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“On the Border of Old Age”: An Entangled History of Eldercare in East Germany

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 May 2020

James Chappel*
Affiliation:
Duke University

Abstract

Historical research has turned in the last years more intensively toward entangled and transnational histories of biopolitics, the family, and the welfare state, but without renewed interest in aging and pension policy, a sphere of human experience that is often interrogated in parochial terms, if at all. An analysis of the culture and policies of old age in East Germany in the 1950s and 1960s shows the importance of a transnational history of this subject. The GDR, the Communist state with the greatest proportion of elderly citizens, needed to create a socialist model of aging. Neither the Communist tradition in Weimar Germany, nor the experience of the other states in the Communist bloc provided substantial guidance. East Germans looked instead for inspiration to West Germany, which was itself engaged in a debate about aging and pension policy. By grappling with the Western experience, including its perceived and real limitations, the GDR in the Ulbricht developed a vision of what it meant to age as a socialist.

Die historische Forschung hat sich in den letzten Jahren intensiver mit der verwobenen transnationalen Geschichte von Biopolitik, Familie und Wohlfahrtsstaat befasst. Trotz dieser Entwicklung wurden die Themen Altern und Rentenpolitik weiter nur am Rande untersucht. Der Beitrag untersucht Kultur und Politiken des Alterns in Ostdeutschland in den 1950er und 1960er Jahren und zeigt die Wichtigkeit eines transnationalen Ansatzes für die Analyse dieses Thema. Die DDR, als der kommunistische Staat mit dem höchsten Anteil älterer Menschen, musste ein sozialistisches Modell des Alterns entwerfen. Doch weder die kommunistische Tradition der Weimarer Republik noch die Erfahrungen der anderen Staaten des Ostblocks boten hierfür eine Orientierung. Stattdessen suchten die GDR Anregungen in der BRD, wo ebenso Debatten über das Altern und die Rentenpolitik geführt wurden. Durch die Auseinandersetzung mit den westdeutschen Erfahrungen – inklusive der wahrgenommenen und tatsächlichen Grenzen – entwickelte die DDR der Ulbricht-Ära ihre Vision davon, was es bedeutete, im Sozialismus zu altern.

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Article
Copyright
Copyright © Central European History Society of the American Historical Association, 2020

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References

1 An der Grenze des Alters, DDR Fernsehbeitrag vom August 19, 1959 (ID 061621), available for viewing at Deutsches Rundfunkarchiv, these quotations from 2:25 to 2:30; the story of the woman in Cologne begins at 16:15, screenshot at 18:53.

2 An der Grenze des Alters, labor joy at 28:20 and 29:00, military conspiracy at 31:40, this screenshot at 20:37.

3 Others have done so. See also Chappel, James, “Old Volk: Aging in 1950s Germany, East and West,” Journal of Modern History 90 (2018): 792833CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Hoffmann, Dierk, Am Rande der sozialistischen Arbeitsgesellschaft. Rentner in der DDR, 1945–1990 (Erfurt: Landeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2010)Google Scholar; Springer, Philipp, Da konnt’ ich mich dann so'n bißchen entfalten. Die Volkssolidarität in der SBZ/DDR 1945–1969 (New York: Peter Lang, 1999)Google Scholar.

4 “Bonn greift Renten an,” Berliner Zeitung, January 18, 1956, 5.

5 Jarausch, Konrad H., “Care and Coercion: The GDR as Welfare Dictatorship,” in Dictatorship as Experience: Towards a Socio-Cultural History of the GDR, ed. Jarausch, Konrad H. (New York: Berghahn Books, 1999), 4769Google Scholar; Harsch, Donna, Revenge of the Domestic: Women, the Family, and Communism in the German Democratic Republic (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008), 11Google Scholar; Port, Andrew I., Conflict and Stability in the German Democratic Republic (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 274Google Scholar; Bouvier, Beatrix, DDR—Ein Sozialstaat? Sozialpolitk in der Ära Honecker (Bonn: Dietz, 2002)Google Scholar.

6 In German, this can be translated in numerous ways: Fürsorge, Wohlfahrt, and Sozialpolitik had slightly different meanings. The SED, at least in the source base encountered in this article, avoided all three.

7 Irmak, Kenan H., Der Sieche. Alte Menschen und die stationäre Altenhilfe in Deutschland 1924–1961 (Essen: Klartext Verlag, 2002)Google Scholar; Möckel, Benjamin, “Nutzlose Volksgenossen?Der Arbeitseinsatz alter Menschen im Nationalsozialismus (Berlin: Logos, 2010)Google Scholar; Torp, Cornelius, Gerechtigkeit im Wohlfahrtsstaat. Alter und Alterssicherung in Deutschland und Großbritannien von 1945 bis heute (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. The great exception is Mierzejewski, Alfred C., A History of the German Public Pension System: Continuity amid Change (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2016)Google Scholar.

8 Archiv für Sozialgeschichte 30 (1990): Alter und Alterssicherung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert im Wandel; Conrad, Christoph, Vom Greis zum Rentner. Der Strukturwandel des Alters in Deutschland zwischen 1830 und 1930 (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Ehmer, Josef, Sozialgeschichte des Alters (Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1990)Google Scholar; Göckenjan, Gerd, Das Alter würdigen. Altersbilder und Bedeutungswandel des Alters (Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 2000)Google Scholar; Hockerts, Hans Günter, Sozialpolitische Entscheidungen im Nachkriegsdeutschland. Alliierte und deutsche Sozialversicherungspolitik 1945 bis 1957 (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1980)Google Scholar; Penkert, Annette, Arbeit oder Rente? Die alternde Bevölkerung als sozialpolistische Herausforderung für die Weimarer Republik (Göttingen: Cuvilier Verlag, 1998)Google Scholar.

9 Cooper, Melinda, Family Values: Between Neoliberalism and the New Social Conservatism (New York: Zone Books, 2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Fraser, Nancy, Fortunes of Feminism: From State-Managed Capitalism to Neoliberal Crisis (New York: Verso, 2013)Google Scholar; Harsch, Revenge of the Domestic; Heineman, Elizabeth D., What Difference Does a Husband Make? Women and Marital Status in Nazi and Postwar Germany (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999)Google Scholar; Herzog, Dagmar, Sex after Fascism: Memory and Morality in Twentieth-Century Germany (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Moeller, Robert, Protecting Motherhood: Women and the Family in the Politics of Postwar West Germany (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Rahden, Till van, “Fatherhood, Rechristianization, and the Quest for Democracy in Postwar West Germany,” in Raising Citizens in the “Century of the Child,” ed. Schumann, Dirk (New York, 2010), 141–64Google Scholar; Robcis, Camille, The Law of Kinship: Anthropology, Psychoanalysis, and the Family in France (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013)Google Scholar; Self, Robert O., All in the Family: The Realignment of American Democracy since the 1960s (New York: Hill and Wang, 2013)Google Scholar.

10 A recent discussion of this literature as it relates to the German case can be found in Chappel, James, “Nuclear Families in a Nuclear Age: Theorizing the Family in the Federal Republic of Germany,” Contemporary European History 26, no. 1 (2017): 85109CrossRefGoogle Scholar; see also Moeller, Robert G., “The Elephant in the Living Room: Or Why the History of Twentieth Century Germany Should Be a Family Affair,” in Gendering Modern Herman History: Rewriting Historiography, ed. Hagemann, Karen and Quataert, Jean H. (New York: Berghahn Books, 2007), 228–50Google Scholar.

