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Neue Westpolitik: The Clandestine Campaign to Westernize the SPD in Cold War Berlin, 1948–1958

  • Scott H. Krause (a1)
Abstract

This article focuses on the joint campaign of “remigrés” and American authorities to “westernize” the local Social Democratic Party (SPD) in Berlin during the early Cold War. The years 1948 to 1958 witnessed one of postwar Germany's most bitter intraparty struggles for leadership within the Berlin SPD, where a faction of remigrés led by Ernst Reuter and Willy Brandt wrestled for control with the so-called Keulenriege around Franz Neumann. Examining clandestine American support for the remigré faction, which included favorable media coverage and considerable financial contributions, this article focuses in particular on the political maneuvering of a German-American network around Shepard Stone, political advisor to U.S. Commissioner John McCloy. An investigation of the postwar power struggle within the Berlin SPD offers fresh perspectives on three related subjects: the role of remigrés in postwar Germany history; the political clout of informal German-American networks; and West Berlin as an alternative laboratory of German democratization.

Dieser Aufsatz thematisiert einen Machtkampf innerhalb der Berliner SPD in der Frühphase des Kalten Krieges. In einer gemeinsamen Kampagne versuchten sog. „remigrés“ - Remigranten aus dem Exil - und amerikanische Behörden, eine Westbindung der Partei gegen innere Widerstände durchzusetzen. Zwischen 1948 und 1958 entbrannte eine der erbittertsten innerparteilichen Auseinandersetzungen der Nachkriegszeit, bei der eine von Ernst Reuter und Willy Brandt geleitete Fraktion von „remigrés“ mit der sogenannten Keulenriege um Franz Neumann um die Führung der Berliner SPD rang. Indem dieser Aufsatz die verdeckte amerikanische Unterstützung für die „remigré“-Fraktion rekonstruiert, beleuchtet er vor allem die politischen Manöver eines deutsch-amerikanischen Netzwerkes um Shepard Stone, den politischen Berater des amerikanischen Hochkommissar John McCloy. Eine Untersuchung des Machtkampfes innerhalb der Berliner SPD der Nachkriegszeit eröffnet dabei neue Perspektiven auf drei zusammenhängende Themen: die Rolle von „remigrés“ in der deutschen Nachkriegsgeschichte, der politische Einfluss informeller deutsch-amerikanischer Netzwerke und West-Berlin als alternatives Labor der deutschen Demokratisierung.

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1 This article employs the term remigrés, i.e., those who “re-migrate,” to illustrate how they drew from their foreign experiences after returning—an idea highlighted in Bauerkämper, Arnd, “Americanisation as Globalisation? Remigrés to West Germany after 1945 and Conceptions of Democracy: The Cases of Hans Rothfels, Ernst Fraenkel, and Hans Rosenberg,” Leo Baeck Institute Year Book 49 (2004): 153–54. The return of exiles to Germany has been the topic of scholarship for decades. See, e.g., Edinger, Lewis J., German Exile Politics: The Social Democratic Executive Committee in the Nazi Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1956), 231–43. More recent scholarship has turned to the concept of émigré to overcome false dichotomies between “exile” and “emigration,” and to focus instead on émigrés and remigrés as cultural translators; see Krohn, Claus-Dieter, “Preface,” in Exilforschungen im historischen Prozess, ed. Krohn, Claus-Dieter and Winckler, Lutz (Munich: Edition Text + Kritik, 2012), xiii.

2 For the genealogy and genesis of the “outpost of freedom” narrative, see Eisenhuth, Stefanie and Krause, Scott H., “Inventing the ‘Outpost of Freedom’: Transatlantic Narratives and the Historical Actors Crafting West Berlin's Postwar Political Culture,” Zeithistorische Forschungen/Studies in Contemporary History 11, no. 2 (2014): 188211.

3 Neumann was tortured in the infamous Columbia Haus concentration camp in 1934 and spent another year and a half in jail during the Third Reich. See Landesarchiv Berlin (LAB), C Rep 118-01, A 2138 Opfer des Fascismus (OdF)-Verfahren Franz Neumann. For Neumann's political socialization, see Hurwitz, Harold, Demokratie und Antikommunismus in Berlin nach 1945. Die Anfänge des Widerstands, vol. 4 (Cologne: Wissenschaft und Politik, 1990), 2023.

