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The use of basic parameters for monitoring the haemodynamic effects of midazolam and ketamine as opposed to propofol during cardiac catheterization

  • Ayse Baysal (a1), Tugcin Bora Polat (a2), Yalim Yalcin (a2) and Ahmet Celebi (a2)

Our aim is to compare the haemodynamic and adverse effects of propofol versus the mixture of midazolam and ketamine as used in sedation for cardiac catheterization in children.


In a prospective randomized trial, we divided patients needing sedation into 72 receiving a mixture of midazolam and ketamine and 42 receiving propofol. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 12 years, and 1 year to 16 years, respectively. We collected data relative to heart rate, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, peripheral saturations of oxygen, and adverse effects. We assessed cyanotic patients to establish any relationship between the haemodynamic data and peripheral arterial saturations of oxygen.


Demographic data, including age, gender, and weight, was not statistically different between the groups. In those receiving midazolam and ketamine, mean systemic arterial pressures before, and 30 minutes after, sedation were 64.3, with standard deviation of 9.8, and 62.5, with standard deviation of 10.2, millimetre of mercury (p equals to 0.237). Heart rates were 131.3, with standard deviation of 13.5, and 109.2, with standard deviation of 17.3 beats per minute, (p less than 0.001) whereas in those given propofol the comparable values were 71.2, with standard deviation of 14.4, and 53.6 with standard deviation of 9.7 millimetres of mercury (p less than 0.001), and 115.2, with standard deviation of 13.6, and 100.5 with standard deviation of 20.1 beats per minute (p less than 0.01), respectively. Mean systemic arterial pressures in the subgroups of cyanotic patients before and 30 minutes after sedation were 74.8, with standard deviation of 14.6, and 72.7, with standard deviation of 12.4 millimetres of mercury for those receiving midazolam and ketamine (p equals to 0.544), and heart rates were 119.3, with standard deviation of 12.2, and 104.6 with standard deviation of 16.1 beats per minute (p equals to 0.001). In those given propofol, the comparable values were 71.1 with deviation of 15.5 and 53.9 with deviation of 9.2 millimetres of mercury (p equals to 0.001), and 126.7 with deviation of 20.8 and 107.2 with deviation of 13.5 beats per minute (p equals to 0.001), respectively.


In cyanotic children, propofol used as a sedative agent during cardiac catheterization causes a decrease in mean arterial pressure and arterial desaturation. Ketamine produces more stable haemodynamic data in children with congenitally malformed hearts.

Corresponding author
Correspondence to: Ayse Baysal, 45 ADA Mimoza 1a D:15, Atasehir, Istanbul, Turkey. Tel: +90-216-4562436; Fax: +90-262-6417260; E-mail:
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Cardiology in the Young
  • ISSN: 1047-9511
  • EISSN: 1467-1107
  • URL: /core/journals/cardiology-in-the-young
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