11 For an overview, see Christians, Annemone and Kramer, Nicole, “Who Cares? Eine Zwischenbilanz der Pflegegeschichte in zeithistorischer Perspektive,” Archiv für Sozialgeschichte 54 (2014): 395415Google Scholar; and Kathleen Canning, “The Order of Terms: Class, Citizenship, and Welfare State in German Gender History,” in Gendering Modern Herman History, ed. Hagemann and Quataert, 128–46. The best international overview of the development of the research is provided in an annotated bibliography by O'Connor, Julia S., Welfare Policy and Gender (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

12 This should be distinguished from more traditional interdisciplinary investigations of old age, which tend toward the quantitative. For a recent version of this, which includes a historian as organizer but with contributions that eschew historical approaches, see Kocka, Jürgen et al. , eds., Altern. Familie, Zivilgesellschaft, Politik (Halle: Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina, 2009)Google Scholar. For exemplary works in aging studies, see, among other sites, the journal Age Culture Humanities.

13 Esping-Andersen, Gøsta, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990)Google Scholar, and more recently, responding to his critics, Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). On eldercare, see his The Incomplete Revolution: Adapting to Women's New Roles (Cambridge, MA: Polity, 2009).

14 See, for instance, Morgan, Kimberly, Working Mothers and the Welfare State: Religion and the Politics of Work-Family Policies in Western Europe and the United States (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006)Google Scholar; Koven, Seth and Michel, Sonya, eds., Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of the Welfare State (New York: Routledge, 1993)Google Scholar; Bock, Gisela and Thane, Pat, eds., Maternity and Gender Politics: Women and the Rise of the European Welfare States, 1880s–1950s (New York: Routledge, 1991)Google Scholar.

15 On eldercare recently, Chappel, “Old Volk”; Schludi, Martin, The Reform of Bismarckian Pension Systems: A Comparison of Pension Politics in Austria, France, Germany, Italy and Sweden (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; with a focus on gender, Daly, Mary E., The Gender Division of Welfare: The Impact of the British and German Welfare States (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)Google Scholar.

16 Choy, Catherine, Empire of Care: Nursing and Migration in Filipino American History (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Dillon, Nara, Radical Inequalities: China's Revolutionary Welfare State in Comparative Perspective (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Eckert, Andreas, “Regulating the Social: Social Security, Social Welfare and the State in Late Colonial Tanzania,” Journal of African History 45, no. 3 (2004): 467–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

17 On Bismarckean Sozialpolitik and its development see, Machtan, Lothar, ed., Bismarcks Sozialstaat. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Sozialpolitik und zur sozialpolitischen Geschichtsschreibung (Frankfurt/Main: Campus, 1994)Google Scholar; on the elaboration of this system in Weimar, see Hong, Young-Sun, Welfare, Modernity, and the Weimar State, 1919–1933 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; on the pension system, Schludi, The Reform of Bismarckian Pension Systems.

18 For an overview of aging and eldercare in West Germany in this period, see Torp, Gerechtigkeitim Wohlfahrtsstaat, 67–109.

19 On these organizations, see Mark Alan Siegel, “The National Socialist People's Welfare Organization—1933–1939: The Political Manipulation of Welfare” (PhD diss., University of Cincinnati, 1976); Hering, Sabine and Schilde, Kurt, eds., Die Rote Hilfe. Die Geschichte der internationalen kommunistischen “Wohlfahrtsorganisation” und ihrer sozialen Aktivitäten in Deutschland (1921–1941) (Opladen: Leske und Budrich, 2003)Google Scholar. On their connections to the Volkssolidarität (VS), see Springer, Da konnt’ ich mich dann so'n bißchen entfalten, 130–44.

20 VS publications, discussed below, basically mirrored those of the Rote Hilfe, featuring accounts of global Communism, critiques of finance capitalism, and mundane reports about the activities of local chapters. For the VS, see below; for Rote Hilfe, see, for instance, “Internationale Gewerkschaftsverfolgungen,” Der Rote Helfer 3, no. 1 (January 1927): 9; Pluczynski, L., “Pildsudski bereitet den Krieg vor,” Der Rote Helfer 3, no. 3 (March 1927): 3Google Scholar; “Aus der Arbeit der Bezirke,” Der Rote Helfer 2, no. 6 (June 1926): 10–11.