4 Heimann, Siegfried, “Politische Remigranten in Berlin,” in Rückkehr und Aufbau nach 1945. Deutsche Remigranten im öffentlichen Leben Nachkriegsdeutschlands, ed. Krohn, Claus-Dieter and von zur Mühlen, Patrik (Marburg: Metropolis, 1997), 192–93.

5 Brandt, Willy, “Referat auf dem Landesparteitag der Berliner SPD, 12. Juni 1954,” in Willy Brandt, Berliner Ausgabe, vol. 3 (Berlin bleibt frei. Politik in und für Berlin, 1947–1966), ed. Grebing, Helga, et al. (Bonn: J. H. W. Dietz Nachfolger, 2004), 157.

6 Neumann made inquires in Stockholm as early as February 1948 about Brandt's conduct during emigration; see the correspondence in LAB, E Rep 300-90, 555 Nachlass Franz Neumann, Material von und zu Willy Brandt. In the early 1950s, Neumann was in contact with Arno Scholz, editor of Der Telegraf, in an effort to halt Brandt's ascent; see LAB, E Rep 300-90, 195 Nachlass Franz Neumann, Tätigkeit in der SPD, letter from Franz Neumann to Arno Scholz, Nov. 5, 1957.

7 LAB, E Rep 300-90, 385 Nachlass Franz Neumann, transcript of Radio in the American Sector/RIAS-Sendung von Volker Hucklenbroich, Sept. 30, 1957.

8 For Stone's career as a unique political conduit between U.S. and West German politics, see Berghahn, Volker R., America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe: Shepard Stone between Philanthropy, Academy, and Diplomacy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001).

9 The 1945-1946 struggle over a KPD-SPD merger anticipated both German political fragmentation and the political divisions of the Cold War. Neumann spearheaded a grass-roots movement in Berlin for a referendum among SPD members: over 80 percent of SPD members voted to retain the party's independence. See Hurwitz, Die Anfänge des Widerstands, vol. 4:1009–1222.

10 Reuter, Ernst, “Rede auf der Protestkundgebung vor dem Reichstagsgebäude am 9. September 1948 gegen die Vertreibung der Stadtverordnetenversammlung aus dem Ostsektor,” in Schriften, Reden, vol. 3 (Artikel, Briefe, Reden, 1946–1949), ed. Reichhardt, Hans J. (West Berlin: Propyläen, 1974), 477–79. For Ernst Reuter's biography, see Barclay, David E., Schaut auf diese Stadt. Der unbekannte Ernst Reuter (Berlin: Siedler, 2000).

11 Grötzner, Björn, Outpost of Freedom. Ernst Reuters Amerikareisen, 1949 bis 1953 (Berlin: be.bra, 2014), 813.

12 See Frei, Norbert, Adenauer's Germany and the Nazi Past: The Politics of Amnesty and Integration, trans. Golb, Joel (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002); Conze, Eckart, Frei, Norbert, Hayes, Peter, and Zimmermann, Moshe, Das Amt und die Vergangenheit. Deutsche Diplomaten im Dritten Reich und in der Bundesrepublik (Munich: Karl Blessing, 2010).

13 Krauss, Marita, Heimkehr in ein fremdes Land. Geschichte der Remigration nach 1945 (Munich: C. H. Beck, 2001), 18, 94-95.

14 See Berghahn, America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe.

15 Rott, Wilfried, Die Insel. Eine Geschichte West-Berlins 1948-1990 (Munich: C. H. Beck, 2009), 2744.

16 Merseburger, Peter, Willy Brandt, 1913–1992. Visionär und Realist (Munich: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 2002); Brandt, Willy, Links und Frei. Mein Weg 1930–1950 (Hamburg: Hoffmann und Campe, 1982).

17 United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collections (USHMM), Washington, DC, Accession Number 2002.296, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) Refugee Assistance Case Files, Case File 6999, case registration for Hans Hirschfeld, 1941-1947.

18 For Hirschfeld's biography, see Scott Krause, “Hans E. Hirschfeld,” in Transatlantic Perspectives, ed. Jan Logemann, http://www.transatlanticperspectives.org/entry.php?rec=146.

19 USHMM, Accession Number 2002.296, AFSC Refugee Assistance Case Files, Case File 6999, curriculum vitae for Hans Hirschfeld, 1945.

20 On the Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC), its escape route, and its dangers, see Klein, Anne, Flüchtlingspolitik und Flüchtlingshilfe 1940-1942. Varian Fry und die Komitees zur Rettung politisch Verfolgter in New York und Marseille (Berlin: Metropol, 2007), 251–88.

21 On the program of Neu Beginnen, see Edinger, German Exile Politics, 83-90.

22 For overviews on SPD subgroups in exile, see Potthoff, Heinrich and Miller, Susanne, The Social Democratic Party of Germany, 1848–2005 (Bonn: J. H. W. Dietz, 2006), 148–61; Brandt, Peter and Lehnert, Detlef, “Mehr Demokratie wagen”. Geschichte der Sozialdemokratie, 1830–2010 (Berlin: Vorwärts Buch, 2013), 150–60.

23 Archiv der sozialen Demokratie (AdsD), Bonn, Nachlass Paul Hertz, Film XXXI, letter from Hirschfeld to Hertz, Aug. 4, 1938.

24 Winkler, Michael, “Metropole New York,” in Metropolen des Exils, ed. Krohn, Claus-Dieter, et al. (Munich: Edition Text + Kritik, 2002), 179.

25 For the composition of the German Labor Delegation, see Potthoff and Miller, Social Democratic Party of Germany, 150. For Hirschfeld's association with Hertz and Neu Beginnen, see AdsD, Nachlass Paul Hertz, Film XX, “Aufruf an die demokratischen Deutschen in Südamerika,” Jan. 30, 1943.

26 Letter from Waldemar von Knoeringen to Hans Braun, Sept. 26, 1939, quoted in Mehringer, Hartmut, “Impulse auf die Modernisierung der SPD,” in Rückkehr und Aufbau nach 1945. Deutsche Remigranten im öffentlichen Leben Nachkriegsdeutschlands, ed. Krohn, Claus-Dieter and von zur Mühlen, Patrik (Marburg: Metropolis, 1997), 101.

27 Mehringer, Hartmut, Waldemar von Knoeringen, eine politische Biographie. Der Weg vom revolutionären Sozialismus zur sozialen Demokratie (Munich: K. G. Saur, 1989), 189–91; Mehringer, “Impulse,” 101.

28 Quoted in Behring, Rainer, Demokratische Außenpolitik für Deutschland. Die außenpolitischen Vorstellungen deutscher Sozialdemokraten im Exil, 1933–1945 (Düsseldorf: Droste, 1999), 305.

29 Heimann, “Politische Remigranten,” 192–96.

30 Behring, Demokratische Außenpolitik, 301.

31 Paul Hertz, “Letter to the Editor (‘Die Vorgänge in Frankreich’),” Aufbau, Feb. 23, 1940; AdsD, Nachlass Paul Hertz, Film XXX, Paul Hertz, “Erklärung,” March 30, 1940. In addition, Hertz sought publication of his declaration in the anti-Stalinist Paris-based Zukunft newspaper: see Archives Nationales, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, F7/15123 Die Zukunft, Folder H, Paul Hertz, “Lettre pour Willi Münzenberg,” March 30, 1940.

32 USHMM, curriculum vitae for Hans Hirschfeld, 1945 (see note 19).

33 For more information on the Research and Analysis Division, see Katz, Barry M., Foreign Intelligence: Research and Analysis in the Office of Strategic Services, 1942–1945 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989).

34 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 4/5 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, confidential memorandum on “Survey of Foreign Experts,” May 1, 1945; Rauner Special Collections Library, Dartmouth College (Dartmouth Special Collections), Hanover, NH, Shepard Stone Papers, ML-99, Series 2, WWII, 1941–1945, Box 3, Folder 72, memorandum from Charlotte Stone to John C. Hughes, May 15, 1945.

35 Stone and Hirschfeld would continue to correspond regularly for more than two decades, even when posted on opposite ends of the Atlantic; see LAB, E Rep 200-18, 4 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld.

36 Dartmouth Special Collections, Shepard Stone Papers, ML-99, Series 2, WWII, 1941–1945, Box 2, Folder 37, Extracts of orders, 1942, 1944–1945, induction notice, 1942. For Stone's postings in Europe, see the documents in Dartmouth Special Collections, Shepard Stone Papers, ML-99, Series 2, WWII, 1941–1945, Box 2, Folder 40.

37 Papers, ML-99, Series 2, WWII, 1941–1945, Box 3, Folder 66, letter from Shepard Stone to Charlotte Stone, May 8, 1945.

38 Dartmouth Special Collections, Shepard Stone Papers, ML-99, Series 3, Military Government, 1945–1946, Box 5, Folder 33, Correspondence, General A-G, 1945, memorandum from E. S. Biberfield to Stone, Nov. 21, 1945.

39 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, Nov. 9, 1946.

40 For the number of remigrés, see Mehringer, “Impulse,” 92. On their disoriented perceptions upon returning to Germany, see Krauss, Heimkehr, 42-49.

41 Hurwitz, Demokratie und Antikommunismus, 23.

42 Ibid., 863–1219.

43 On Kurt Schumacher, see Merseburger, Peter, Der schwierige Deutsche. Kurt Schumacher (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1995); Edinger, Lewis J., Kurt Schumacher: A Study in Personality and Political Behavior (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1965).

44 One estimate puts their number as low as twenty-five; see Heimann, “Politische Remigranten,” 190.

45 Barclay, Schaut auf diese Stadt, 189; Krauss, Heimkehr, 68-69.

46 Barclay, Schaut auf diese Stadt, 99-100, 209, 221.

47 Hurwitz, Demokratie und Antikommunismus, 23.

48 Merseburger, Willy Brandt, 275–79; Barclay, Schaut auf diese Stadt, 299-301.

49 LAB, E Rep 200-21, 172 Nachlass Ernst Reuter, letter of invitation from Ernst Reuter to Hans Hirschfeld, Aug. 8, 1949; AdsD, Nachlass Paul Hertz, Film XXXIII, letter of invitation from Reuter to Hertz, April 20, 1949.

50 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 3, Hans E. Hirschfeld, Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, Persönliche Papiere während der Emigration, Folder 8, letter from Hirschfeld to Verwaltungsbehörde der Jüdischen Gemeinde in Hamburg, Oct. 7, 1946; Paul Hertz, “Orbituary for Helene Hertz, Rebecca Meyer, and Rudi Meyer,” Aufbau, Dec. 7, 1945.

51 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/3 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Hirschfeld to Charlotte Thormann, May 17, 1950.

52 See, e.g., LAB, E Rep 300-62, 22 Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum “May Day Preparations,” April 27, 1950; LAB, E Rep 300-62, 5 Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum “A Few Remarks from Reuter and Hertz,” Feb. 15, 1951.

53 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letters between Hirschfeld and Stone, May 5, 1950, July 22, 1950, July 8, 1952, and Sept. 9, 1953.

54 See LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, Korrespondenz mit Stone.

55 For the RIAS mission in the East, see Galle, Petra, RIAS Berlin und Berliner Rundfunk 1945–1949. Die Entwicklung ihrer Profile in Programm, Personal und Organisation vor dem Hintergrund des beginnenden Kalten Krieges (Münster: LIT, 2003); Riller, Schanett, Funken für die Freiheit. Die U.S.-amerikanische Informationspolitik gegenüber der DDR (Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2004).

