Hostname: page-component-546b4f848f-lx7sf Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-06-02T05:31:43.131Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Probabilistic Antecedents and Conditional Attitudes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 February 2021

Benjamin Lennertz*
Department of Philosophy, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY, USA


I generalize the notion of a conditional attitude by bringing together two topics of inquiry. One is the ordinary inquiry into conditional attitudes. The other topic is the inquiry into the attitude of thinking that a proposition is likely, or having a high credence in a proposition. For instance, what is it to intend to go to the game if it is likely that Kershaw pitches? Being likely that Kershaw pitches is the condition of the attitude. Given a natural position about statements like “It is likely that Kershaw pitches,” the target attitude looks different from ordinary conditional attitudes.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Canadian Journal of Philosophy

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Anand, Pranav, and Hacquard, Valentine. 2013. “Epistemics and Attitudes.” Semantics and Pragmatics 6 (8): 159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beddor, Bob. 2020. “Fallibility for Expressivists.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 98 (4): 763–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belnap, Nuel. 1970. “Conditional Assertion and Restricted Quantification.” Noûs 4 (1): 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blumberg, Kyle, and Holguín, Ben. 2019. “Embedded Attitudes.” Journal of Semantics 36 (3): 377406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradley, Richard. 2002. “Indicative Conditionals.” Erkenntnis 56 (3): 345–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bratman, Michael. 2009. “Intention, Belief, Practical, Theoretical.” In Spheres of Reason: New Essays in the Philosophy of Normativity, edited by Robertson, Simon. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Cartwright, J. P. W. 1990. “Conditional Intention.” Philosophical Studies 60 (3): 233–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Charlow, Nate. 2020. “Grading Modal Judgment.” Mind 129 (515): 769807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christensen, David. 2004. Putting Logic in Its Place: Formal Constraints on Rational Belief. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ciardelli, Ivano. Forthcoming. “Restriction Without Quantification: Embedding and Probability for Indicative Conditionals.” Ergo. Google Scholar
Ciardelli, Ivano. 2020. “Indicative Conditionals and Graded Information.” Journal of Philosophical Logic, 49 (3): 509–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Finetti, Bruno, and Angell, Brad. 1995. “The Logic of Probability.” Philosophical Studies 77 (1): 181–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drucker, Daniel. 2019. “Policy Externalism.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 98 (2): 261–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drucker, Daniel. Forthcoming. “The Attitudes We Can Have.” Philosophical Review. Google Scholar
Edgington, Dorothy. 1995. “On Conditionals.” Mind 104 (414): 235329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edgington, Dorothy. 2001. “Conditionals.” In The Blackwell Guide to Philosophical Logic, edited by Gobble, Lou. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
Edgington, Dorothy. 2014. “Indicative Conditionals.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Zalta, Edward N.. Scholar
Egré, Paul, and Cozic, Mikaël. 2016. “Conditionals.” In The Cambridge Handbook of Formal Semantics, edited by Aloni, Maria and Dekker, Paul. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ferrero, Luca. 2009. “Conditional Intentions.” Noûs 43 (4): 700–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frankish, Keith. 2009. “Partial Belief and Flat-Out Belief.” In Degrees of Belief, edited by Huber, Franz and Schmidt-Petri, Christoph. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
Gettier, Edmund. 1963. “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?Analysis 23 (6): 121–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibbard, Allan. 1990. Wise Choices, Apt Feelings: A Theory of Normative Judgment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Gillies, Anthony. 2004. “Epistemic Conditionals and Conditional Epistemics.” Noûs 38 (4): 585616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gillies, Anthony. 2009. “On Truth-Conditions for If (but Not Quite Only If).” Philosophical Review 118 (3): 325–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gillies, Anthony. 2010. “Iffiness.” Semantics and Pragmatics 3 (4): 142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldstein, Simon. 2016. “A Preface Paradox for Intention.” Philosophers’ Imprint 16 (14): 120.Google Scholar
Goldstein, Simon. 2019. “Triviality Results for Probabilistic Modals.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 99 (1): 188222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hacquard, Valentine, and Wellwood, Alexis. 2012. “Embedding Epistemic Modals in English: A Corpus-Based Study.” Semantics and Pragmatics 5 (4): 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hájek, Alan. 2003. “What Conditional Probability Could Not Be.” Synthese 137 (3): 273323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawthorne, John, and Stanley, Jason. 2008. “Knowledge and Action.” Journal of Philosophy 105 (10): 571–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holton, Richard. 2008. “Partial Belief, Partial Intention.” Mind 117 (465): 2758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jerzak, Ethan. 2019. “Two Ways to Want?Journal of Philosophy 116 (2): 6598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jeffrey, Richard. 1963. “On Indeterminate Conditionals.” Philosophical Studies 14 (3): 3743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kleinschmidt, Shieva. n.d.. “Conditional Desires.”Google Scholar