21 “Faschistische Gemeinheit gegen Justizopfer,” Der Rote Helfer 2, no. 5 (May 1926): 3.

22 For the Rote Hilfe, see Schlör, Jakob, “Die Rote Hilfe, eine überparteiliche Organisation,” Der Rote Helfer 3, no. 3 (March 1927): 1213Google Scholar; for VS, see Lehmann, Helmut, “Einheit-Frieden-Solidarität,” Solidarität 1, no. 1 (May 1950): 19Google Scholar, esp. 2.

23 “Von der NSV zur Volkssolidarität,” Tatsachen und Berichte aus der Sowjetzone, issue 8 (Bonn, 1953).

24 For an exploration by an NSV expert see Stadelmann, Helmut, Die rechtliche Stellung der NS-Volkswohlfahrt und des Winterhilfswerkes des Deutschen Volkes (Berlin: Zentralverlag der NSDAP, 1938), 36Google Scholar.

25 Siegel, “The National Socialist People's Welfare Organization—1933–1939,” 166; Willing, Matthias, ‘Sozialistische Wohlfahrt’. Die staatliche Sozialfürsorge in der Sowjetischen Besatungszone und der DDR (1945–1990) (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008)Google Scholar.

26 Siegel, “The National Socialist People's Welfare Organization—1933–1939,” 72–73; Fischer, Jörg-Uwe, “‘Nun ist er da—der Kolibri!’ Das Seniorenradio ‘Kolibri’—ein Kleinempfänger mit Festsender für ‘Bestager,’Info7 27 (2012): 5255Google Scholar.

27 Siegel, “The National Socialist People's Welfare Organization—1933–1939,” 79–82.

28 Springer, Da konnt’ ich mich dann so'n bißchen entfalten, 64.

29 Letter from Helmut Lehmann to Dr. Bolz, March 31, 1954; VS Archives 67/3 (there are many letters in this folder, mostly identical). All VS archival materials come from Volkssolidarität der DDR, DY67, Archiv der Parteien und Massenorganisationen der DDR im Bundesarchiv, Berlin. He seems to have been right because those replies that survive in the file praise the VS primarily for their ability to raise funds for Korea. The June 1954 prioritization of the elderly is discussed in Zentralsekretariat der Volkssolidarität, “Rechenschaftsbericht des Zentralausschusses der Volkssolidarität für die Zeit von Oktober 1945 bis Oktober 1955,” DY 67/4. For another example of the small role of the elderly in the VS's self-understanding in the early 1950s, see Satzung der VS in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Körperschaft des öffentlichen Rechts (April 1953): 4–5, DY 67/3.

30 This memo and the 100 million-DM gift are both discussed in Zentralsekretariat der Volkssolidarität, “Rechenschaftsbericht des Zentralausschusses der Volkssolidarität für die Zeit von Oktober 1945 bis Oktober 1955,” DY 67/4.

31 I should point out that, in pairing Red Aid and the NSV in this way, I am not implicitly suggesting that the two should be equated under the rubric of “totalitarianism.” I am merely noting that, in the German context, these were the two clearest predecessors for the VS. Across the developed world, care delivery was being politicized in diverse ways at just the same moment.

32 The elderly do not appear as a line item in their budget: “Gesamt-Einahmen und -Ausgaben der Roten Hilfe Deutschlands im 4. Vierteljahr 1925,” Der Rote Helfer 2, no. 3 (March 1926): 7. Unlike the elderly, children were an object of concern: “Sichert die Existenz unserer Kinderheime!” Der Rote Helfer 2, no. 6 (June 1926): 1–2.

33 Möckel, “Nutzlose Volksgenossen?” In the NSV's own rundown of communities deserving aid (unemployed Germans, families of soldiers) and those undeserving (asocials, Jews), the elderly were not mentioned. “Was muß der Betreute vom WhW. Wissen?” Ewiges Deutschland, October 1936, 30–31. In general, NSV propaganda viewed old age negatively, portraying old women specifically as rather pitiful; see, for instance, “Beglückender Besuch,” Ewiges Deutschland, September 1938, 282.

