1.Norwood WI, Lang P, Hansen DD. Physiologic repair of aortic atresia-hypoplastic left heart syndrome. N Engl J Med 1983; 308: 23–26.
2.Tweddell JS, Ghanayem NS, Mussatto KA, et al. Mixed venous oxygen saturation monitoring after stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg 2007; 84: 1301–1311.
3.Sano S, Huang SC, Kasahara S, Yoshizumi K, Kotani Y, Ishino K. Risk factors for mortality after the Norwood procedure using right ventricle to pulmonary artery shunt. Ann Thorac Surg 2009; 87: 178–186.
4.Srinivasan C, Sachdeva R, Morrow WR, et al. Standardized management improves outcomes after the Norwood procedure. Congenit Heart Dis 2009; 4: 329–337.
5.Ghanayem NS, Hoffman GM, Mussatto KA, et al. Perioperative monitoring in high-risk infants after stage 1 palliation of univentricular congenital heart disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 140: 857–863.
6.Furck AK, Uebing A, Hansen JH, et al. Outcome of the Norwood operation in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a 12 year single center survey. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 139: 359–365.
7.Atz AM, Travison TG, Williams IA, et al. Prenatal diagnosis and risk factors for preoperative death in neonates with single right ventricle and systemic outflow obstruction: screening data from the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 140: 1–6.
8.Rychik J, Szwast A, Natarajan S, et al. Perinatal and early surgical outcome for the fetus with hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a 5 year single institutional experience. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010; 36: 465–470.
9.Azakie A, Merklinger SL, McCrindle BW, et al. Evolving strategies and improving outcomes of the modified Norwood procedure: a 10 year single-institution experience. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 72: 1349–1353.
10.Tabbutt S, Ramamoorthy C, Montenegro LM, et al. Impact of inspired gas mixtures on preoperative infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome during controlled ventilation. Circulation 2001; 104: I-159–I-164.
11.Wernovsky G, Ghanayem N, Ohye RG, et al. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: consensus and controversies in 2007. Cardiol Young 2007; 17: 75–86.
12.Johnson BA, Mussatto K, Uhing MR, Zimmerman H, Tweddell J, Ghanayem N. Variability in the preoperative management of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Pediatr Cardiol 2008; 29: 515–520.
13.McElhinney DB, Hedrick HL, Bush DM, et al. Necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates with congenital heart disease: risk factors and outcomes. Pediatrics 2000; 106: 1080–1087.
14.Jeffries HE, Wells WJ, Starnes VA, Wetzel RC, Moromisato DY. Gastrointestinal morbidity after Norwood palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg 2006; 81: 982–987.
15.Jonas RA, Lang P, Hansen D, Hickey P, Castaneda AR. First-stage palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The importance of coarctation and shunt size. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1986; 92: 6–13.
16.Brawn W. Stage I Norwood: the Birmingham Children's Hospital Approach. Oper Tech Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005; 10: 286–298.
17.Meyer DB, Spray TL. Stage I – the Philadelphia Approach. Oper Tech Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005; 10: 299–312.
18.Sano S, Ishino K, Kawada M, Honjo O. Right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt in first stage palliation of hypoplastic left heart-syndrome. Oper Tech Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005; 10: 141–151.
19.Tweddell JS. The Norwood procedure with an innominate artery-to-pulmonary artery shunt. Oper Tech Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005; 10: 123–140.
20.Griselli M, McGuirk SP, Stumper O, et al. Influence of surgical strategies on outcome after the Norwood procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2006; 131: 418–426.
21.Norwood WI, Kirklin JK, Sanders SP. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: experience with palliative surgery. Am J Cardiol 1980; 45: 87–91.
22.Norwood WI, Lang P, Castaneda AR, Campbell DN. Experience with operations for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1981; 82: 511–519.
23.Bu'Lock FA, Stumper O, Jagtap R, et al. Surgery for infants with a hypoplastic systemic ventricle and severe outflow obstruction: early results with a modified Norwood procedure. Br Heart J 1995; 73: 456–461.
24.Fraser CDJ, Mee RB. Modified Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg 1995; 60: S546–S549.
25.Ishino K, Stumper O, De Giovanni JJ, et al. The modified Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome: early to intermediate results of 120 patients with particular reference to aortic arch repair. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 117: 920–930.
26.Baker CJ, Wells WJ, Derby CA, Rizi S, Starnes VA. Ascending aortic extension for enlargement of the aortopulmonary space in children with pulmonary artery stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg 2005; 80: 1647–1651.
27.Bautista-Hernandez V, Marx GR, Gauvreau K, et al. Coarctectomy reduces neoaortic arch obstruction in hypoplastic left heart syndrome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007; 133: 1540–1546.
28.Hawkins JA, Breinholt JP, Lambert LM, et al. Class I and class II anti-HLA antibodies after implantation of cryopreserved allograft material in pediatric patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000; 119: 324–330.
29.Meyer SR, Campbell DN, Rutledge JM, et al. Use of an allograft patch in repair of hypoplastic left heart syndrome may complicate future transplantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2005; 27: 554–560.
30.Laing BJ, Ross DR, Meyer SR, et al. Glutaraldehyde treatment of allograft tissue decreases allosensitization after the Norwood procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 139: 1402–1408.
31.Morell VO, Wearden PA. Experience with bovine pericardium for the reconstruction of the aortic arch in patients undergoing a Norwood procedure. Ann Thorac Surg 2007; 84: 1312–1315.
32.Burkhart HM, Ashburn DA, Konstantinov IE, et al. Interdigitating arch reconstruction eliminates recurrent coarctation after the Norwood procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005; 130: 61–65.
33.Ohye RG, Sleeper LA, Mahony L, et al. Pediatric Heart Network Investigators. Comparison of shunt types in the Norwood procedure for single-ventricle lesions. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 1980–1992.
34.Tabbutt S, Dominguez TE, Ravishankar C, et al. Outcomes after the stage 1 reconstruction comparing the right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit with the modified Blalock–Taussig shunt. Ann Thorac Surg 2005; 80: 1582–1590.
35.Azakie A, Martinez D, Sapru A, et al. Impact of right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit on outcome of the modified Norwood procedure. Ann Thorac Surg 2004; 77: 11727–11733.
36.Mahle WT, Cuadrado AR, Tam VK. Early experience with a modified Norwood procedure using right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit. Ann Thorac Surg 2003; 76: 1084–1088.
37.Mair R, Tulzer G, Sames E, et al. Right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit instead of modified Blalock–Taussig shunt improves postoperative hemodynamics in newborns after the Norwood operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003; 126: 1378–1384.
38.Pizarro C, Malec E, Maher KO, et al. Right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit improves outcome after stage I Norwood for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Circulation 2003; 108 Suppl 1: II-155–II-160.
39.Tabbutt S, Goldberg C, Ohye RG, et al. Can randomized clinical trials impact the surgical approach for hypoplastic left heart syndrome? World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2011; 2: 445–456.
40.Newburger JW, Jonas RA, Wernovsky G, et al. A comparison of the perioperative neurologic effects of hypothermic circulatory arrest versus low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass in infant heart surgery. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1057–1064.
41.Bellinger DC, Wypij D, duDuplessis AJ, et al. Neurodevelopmental status at eight years in children with dextro-transposition of the great arteries: the Boston Circulatory Arrest Trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003; 126: 1385–1396.
42.Fuller S, Rajagopaian R, Jarvik GP, et al. J Maxwell Chamberlain Memorial Paper for congenital heart surgery. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest does not impair neurodevelopmental outcome in school-age children after infant heart surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2010; 90: 1985–1994.
43.Tabbutt S, Nord AS, Jarvik GP, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes after staged palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Pediatrics 2008; 121: 476–483.
44.Goldberg CS, Bove EL, Devaney EJ, et al. A randomized clinical trial of regoinal cerebral perfusion versus deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: outcomes for infants with functional single ventricle. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007; 133: 880–887.
45.Ohye RG, Goldberg CS, Donohue J, et al. The quest to optimize neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonatal arch reconstruction: the perfusion techniques we use and why we believe in them. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2009; 137: 803–806.
46.Jobes DR, Nicolson SC, Steven JM, Miller M, Jacobs ML, Norwood WI. Carbon dioxide prevents pulmonary overcirculation in hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg 1992; 54: 150–151.
47.Furck AK, Hansen JH, Uebing A, Scheewe J, Jung O, Kramer HH. The impact of afterload reduction on the early postoperative course after the Norwood operation – a 12 year single centre experience. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2010; 37: 289–295.
48.Tweddell JS, Hoffman GM, Mussatto KA, et al. Improved survival of patients undergoing palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: lessons learned from 115 consecutive patients. Circulation 2002; 106: I-82–I-89.
49.Bradley SM, Atz AM, Simsic JM. Redefining the impact of oxygen and hyperventilation after the Norwood procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2004; 127: 473–480.
50.Hickey PR, Hansen DD, Wessel DL, Lang P, Jonas RA, Elixson EM. Blunting of stress responses in the pulmonary circulation of infants by fentanyl. Anesth Analg 1985; 64: 1137–1142.
51.Li JS, You E, Berezny KY, et al. Clinical outcomes of palliative surgery including a systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt in infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease: does aspirin make a difference? Circulation 2007; 116: 293–297.
52.O'Connor MJ, Ravishankar C, Ballweg JA, et al. Early systemic-to-pulmonary shunt intervention in neonates with congenital heart disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011; 142: 106–112.
53.Ravishankar C, Dominguez TE, Kreutzer J, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after stage 1 reconstruction for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2006; 7: 319–323.
54.Allan CK, Thiagarajan RR, del Nido PJ, Roth SJ, Almodovar MC, Laussen PC. Indication for initiation of mechanical circulatory support impacts survival of infants with shunted single-ventricle circulation supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007; 133: 660–667.
55.Ghanayem NS, Hoffman GM, Mussatto KA, et al. Home surveillance program prevents interstage mortality after the Norwood procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003; 126: 1367–1377.