Konek, Jason. 2016. “Probabilistic Knowledge and Cognitive Ability.” Philosophical Review 125 (4): 509–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lance, Mark Norris. 1995. “Subjective Probability and Acceptance.” Philosophical Studies 77 (1): 147–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lennertz, Benjamin. 2019. “Might-Beliefs and Asymmetric Disagreement.” Synthese 196 (11): 4775–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lennertz, Benjamin. Forthcoming. “Noncognitivism and the Frege-Geach Problem in Formal Epistemology.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Google Scholar
Lennertz, Benjamin. n.d. a. “Confidence, Belief, and Rational Norms.”Google Scholar
Lennertz, Benjamin. n.d. b. “Quantificational Attitudes.”Google Scholar
Lewis, David. 1976. “Probabilities of Conditionals and Conditional Probabilities.” Philosophical Review 85 (3): 297315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ludwig, Kirk. 2015. “What Are Conditional Intentions?Methode: Analytic Perspectives 4 (7): 3060.Google Scholar
McDaniel, Kris, and Bradley, Ben. 2008. “Desires.” Mind 117 (466): 267302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moon, Andrew, and Jackson, Elizabeth. 2020. “Credence: A Belief-First Approach.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (5): 652–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moss, Sarah. 2013. “Epistemology Formalized.” Philosophical Review 122 (1): 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moss, Sarah. 2015. “On the Semantics and Pragmatics of Epistemic Vocabulary.” Semantics and Pragmatics 8 (5): 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moss, Sarah. 2018. Probabilistic Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nozick, Robert. 1981. Philosophical Explanations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Plato. 1992. Theatetus, translated by Levett, M. J.. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.Google Scholar
Price, Huw. 1983. “Does ‘Probably’ Modify Sense?Australasian Journal of Philosophy 61 (4): 396408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, Huw. 1986. “Conditional Credence.” Mind 95 (377): 1836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pritchard, Duncan. 2005. Epistemic Luck. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramsey, Frank. 1926. “Truth and Probability.” In The Foundations of Mathematics and Other Logical Essays, edited by Braithwaite, R. B.. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Company.Google Scholar
Ross, Jacob. 2006. “Acceptance and Practical Reason” (PhD diss., Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ).Google Scholar
Rothschild, Daniel. 2012. “Expressing Credences.” The Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 112 (1): 99114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, Jeffrey Sanford, and Hawthorne, John. 2016. “General Dynamic Triviality Theorems.” Philosophical Review 125 (3): 307–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schroeder, Mark. 2013. “Two Roles for Propositions: Cause for Divorce?Noûs 47 (3): 409–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schroeder, Mark. 2015. “Attitudes and Epistemics.” In Expressing Our Attitudes: Explanation and Expression in Ethics Vol. 2, edited by Schroeder, Mark. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schroeder, Mark. 2018. “Getting Perspective on Objective Reasons.” Ethics 128 (2): 289319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shpall, Sam. 2016. “The Calendar Paradox.” Philosophical Studies 173 (3): 801–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stalnaker, Robert C. 1981.” A Theory of Conditionals.” In Ifs: Conditionals, Belief, Decision, Chance, and Time, edited by Harper, William L., Stalnaker, Robert, and Pearce, Glenn. Nether.: Springer.Google Scholar
Stalnaker, Robert C. 1984. Inquiry. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Swanson, Eric. 2006. “Interactions with Context” (PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA).Google Scholar
Swanson, Eric. 2016. “The Application of Constraint Semantics to the Language of Subjective Uncertainty.” Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (2): 121–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weisberg, Jonathan. 2013. “Knowledge in Action.” Philosophers’ Imprint 13 (22): 123.Google Scholar
Willer, Malte. 2013. “Dynamics of Epistemic Modality.” Philosophical Review 122 (1): 4592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williamson, Timothy. 2000. Knowledge and Its Limits. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Yalcin, Seth. 2007. “Epistemic Modals.” Mind 116 (464): 9831026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yalcin, Seth. 2011. “Nonfactualism about Epistemic Modals.” In Epistemic Modality, edited by Egan, Andy and Weatherson, Brian. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Yalcin, Seth. 2012a. “Bayesian Expressivism.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 112 (2): 123–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yalcin, Seth. 2012b. “Context Probabilism.” In Logic, Language, and Meaning, edited by Aloni, Maria, Kimmelman, Vadim, Roelofsen, Floris, Sassoon, Galit, Schulz, Katrin, Westera, Matthijs, 1221. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar