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Biopolitics, Fascism, Democracy: Some Reflections on Our Discourse About “Modernity”

  • Edward Ross Dickinson (a1)
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In recent years the outlines of a new master narrative of modern German history have begun to emerge in a wide range of publications. This narrative draws heavily on the theoretical and historical works of Michel Foucault and Detlev J. K. Peukert, and on the earlier work of the Frankfurt School, Max Weber, and the French theorists of postmodernism. In it, rationalization and science, and specifically the extended discursive field of “biopolitics” (the whole complex of disciplines and practices addressing issues of health, reproduction, and welfare) play a key role as the marker and most important content of modernization. Increasingly, this model has a function in German historiography similar to that long virtually monopolized by the “Sonderweg thesis”: it serves as a broad theoretical or interpretive framework that can guide the construction of meaning in “smaller” studies, which are legitimated by their function in confirming or countering this broader argument.

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1. See particularly Frei, Norbert, “Wie modern war der Nationalsozialismus?,” Geschichte und Gesellschaft 19 (1993); Könke, Günter, “‘Modernisierungsschub’ oder relative Stagnation?,” Geschichte und Gesellschaft 20 (1994); Mommsen, Hans, “Noch einmal: Nationalsozialismus und Modernisierung,” Geschichte und Gesellschaft 21 (1995); and Schildt, Axel, “NS-Regime, Modernisierung und Moderne: Anmerkungen zur Hochkonjunktur einer andauernden Diskussion,” Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für Deutsche Geschichte 23 (1994).

2. Fritzsche, Peter, “Did Weimar Fail?Journal of Modern History 68 (1996) and “Nazi Modern,” Modernism/Modernity 3 (1996); Detlev Peukert, “Der ‘Traum der Vernunft,’” in idem, Max Webers Diagnose der Moderne (Göttingen, 1989), 68. See also, among many others, Schwartz, Michael, Sozialistische Eugenik: Eugenische Sozialtechnologien in Debatten und Politik der deutschen Sozialdemokratie 1890–1933 (Bonn, 1995), 29 and Eisenstadt, S. N., “Multiple Modernities,” Daedalus 129 (2000): 5.

3. There is a convenient summary of this diagnosis of modernity in Bauman, Zygmunt, Modernity and Ambivalence (Ithaca, 1991), esp. 613, 38–39.

4. Herbert, Ulrich, “Rassismus und rationales Kalkül,” in “Vernichtunspolitik”: Eine Debatte über den Zusammenhang von Sozialpolitik und Genozid im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland, ed. Schneider, Wolfgang (Hamburg, 1991), 28.

5. The locus classicus is Foucault, Michel, The History of Sexuality: An Introduction, vol. 1 (New York, 1990).

6. See Gilman, Sander, Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness (Ithaca, 1985) and Sohn, Werner and Mehrtens, Herbert, eds., Normalität und Abweichung: Studien zur Theorie und Geschichte der Normalisierungsgesellschaft (Opladen, 1999). For good discussions see the essays in Scheider, Vernichtungspolitik; Katz, Steven T., “Technology and Genocide,” in Katz, , Historicism, the Holocaust, and Zionism (New York, 1992); and Bauman, Zygmunt, Modernity and the Holocaust (Cambridge, 1989).

7. Planert, Ute, “Der dreifache Körper des Volkes: Sexualität, Biopolitik und die Wissenschaften vom LebenGeschichte und Gesellschaft 26 (2000).

8. For a recent review of the international literature see Dikötter, Frank, “Race Culture: Recent Perspectives on the History of Eugenics,” American Historical Review 103 (1998).

9. For the key text see Eley, Geoff and Blackbourn, David, The Peculiarities of German History (Oxford, 1984).

10. Fritzsche, Peter, “Did Weimar Fail?”; see also Fritzsche's, Germans Into Nazis (Cambridge, MA, 1998); Usborne, Cornelie, The Politics of the Body in Weimar Germany: Women's Reproductive Rights and Duties (Basingstoke, 1992); Hong, Young-sun, Welfare, Modernity, and the Weimar State (Princeton, 1998); Grossmann, Atina, Reforming Sex: The German Movement for Birth Control and Abortion Rights, 1920–1950 (New York, 1995).

