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Live three-dimensional paediatric intraoperative epicardial echocardiography as a guide to surgical repair of atrioventricular valves

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 February 2006

Deborah B. Rawlins
Department of Congenital Heart Disease, Guy's Hospital, London, United Kingdom
Conal Austin
Department of Cardiothoracic Survery, Guy's Hospital, London, United Kingdom
John M. Simpson
Department of Congenital Heart Disease, Guy's Hospital, London, United Kingdom


Real-time three dimensional echocardiography is increasingly used for imaging patients with congenital cardiac malformations. One of the limitations of a transthoracic approach is that intervening structures can impact on the quality of the images obtained. We hypothesised that, during surgery, epicardial three-dimensional echocardiography would provide images of high quality. We report our findings in eight children or young adults, with weights ranging from 2.8 to 70 kilograms, in whom we used this approach. In all cases, we obtained images of good quality, which could be analysed rapidly in the operating room. Of the eight cases, seven had echocardiographic findings which matched exactly the surgical findings. The remaining child had been diagnosed echocardiographically with a cleft in the aortic leaflet of the mitral valve, but was found at surgery to have a double orifice in the valve.

Original Article
© 2006 Cambridge University Press

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