34 Stadelmann, Die rechtliche Stellung der NS-Volkswohlfahrt und des Winterhilfswerkes des Deutschen Volkes, 6. More encyclopedic analyses of NSV activities spared no words for the elderly, either. Erich Hilgenfeldt, Aufgaben der nationalsozialistischen Wohlfahrtspflege (Berlin: Zentralverlag der NSDAP, 1937). More generally on NSV priorities, see Siegel, “The National Socialist People's Welfare Organization—1933–1939,” 20–24.

35 The VS's international materials are collected in VS Archives, DY 67/78.

36 For East German interest, see Horst E. Schulze, “Methusalem war jung dagegen,” Neue Berliner Illustrierte 49 (1956): 14–15.

37 Eitner, Siegfried, Gerohygiene. Hygiene des Alterns als Problem der Lebensgestaltung (Berlin: Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, 1966), 2223Google Scholar. For the Soviet version, see Smith, Mark B., “The Withering Away of the Danger Society: The Pension Reforms of 1956 and 1964 in the Soviet Union,” Social Science History 39 (2015): 219–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

38 Eitner, Gerohygiene, 35–40.

39 See, for instance, Wiese, Leopold von, Spätlese (Cologne: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1954), 29CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Torp, Gerechtigkeit im Wohlfahrtstaat, 78.

40 Hoffmann, Dierk, “Sicherung bei Alter, Invalidität und für Hinterbliebene,” in Geschichte der Sozialpolitik in Deutschland, ed. Hockerts, Hans Günter et al. , vol. 8 (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2004), 345–85Google Scholar, esp. 375–76.

41 The details are in DY 67/88, Eugen Betzer to the Volksstimme Redaktion, January 20, 1965.

42 Mierzejewski, A History of the German Public Pension System, 157–74.

43 “Adenauers ‘Sozialreform’ ist Rentenraub,” Solidarität 6, no. 3 (March 1956): 11–12; see also “Sorge um den Menschen?” Solidarität 5, no. 1 (January 1955): 8–9.

44 “Westdeutsche Atomrüstung bringt sozialen Abbau,” Volkshelfer, April 1960, 4–7.

45 “1966 Euthanasie in Westberlin,” Volkshelfer, July 1966, 4–5.

46 For examples, see “Unglaublich, aber wahr,” Solidarität 6, no. 4 (April 1956): 5; “Westdeutsche Rentenpraxis,” Volkshelfer, September 1961, 15–16; “Rentenerhöhung in Kraft,” Neues Deutschland, December 1, 1956, 1.

47 “Westdeutsche Rentenpraxis,” Volkshelfer.

48 “Ein Brief aus Westdeutschland,” Volkshelfer, July 1960, 12.

49 “Koreanischer Botschafter überreichte der Volkssolidarität ein Seidenbanner,” Volkshelfer, April 1960, 3; “Veteranen feierten,” Volkshelfer, March 1961, 19.

50 Volkssolidarität Zentralausschuss, “Nachstehend einige Diskussionen unserer Volkshelfer,” January 31, 1968, DY 67/60.

51 For examples, see Eitner, Siegfried, “Der adäquate Arbeitseinsatz des alten Arbeiters,” Das Deutsche Gesundheitswesen 19, 1964, 1512–17Google Scholar; Zetkin, M., “Arbeit erhält jung,” Solidarität 7, no. 8 (August 1957): 45Google Scholar, esp. 4 (originally published in Deutsche Gesundheitswesen and reprinted here, which itself indicates the connection between the VS and East German public-health expertise).

52 For one example of this continuity thesis, see “Zwei Wege in der Sozialpolitik,” Solidarität (April 1957): 4. On West German welfare as a project of middle-class consolidation, see Hilpert, Dagmar, Wohlfahrtsstaat der Mittelschichten? Sozialpolitik und gesellschaftlicher Wandel in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (1949–1975) (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

53 Herbert Warnke, cited in Kurt Fichtner, “Soziale Sicherheit durch das sozialistische Rentenrecht,” Solidarität (November 1956): 12–13, esp. 13.