11. Peukert, Detlev, Inside Nazi Germany (New Haven, 1987), 248; Bauman, , Modernity and Ambivalence, 29; Eley, Geoff, “Introduction 1: Is There a History of the Kaiserreich?”, in Society, Culture, and the State in Germany, 1870–1930, ed. idem (Ann Arbor, 1996), 31, 28; Rohkrämer, Thomas, “Antimodernism, Reactionary Modernity, and National Socialism: Technocratic Tendencies in Germany, 1890–1945,” Contemporary European History 8 (1999): 50.

12. See Weingart, Peter, Kroll, Jürgen, Bayertz, Kurt, Rasse, Blut, und Gene: Geschichte der Eugenik und Rassenhygiene in Deutchland (Frankfurt am Main, 1988); Weingart, Peter, “The Rationalization of Sexual Behavior: The Institutionalization of Eugenic Thought in Germany,” Journal of the History of Biology 20 (1987); Proctor, Robert, Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis (Cambridge, Mass., 1988); Schmuhl, Hans-Walter, Rassenhygiene, Nationalsozialismus, Euthanasie: Von der Verhütung zur Vernichtung ‘lebensunwerten Lebens’ 1890–1945 (Göttingen, 1987); Müller-Hill, Benno, Murderous Science (Oxford, 1988, orig. 1984); Weiss, Sheila Faith, Race Hygiene and National Efficiency: The Eugenics of Wilhelm Schallmeyer (Berkeley, 1987) and “The Race Hygiene Movement in Germany, 1904–1945,” in The Wellborn Science: Eugenics in Germany, France, Britain and Russia, ed. Adams, Mark B. (New York, 1990).

13. See Schwartz, Sozialistische Eugenik and idem, “‘Proletarier’ und ‘Lumpen’: Sozialistische Ursprünge eugenischen Denkens,” Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 42 (1994); Weikart, Richard, Socialist Darwninism: Evolution in German Socialist Thought from Marx to Bernstein (San Francisco, 1999); Kappeler, Manfred, Der schreckliche Traum vom vollkommenen Menschen: Rassenhygiene und Eugenik in der sozialen Arbeit (Marburg, 2000); Richter, Ingrid, Katholizismus und Eugenik in der Weimarer Republik und im Dritten Reich (Paderborn, 2001); Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph, Sozialer Protestantismus im 20. Jahrhundert: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Inneren Mission 1914–1945 (Munich, 1989) and Kaiser, and Greschat, Martin, eds., Sozialer Protestantismus und Sozialstaat: Diakonie und Wohlfahrtspflege in Deutschland 1890–1938 (Stuttgart, 1996); Nowak, Kurt, “Euthanasie” und Sterilisierung im “Dritten Reich”: Die Konfrontation der evangelischen und katholischen Kirche mit dem Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses und der “Euthanasie”-Aktion (Halle, 1977); Wetzell, Richard, Inventing the Criminal (Chapel Hill, 2000); Becker, Peter, Verderbnis und Entartung: Eine Geschichte der Kriminologie des 19.Jahrhunderts als Diskurs und Praxis (Göttingen, 2002); Simon, Jürgen, Kriminalbiologie und Zwangssterilisation (Münster, 2001); Stöckel, Sigrid, Säuglingsfürsorge zwischen sozialer Hygiene und Eugenik (Berlin, 1996); Reyer, Jürgen, Alte Eugenik und Wohlfahrtspflege (Freiburg, 1991); Weindling, , Health, Race, and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism, 1870–1945 (Cambridge, 1989) — and his many other publications; Allen, Ann Taylor, “German Radical Feminism and Eugenics, 1900–1908,” German Studies Review 11 (1988); Ferdinand, Ursula, Das Malthusische Erbe: Entwicklungsstränge der Bevölkerungstheorie im 19. Jahrhundert und deren Einfluss auf die radikale Frauenbewegung in Deutschland (Münster, 1999); and the literature cited in Dickinson, Edward Ross, “Reflections on Feminism and Monism in the Kaiserreich, 1900–1913,” Central European History 34 (2001).

14. Richter, , Katholizismus, 18.

15. Weindling, , Health, 610; Schwartz, Michael, “Konfessionelle Milieus und Weimarer Eugenik,” Historische Zeitschrift 261 (1995): 403.

16. Schwartz, Michael, “Biopolitik in der Moderne,” Internationale wissenschaftliche Korrespondenz der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung (1995), 346.

17. There is a particularly good concise discussion of the fundamental ideas of eugenics in Weingart, , “Politik und Vererbung,” in Wissenschaft auf Irrwegen: Biologismus — Rassenhygiene — Eugenik, ed. Propping, Peter and Schrott, Heinz (Bonn, 1992).

18. See particularly Weiss, Sheila Faith, “The Race Hygiene Movement,” esp. 911, 33–35. See also Kroner, Hans-Peter, “Wissenschaft und Politik: Das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Anthropologie, menschliche Erblehre und Eugenik im ‘Dritten Reich,’” in Vom Vorurteil zur Vernichtung?, ed. Geldbach, Erich (Münster, 1995), 54; Weingart, , “The Rationalization,” 187–88; Weindling, , Health, 316–18.

19. See particularly Schwartz, , Sozialistische Eugenik, 14.

20. The key text here is Schwartz, Sozialistische Eugenik; see particularly the summary on 329–33, 336.

21. Ploetz, A., “Bund für Mutterschutz”, Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie 2 (1905): 317; see also Nowacki, , Der Bund für Mutterschutz (1905–1933) (Husum, 1983), 2122.

22. See Dickinson, “Reflections” for references to the extensive literature on the league.

23. See Dienel, Christiane, Kinderzahl und Staatsräson: Empfängnisverhütung und Bevölkerungspolitik in Deutschland und Frankreich bis 1918 (Münster, 1995), 135.

24. Weindling, , Health, 147. The organization was even smaller for most of the 1920s (318–19). See also Weiss, , “The Race Hygiene Movement,” 25.

25. Nowacki, Bernd, Der Bund, 56.

26. Borelli, Siegfried, Vogt, Hermann-Joseph, Kreis, Michael, eds., Geschichte der Deutschen Gesellschaft zur Bekämpfung der Geschlechtskrankheiten (Berlin, 1992), 28.

27. Text in Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph, Nowak, Kurt, and Schwartz, Michael, Eugenik — Sterilisation — “Euthanasie”: Politische Biologie in Deutschland, 1895–1945 (Halle, 1992), 5657.

28. On eugenics in the Weimar period see Reyer, Alte Eugenik; Weiss, “The Race Hygiene Movement”; and Richter, Katholizismus. My summary in this and the next paragraphs is derived largely from these works. On Bewahrung see particularly Peukert, Detlev J. K., Grenzen der Sozialdiszipliniening (Cologne, 1986); Wollasch, Andreas, Der katholische Fürsorgeverein für Mädchen, Frauen und Kinder (Freiburg, 1991). For the debate on the criminal code see Schwartz, Michael, “‘Proletarier’ und ‘Lumpen,’” 566–67 and Richter, , Katholizismus, 230–31.

29. See Schwartz, , “Konfessionelle Milieus,” 418–19; Weiss, , “The Race Hygiene Movement,” 36.

30. See Weiss, , “The Race Hygiene Movement,” 3436 and Weingart, et al. , Rasse, 241–43.

31. For texts from the discussion of forcible sterilization and “euthanasia,” for example, see Kaiser, et al. , Eugenik, 7994, 95–96. For the history of eugenics in the 1920s see particularly Reyer, Alte Eugenik; Richter, Katholizismus; Weiss, “The Race Hygiene Movement”; Weindling, Health; and Schwartz, Sozialistische Eugenik.

32. See Weiss, , “The Race Hygiene Movement,” 26, 39; Richter, , Katholizismus, 201, 204, 304; Stöckel, , Säuglingsförsorge, 55, 65–70, 88–90, 95, 309, 370; Schwartz, , “Konfessionelle Milieus,” 438–39 and Sozialistische Eugenik.

33. Weingart, et al. , Rasse, 272–73.

34. Grotjahn, , Die Hygiene der menschlichen Fortpflanzung (Berlin, 1926), 54.

35. See particularly von Soden, Kristine, Die Sexualberatungsstellen der Weimarer Republik (Berlin, 1988) and Grossmann, , Reforming Sex, 1011, 46–77.

36. See Reyer, , Alte Eugenik, 102; Grossmann, , Reforming Sex, 73.

37. There were only some 25–30 courses in race hygiene and related topics offered at German universities each semester through the late 1920s, with a jump to about 35–40 in 1932. See Günther, Maria, “Die Institutionalisierung der Rassenhygiene an den deutschen Hochschulen vor 1933” (Ph.D. diss., University of Mainz, 1982), 61.

38. For the text of the draft legislation see Kaiser, et al. , Eugenik, 100–2.

39. Muckermann, Hermann, “Wesen der Eugenik und Aufgaben der Gegenwart,” Das kommende Geschlecht 5, nos. 1/2 (Berlin, 1929): 30.

40. See “Eugenische Tagung des preussischen Landesgesundheitsrates,” Eugenik 2 (1932): 187; Harmsen, Hans, “Evangelisch-kirchliche Stimmen zur eugenischen Forderung,” Eugenik 2 (1932): 265, 266; “Eugenische Entschliessung des Deutschen Ärztevereinsbundes,” Eugenik 2 (1932): 233; Schwartz, , “Konfessionelle Milieus,” 435; Richter, , Katholizismus, 304; Kaiser, et al. , Eugenik, 100, 109–10, and 185; and Die Eugenik im Dienste der Volkswohlfahrt (Berlin, 1932), 20–21, 55–56, 59, 72, 76, 81–83, 105.

41. See Lenz, Fritz, “Zur Frage eines Sterilisierungsgesetzes,” Eugenik 3 (1933): 7475; Kühl, Stefan, “The Relationship between Eugenics and the so-called ‘Euthanasia Action’ in Nazi Germany,” in Science in the Third Reich, ed. Szölösi-Janze, Margit (New York, 2001), 198.

42. See Weiss, , “The Race Hygiene Movement,” 41, Reyer, , Alte Eugenik, 96; Schwartz, , “Biopolitik in der Moderne,” 345; and Kröner, , “Wissenschaft und Politik,” esp. 5556. Lenz replaced Muckermann as head of the eugenic section of the KWI.

43. On Stöcker and Rosenthal see Wickert, Christi, Helene Stöcker, 1869–1943: Frauenrechtlerin, Sexualreformerin, und Pazifistin: Eine Biographie (Bonn, 1991), 190–91; on Schwartz, Moses Michael, “‘Euthanasie’-Debatten in Deutschland (1895–1945),” Vierteljahrshefie für Zeitgeschichte 46 (1998): 630; on Rüdin, et al. , Weiss, , “The Race Hygiene Movement,” 48.

44. Eley, , “Introduction 1,” 28.

45. Schmuhl, , Rassenhygiene, 20, 129, 134, 361. See also Weingart, et al. , Rasse, 523; the authors refer to eugenics as a “Bedingungsrahmen” (“condition of possibility”) for euthanasia. Even Peukert concluded that what made Nazi eugenics different from Weimar eugenics was precisely “the fact that its critics are forced into silence.” See Peukert, Detlev J. K., “The Genesis of the ‘Final Solution’ from the Spirit of Science,” in Reevaluating the Third Reich, ed. Childers, Thomas and Kaplan, Jane (New York, 1993), 244.

46. Peukert, , “The Genesis,” 244, 247.

47. Kaiser, et al. , Eugenik, xxiv. For a similar judgment see Schmuhl, , Rassenhygiene, 20.

48. Eley, , “Introduction 1,” 25, 29.

49. Ibid., 28.

50. Ibid., 30; Quataert, “Introduction 2: Writing the History of Women and Gender in Imperial Germany,” in Society, ed. Eley, 102; for a still clearer formulation of these ideas see Eley, , “Ordinary Germans,” esp. 17.

51. Fritzsche, , “Did Weimar Fail?” 648; “Nazi Modern,” 10. For an early statement of this view see Schmuhl, , Rassenhygiene, 14.

