1.HCUP Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 1988–2006. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/nisoverview.jsp. Accessed June 16, 2008. 2.HCUP Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/kidoverview.jsp. Accessed June 16, 2008.
3.Hannan EL, Racz MJ, Jollis JG, Peterson ED. Using medicare claims data to assess provider quality for CABG surgery. Does it work well enough? Health Serv Res 1997; 31: 659–678.
4.Parker JP, Li Z, Darnberg CL, Danielsen B, Carlisle D. Administrative versus clinical data for coronary artery bypass graft surgery report cards: the view from California. Med Care 2006; 44: 687–695.
5.Glance LG, Dick AW, Osler TM, Mukamel DB. Does date stamping ICD-CM codes increase the value of clinical information in administrative data? Heath Serv Res 2006; 41: 1413–1437.
6.DeLong ER, Peterson ED, DeLong DM, Muhlbaier LH, Hackett S, Mark DB. Comparing risk-adjustment methods for provider profiling. Stat Med 1997; 16: 2645–2664.
7.Shahian DM, Silverstein T, Lovett AF, Wolf RE, Normand SLT. Comparison of clinical and administrative data sources for hospital coronary artery bypass graft surgery report cards. Circulation 2007; 115: 1518–1527.
8.Iezzoni LI. Assessing quality using administrative data. Ann Intern Med 1997; 127: 666–674.
9.Mack MJ, Herbert M, Prince S, Dewey TM, Magee MJ, Edgerton JR. Does reporting of coronary artery bypass grafting from administrative databases accurately reflect actual clinical outcomes? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005; 129: 1309–1317.
10.Cronk CE, Malloy ME, Pelech AN, et al. Completeness of state administrative databases for surveillance of congenital heart disease. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Tetratol 2003; 67: 597–603.
11.Frohnert BK, Lussky RC, Alms MA. Validity of hospital discharge data for identifying infants with cardiac defects. J Perinatol 2005; 25: 727–742.
12.Finlayson EVA, Birkmeyer JD, Stukel TA, Siewers AE, Lucas FL, Wennberg DE. Adjusting surgical mortality rates for patient comorbidities: more harm than good? Surgery 2002; 132: 787–794.
13.Romano PS. Asking too much of administrative data? J Am Coll Surg 2003; 196: 337–338.
14.Williams WG. Surgical outcomes in congenital heart disease: expectations and realities. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2005; 27: 937–944.
15.Williams WG, McCrindle BW. Practical experience with databases for congenital heart disease: a registry versus an academic database. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 2002; 5: 132–142.
16.Gallivan S, Stark J, Pagel C, Williams G, Williams WG. Dead reckoning: can we trust estimates of mortality rates in clinical databases? Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2008; 33: 334–340.
17.Jacobs JP, Mavroudis C, Jacobs ML, et al. What is operative mortality? Defining death in a surgical registry database: A report from the STS Congenital Database Task Force and the Joint EACTS-STS Congenital Database Committee. Ann Thorac Surg 2006; 81: 1937–1941.
18.Ashburn DA, McCrindle BW, Tchervenkov CI, et al. Outcomes after the Norwood operation in neonates with critical aortic stenosis or aortic valve atresia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003; 125: 1070–1082.
19.Welke KF, Peterson ED, Vaughn-Sarrazin MS, et al. Comparison of cardiac surgery volumes and mortality rates between the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and Medicare databases from 1993 through 2001. Ann Thorac Surg 2007; 84: 1538–1546.
20.Ugolini C, Nobilio L. Risk adjustment for coronary artery bypass graft surgery: an administrative approach versus EuroSCORE. Int J for Qual in Health Care 2004; 16: 157–164.
21.Moller JH, Powell CB, Joransen JA, Borbas C. The pediatric cardiac care consortium – revisited. Jt Comm J Qual Improv 1994; 20: 661–668.
22.Welke KF, Shen I, Ungerleider RM. Current assessment of mortality rates in congenital cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2006; 82: 164–171.
23.Jenkins KJ, Gauvreau K, Newburger JW, Spray TL, Moller JH, Iezzoni LI. Consensus-based method for risk adjustment for surgery for congenital heart disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002; 123: 110–118.