Introduction: Introduction: A variety of pain assessment tools exist for children, however none of the current scales were created specifically for family use. Further, none provide direct guidance with regards to pain treatment threshold. This study aimed to validate a novel, three faced, coloured coded (red, yellow, green), family-friendly pain tool, the Stoplight Pain Scale, by comparing it to the widely accepted and validated Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R). This novel tool has the capability to guide families with regards to treatment, as well as measure pain. Methods: Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted at the Stollery Childrens Hospital emergency department (ED) (Edmonton, Alberta) from November, 2014 to February, 2017. Demographic information was collected, and patients (3-12 years) and their caregivers were asked to rate their pain using the novel Stoplight Pain Scale as well as the FPS-R. Pain was measured at presentation to the ED, immediately following painful procedures, and thirty minutes after analgesia administration. Patients and their caregivers also indicated their preferred scale for assessing pain. Results: Results: A purposeful random sample of 227 patients were included for analyses; 61/227 (26.9%) of patients were 3-5 years old and 166/227 (73.1%)were 6-12 years old. 53/227 (23.3%) of patients had been previously hospitalized. Correlation between the two pain scales was consistently fair to moderate; using Kappa Statistics, a baseline correlation for Stoplight and FPS-R was fair for both caregivers (0.38, 95% CI 0.28 0.48) and patients (0.36 95% CI 0.27-0.45). The Stoplight Pain Scale had fair to moderate correlation between caregiver and patient scores, (0.37, 95% CI 0.27-0.47), compared to FPS-R which showed poor to fair agreement between caregiver and child scores (0.20, 95% CI 0.12-0.29). Regardless of age or hospitalization status, 64% of patients (139/218) and 54% caregivers (118/220) preferred the Stoplight Pain scale (p=0.001). Conclusion: Conclusions: The Stoplight Pain Scale correlates moderately well with FPS-R, a validated pain assessment tool for children and shows good correlation between patients and caregivers assessment of reported pain. The Stoplight Pain Scale is a simple, easy to administer tool that may have a role in empowering family involvement in ED pain management. Future research should focus on at-home study of the tool.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.