52. See Fritzsche, , “Nazi Modern,” esp. 11, 12, 15.

53. For the classic instance of what might be called racial characterology in the late 1920s, see Fritz Lenz's chapter of Baur, Erwin, Fischer, Eugen, and Lenz, Fritz, Menschliche Erblichkeitslehre (Munich, 1927), 519–83.

54. See for example von Ehrenfels, Christian, “Rassenproblem und Judenfrage,” in Ehrenfels, Metaphysik, ed. Fabian, Reinhard (Munich, 1990), 339; Grotjahn, Alfred, Geburten-Rückgang und Geburten-Regelung im Lichte der individuellen und der sozialen Hygiene (Berlin, 1921), 153; Meyer, Bruno, “Etwas von positiver Sexualreform,” Sexual-Probleme 4 (1908).

55. Schwartz, , “Konfessionelle Milieus,” 408.

56. Fritzsche, , “Did Weimar Fail?” 648.

57. Wetzell, , Inventing the Criminal, 11, 289–90.

58. Fritzsche, , “Did Weimar Fail?,” 649, 632.

59. Ibid., 647, 631,656.

60. For an example using specifically this language, see Grossmann, , Reforming Sex, 136–37.

61. Betts, Paul, “The New Fascination with Fascism: The Case of Nazi Modernism,” Journal of Contemporary History 37 (2002): 541.

62. Eley, , “Introduction 1,” 30.

63. Domansky, “Militarization and Reproduction in World War 1 Germany,” in Society, ed. Eley, , 462.

64. Quataert, , “Introduction 2,” 103.

65. Peukert, , “Der ‘Traum,’” 69.

66. Peukert, , Grenzen, 21, 307, 309, 311.

67. Ibid., 293, 309, 19, 67, 309, 307, 295.

68. Peukert, , “Genesis,” 236, 241.

69. Peukert, , Grenzen, 77.

70. Sachsse, and Tennstedt, , Der Wohlfahrtsstaat im Nationalsozialismus (Stuttgart, 1988), 274, 275, 276, 277.

71. Otto, Hans-Uwe and Sünker, Heinz, “Volksgemeinschaft als Formierungsideologie des Nationalsozialismus: Zur Genesis und Geltung von ‘Volkspflege’,” both in Politische Formierung und soziale Erziehung im Nationalsozialismus, ed. Otto, Hans-Uwe and Sünker, Heinz (Frankfurt am Main, 1992), esp. 65, 68; see also Sünker, Heinz, “Sozialpolitik als ‘Volkspflege’ im Nationalsozialismus: Zur faschistischen Aufhebung von Wohlfahrtsstaatlichkeit,” Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte 23 (1994).

72. Schnurr, Stephan, “Die nationalsozialistiche Funktionalisierung sozialer Arbeit: Zur Kontinuität und Diskontinuität der Praxis sozialer Berufe,” in Politische Formierung, ed. Otto and Sünker, 138, 139. See also Prinz, Michael, “Wohlfahrtsstaat, Modernisierung, und Nationalsozialismus: Thesen zu ihrem Verhältnis,” in Soziale Arbeit und Faschismus ed. Otto, Hans-Uwe and Sünker, Heinz (Frankfurt am Main, 1989).

73. Gräser, Marcus, Der blockierte Wohlfahrtsstaat: Unterschichtsjugend und Jugendfürsorge in der Weimarer Republik (Göttingen, 1995), 158, 13.

74. Hong, , Welfare, 276.

75. Naumann, Friedrich, Neudeutsche Wirtschaftspolitik (Berlin, 1902), 1112.

76. Schlossmann, , “Über die Organisation des Vereins für Säuglingsfürsorge im Regierungsbezirk Düsseldorf,” Concordia 15 (19098): 242. On Schlossmann see Weindling, , Health, 200–2.

77. Klumker, Christian Jasper, Fürsorgewesen (Leipzig, 1918), 1518.

78. On Klumker see Lerner, Franz, “Klumker, Christian Jasper,” in Neue Deutsche Biographie vol. 12 (Berlin, 1986), 144–45; Rever, , Alte Eugenik, 7374.

79. Grassl, , “Die Bekämpfung der Kindersterblichkeit vom Rassenstandpunkt”, Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie 7 (1910): 190; Schlossmann, , “Über die Organisation,” 239.

