine bark and litter. Australian Journal of Entomology, 41: 294–299.
Rodgers, D.J.Kitching, R.L. 1998. Vertical stratification of rainforest collembolan (Collembola: Insecta) assemblages: description of ecological patterns and hypotheses concerning their generation. Ecography, 21: 392–400.
Root, R.B. 1967. The niche exploitation pattern of the blue-gray gnatcatcher. Ecological Monographs, 37: 317–350.
Schroeder, B., Buddle, C.M., Saint-Germain, M. 2009. Activity of flying beetles (Coleoptera) at two heights in canopy gaps and intact forests in a hardwood forest in Quebec. The Canadian Entomologist, 141: 515–620.
Su, J.C.Woods, S.A. 2001. Importance of sampling along a vertical gradient to compare the insect fauna in managed forests. Environmental Entomology, 30: 400–408.
Ulyshen, M.D.Hanula, J.L. 2007. A comparison of the beetles (Coleoptera) fauna captured at two heights above the ground in a North American temperate deciduous forest. American Midland Naturalist, 158: 260–278.
Van Bael, S.A., Brawn, J.D., Robinson, S.K. 2003. Birds defend trees from herbivores in a Neotropical forest canopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100: 8304–8307.
Vance, C.C., Smith, S.M., Malcolm, J.R., Bellocq, M.I. 2007. Differences between forest type and vertical strata in the diversity and composition of hymenopteran families and mymarid genera in northeastern temperate forests. Environmental Entomology, 36: 1073–1083.
Winchester, N.N., Behan-Pelletier, V.M., Ring, R.A. 1999. Arboreal specificity, diversity and abundance of canopy-dwelling oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida). Pedobiologia, 43: 391–400.
Wise, D. 1993. Spiders in ecological webs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.