54 Helmut Lehmann, “Verbesserte Lebenslage für alle Rentner,” Solidarität (January 1957): 3–6, esp. 6. “Rente” is normally translated simply as “pension,” but in this speech Lehmann idiosyncratically contrasted Rente with Pensionen; [Anon, probably Wilhelm Perk], “Probleme der sozialen Betreuung durch die Volkssolidarität,” March 28, 1966, 4, DY 67/56; for health care, Eitner, Gerohygiene, 38.

55 “Westberlin: Sechs alter Bürger starben einsam,” Volkshelfer, April 1966, 9; “Wer alt ist…,” Volkshelfer, April 1966, 8. For another article along these lines, see “Endstation Einsamkeit,” Volkshelfer, May 1966, 8–9.

56 “Sorge um den Menschen?” Solidarität, 9.

57 Dr. Scheidler, “Unsere Liebe und Fürsorge gehört den alten Menschen,” Volkshelfer, October 1963, 4–6, esp. 4 (emphasis added).

58 Schmidt, Manfred G. and Ritter, Gerhard A., The Rise and Fall of a Socialist Welfare State: The German Democratic Republic (1949–1990) and German Unification (1989–1994) (New York: Springer, 2013), 86, 206CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

59 Scheidler, “Unsere Liebe und Fürsorge gehört den alten Menschen,” Volkshelfer.

60 This is one of the main arguments of Chappel, “Old Volk.”

61 “Arbeitsveteranen als Aufbauhelfer,” Solidarität 8, no. 11 (November 1958): 6–7.

62 “Das beste Beispeil des Monats,” Volkshelfer, May 1960, 10–11.

63 Einsam? Die Veteranenklubs der Volkssolidarität bieten Geselligkeit, Wissen, Freude und Frohsinn!, 1960, 1, DY 67/67; “1967 war gut—1968 muss noch besser werden!” Volkshelfer, January 1968, 1.

64 Eitner, Gerogyiene 39; see also “Zwei Wege in der Sozialpolitik,” Solidarität, 4.

65 See, for example, Harsch, Revenge of the Domestic, 201; Ute Schneider, Hausväteridylle oder sozialistische Utopie? Die Familie im Recht der DDR (Cologne: Böhlau, 2014).

66 “Genossin Ida Endruhn,” Volkshelfer, July 1966, 16.

67 See, for instance, “Arbeitsveteranen als Ausbauhelfer,” Solidarität.

68 The image comes from the cover of Volkshelfer, August 1961.

69 “Das Alter,” in Lehrbuch der Sozialhygiene, ed. A Beyer and K. Winter (Berlin: Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, 1959), 241–45, esp. 245 (emphasis added).

70 “Wunsch-Omas,” Volkshelfer (August 1961), 14–15.

71 Ilse Thiele and Jenny Matern, “Hilfe für die werktätige Frau,” Volkshelfer, April 1960, 8–9; Ingrid Brunner, “Fleißige Omas helfen kranken Babys,” Volkshelfer, September 1963, 16.

72 Thomas Lindenberger, “Ist die DDR ausgeforscht? Phasen, Trends und ein optimistischer Ausblick,” Aus Politik und Zeitgeschehen 24–26 (2014) (http://www.bpb.de/apuz/185600/ist-die-ddr-ausgeforscht-phasen-trends-und-ein-optimistischer-ausblick).

73 Lindenberger, Thomas, “‘Asociality’ and Modernity: The GDR as a Welfare Dictatorship,” in Socialist Modern: East German Everyday Culture and Politics, ed. Pence, Katherine and Betts, Paul (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2008), 211–33Google Scholar.

74 Interview with Siegfried Eitner, in “Als ob das Leben erst begonnen…,” Wochenpost April 14, 1967, 16–17, esp. 16.

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