80. Kaup, Ignatz, “Was kosten die Minderwertigen dem Staat?,” Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie 10 (1913); Lenz cited in Stöckel, , Säuglingsfürsorge, 86.

81. See Reichsgesetzblatt 1919, no. 152, 11 August 1919; English in Hucko, Elmar M., ed., The Democratic Tradition: Four German Constitutions (New York, 1987), 185–86 and 176.

82. See for example Tober, Holger J., Deutscher Liberalismus und Sozialpolitik in der Ära des Wilhelminismus (Husum, 1999), here 403; Holl, Karl, Trautmann, Günther, and Vorländer, Hans, eds., Sozialer Liberalismus (Göttingen, 1986); Thompson, Alastair P., Left Liberals, the State, and Popular Politics in Wilhelmine Germany (Oxford, 2000);Palmowski, Jan, Urban Liberalism in Imperial Germany: Frankfurt am Main, 1866–1914 (Oxford, 1999).

83. Otto, Hans-Uwe and Sünker, Heinz, “Nationalsozialismus, Volksgemeinschaft und soziale Arbeit,” in Soziale Arbeit, ed. Otto and Sünker, 10.

84. Greg Eghigian, review of Gräser, Marcus, Der blockierte Wohlfahrtsstaat (Göttingen, 1995) and of Weichlein, Siegfried, Sozialmilieus und politische Kultur in der Weimarer Republik (Göttingen, 1996), in Central European History 31 (1998): 461.

85. Buchanan, Tom and Conway, Martin, “The Politics of Democracy in Twentieth-Century Europe: Introduction,” European History Quarterly 32 (2002): 8, 9.

86. See particularly Eley, Geoff, “Cultural Socialism, the Public Sphere, and the Mass Form: Popular Culture and the Democratic Project, 1900 to 1934,” in Between Reform and Revolution: German Socialism and Communism from 1840 to 1990, ed. Barclay, David and Weitz, Eric (New York, 1998); Eley, Geoff, “The Social Construction of Democracy in Germany, 1871–1933,” in The Social Construction of Democracy, ed. Andrews, George Reid and Chapman, Herrick (New York, 1995); and Eley, Geoff, Forging Democracy: The History of the Left in Europe, 1850–2000 (Oxford, 2002).

87. Cary, Noel, The Path to Christian Democracy: German Catholics and the Party System from Windthorst to Adenauer (Cambridge, Mass., 1996).

88. See Eley, , Forging, 45, 186–87, 194, 197.

89. Sachsse, Christoph and Tennstedt, Florian, “Sicherheit und Disziplin,” in Soziale Sicherheit und soziale Disziplinierung, ed. idem (Frankfurt am Main, 1986), esp. 11–14.

90. For a study characterizing Stalinism as one extreme of the European welfare state, see Kotkin, Steven, Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization (Berkeley, 1995).

91. Foucault, , History of Sexuality, 100–2; S. N. Eisenstadt, “Multiple.”

92. See for example Usborne, The Politics and Grossmann, Reforming Sex.

93. Mitchell, MB. R., European Historical Statistics, 1750–1970 (New York, 1975), 130. By 1969 it had fallen to 2.3 percent (132).

94. See David Crew, “The Ambiguities of Modernity: Welfare and the German State from Wilhelm to Hitler”, in Society, ed. Eley; Crew, David, Germans on Welfare: From Weimar to Hitler (New York, 1998); Eghigian, Greg, Making Security Social: Disability, Insurance, and the Birth of the Social Entitlement State in Germany (Ann Arbor, 2000).

95. Examples include Horn, Margot, Before It's Too Late: The Child Guidance Movement in the United States, 1920–1945 (Philadelphia, 1989); Krieken, Robert van, Children and the State: Social Control and the Formation of Australian Child Welfare (Sydney, 1992); Gordon, Linda, Heroes of Their Own Lives: The Politics and History of Family Violence, Boston, 1880–1960 (New York, 1988); Labrum, Bronwyn, “Family Needs and Family Desires: Discretionary State Welfare in New Zealand, 1920–1970” (Ph.D. diss., Victoria University of Wellington, 2000).

