In a paper from 1976, Berg, Christensen, and Ressel prove that the closure of the cone of sums of squares in the polynomial ring in the topology induced by the ℓ1-norm is equal to Pos([–1; 1] n ), the cone consisting of all polynomials that are non-negative on the hypercube [–1,1]n. The result is deduced as a corollary of a general result, established in the same paper, which is valid for any commutative semigroup. In later work, Berg and Maserick and Berg, Christensen, and Ressel establish an even more general result, for a commutative semigroup with involution, for the closure of the cone of sums of squares of symmetric elements in the weighted -seminorm topology associated with an absolute value. In this paper we give a new proof of these results, which is based on Jacobi’s representation theoremfrom2001. At the same time, we use Jacobi’s representation theorem to extend these results from sums of squares to sums of 2d-powers, proving, in particular, that for any integer d ≥ 1, the closure of the cone of sums of 2d-powers in the topology induced by the -norm is equal to Pos([–1; 1]n).
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