96. See Abel, Hedwig, “Die rechtlichen Grundlagen der körperlichen Züchtigung im Deutschen Reich und in den deutschen Ländern,” Archiv für Soziale Hygiene und Demographie 4 (1929): 358–62.

97. de Swaan, Abram, The Management of Normality: Critical Essays in Health and Welfare (London, 1991), esp. 156–58. See also Schwartz, , Sozialistische Eugenik 241, and the literature (Niklas Luhmann, Stefan Breuer, Norbert Elias) cited there.

98. Again, Baumans formulation is revealing: for him, “making things better than they are” means making them “more pliable, obedient, willing to serve.” Modernity and Ambivalence, 39.

99. Schwartz, Michael, “Eugenik und Bevölkerungspolitik,” Archiv für Sozialgeschichte 32 (1992): 434; Weindling, , Health, 343 quoted in ibid., 440.

100. Detlev Peukert, “‘Rationalisierung’ zwischen utopischem Entwurf und krisenhafter Zurücknahme,” in idem, Max Webers Diagnose, 79, 81.

101. Bauman, , Modernity and Ambivalence, 8. For a similar view see Stepan, Nancy, “Race, Gender, Science, and Citizenship,” in Cultures of Empire, ed. Hall, Catherine (New York, 2000), esp. 68.

102. See for example Grossmann, , Reforming, 161; Schwartz, , Sozialistische Eugenik, esp. 1214; and the older discussions of British eugenics in Paul, Diane, “Eugenics and the Left,” Journal of the History of Ideas 45 (1984) and Freeden, Michael, “Eugenics and Progressive Thought: A Study in Ideological Affinity,” Historical Journal 22 (1979).

103. Möller, Hugo, “Massengesellschaft und Du-Vergessenheit,” Die Sammlung 9 (1954), quotation 575. There is a useful collection of critical essays on Weber in Lash, Scott and Whimster, Sam, eds., Max Weber, Rationality and Modernity, (London, 1987).

104. Friedrich Rothe, “Gedanken zu einem Jugendhilfegesetz,” Archiv des Deutschen Caritas-Verbandes, Rep. 319.4 (Sozialdienst Katholischer Frauen), no. E II.7, fasc. 4. On earlier critiques of Nazi modernity, see Schildt, , “NS-Regime” 5.

105. Foucault, , History of Sexuality, 93, 147.

106. See for example Bergmann, Anna, Die verhütete Sexualität (Hamburg, 1992); Hagemann, Karen, Frauenalltag und Männerpolitik (Bonn, 1990).

107. Grossmann, , Reforming, 18, 44, 47, 61.

108. See Suval, Stanley, Electoral Politics in Wilhelmine Germany (Chapel Hill, 1985) and Anderson, Margaret, Practicing Democracy: Elections and Political Culture in Imperial Germany (Princeton, 2000). There is a good discussion of these issues in Geoff Eley, “The Social Construction.”

109. Eisenstadt, , “Multiple,” 5. For an even more positive assessment of “Western modernity,” see Taylor, Charles, “Modern Social Imaginaries,” Public Culture 14 (2002): esp. 92, 99, 103.

110. See Fritzsche, , “Did Weimar Fail?,” 638; also his Germans and Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany (New York, 1990).

111. See de Grazia, Victoria, How Fascism Ruled Women (Berkeley, 1992), 3.

112. Peukert, , “Genesis,” 242, 236.

113. This is an issue addressed in Dickinson, Edward Ross, “The Men's Christian Morality Movement in Germany, 1880–1914: Some Reflections on Sex, Politics, and Sexual Politics,” Journal of Modern History 75 (2003).

114. Weingart, et al. , Rasse, 287 (quotation), 363–64; Richter, , Katholizismus, 201; Weiss, , “The Race Hygiene Movement,” 26.

115. See Broberg, Gunnar and Roll-Hansen, Nils, eds., Eugenics and the Welfare State: Sterilization Policy in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland (East Lansing, 1996).

116. Donzelot, Philippe, The Policing of Families (New York, 1979), 174–75, 187.

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  • ISSN: 0008-9389
  • EISSN: 1569-1616
  • URL: /core/journals/central-european-history
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