56 See Information S. D. H. Research Analysis Branch, Report No. 4, Series No. 2: “RIAS and Its Listeners in Western Berlin,” Feb. 8, 1950, in Die West-Berliner Öffentlichkeit vom Kalten Krieg bis zur Entspannungspolitik, ed. Harold Hurwitz (2007), http://www.gesis.org/en/services/data-analysis/survey-data/special-data-collections/hurwitz-berlin-after-1945/

57 LAB, E Rep 300-62, 54 Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum “NZ and Hereafter,” Dec. 15, 1954.

58 Cf. Galle, RIAS Berlin und Berliner Rundfunk 1945–1949.

59 LAB, B Rep 002, 8640, Der Regierende Bürgermeister von Berlin–Senatskanzlei–RIAS Berlin, 1949–1957, letters from Taylor to Reuter, Oct. 1, 1949, and May 10, 1950.

60 Underlining in original; see LAB, E Rep 200-18, 43/4, Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Hirschfeld to Taylor, Dec. 16, 1953.

61 BStU Berlin, MfS ZAIG, Nr. 9961, Pamphlet “Ein Mann kam nach Berlin,” 1956 (p. 108).

62 Bundesarchiv Berlin (BAB), SAPMO DY/30/IV 2/10.02/169 Zentrales Parteiarchiv der SED, ZK, Westabteilung, 207, memorandum of the Abteilung Massenorgane (A), “Bericht über den außerordentlichen Landesparteitag der SPD,” June 22, 1957.

63 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 12/3, Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Rudolf Kettlein to Hirschfeld, March 1, 1954.

64 Deutsches Rundfunkarchiv Babelsberg (DRAB), J204-00-02/0001 F0116 Programmfahnen, Oct. 29, 1950–Jan. 25, 1955.

65 DRAB, J304-04-01/0001 F0117 Programmfahnen, Jan. 26, 1955–July 8, 1958, Programm-Hinweis, June 22, 1955.

66 LAB, E Rep 300-62, 77 Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum “Conversation with Willy Brandt,” Nov. 23, 1956.

67 Merseburger, Willy Brandt, 299-300.

68 LAB, E Rep 300-90, 555 Nachlass Franz Neumann, letter from Brandt to Neumann, May 16, 1950.

69 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, May 30, 1950.

70 Ibid., letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, May 31, 1950.

71 AdsD, Willy-Brandt-Archiv (WBA), A6, 1/WBA-BER-0009, letter from Brandt to Peter Tennant, May 3, 1950.

72 Brandt and Stone would remain friends for the rest of their lives. Brandt wrote a congratulatory note on the occasion of Stone's eightieth birthday; see Brandt, Willy, “Lieber Freund . . .,” in Ein Buch der Freunde. Shepard Stone zum Achtzigsten, ed. Scholl, Inge Aicher (West Berlin: Siedler, 1988), 73.

73 LAB, E Rep 200–18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, May 31, 1950.

74 Merseburger, Willy Brandt, 408–14.

75 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, July 12, 1950.

76 Ibid., Vermerk Hans Hirschfeld, July 20, 1950.

77 Ibid., Vermerk Hans Hirschfeld, July 21, 1950.

78 Ibid.

79 Ibid., Vermerk Hans Hirschfeld, July 28, 1950.

80 Ibid. The great secrecy surrounding the contract is a main reason for its late emergence. According to Hirschfeld, Brandt held on to the remigrés' copy of the contract, which never resurfaced; Ernst Reuter, the intended reader of Hirschfeld's memoranda, died unexpectedly in 1953 without making arrangements for the preservation of his personal and professional documents. Reuter's surviving papers, housed in the Landesarchiv Berlin, are silent about any direct American support, but the bulk of the material was donated to the Landesarchiv in the 1970s by Brandt himself, after he had co-written the first biography on Reuter: Brandt, Willy and Löwenthal, Richard, Ernst Reuter. Ein Leben für die Freiheit. Eine politische Biographie (Munich: Kindler, 1957).

81 National Archives College Park (NACP), RG 84: Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State, Top Secret Subject Files, 1953–1958, Bonn Embassy, Germany, Lot No. 61, F23, Box 1.

82 Berghahn, America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe, 215–18.

83 LAB, E Rep 200-21, 243 Nachlass Ernst Reuter, Bürgermeister Reuter-Stiftung, Annual Report for FY2 (April 1, 1954–March 31, 1955), March 31, 1955.

84 AdsD, WBA, A6, 1/WBA-BER-0008, letter from Brandt to James Ridder, Aug. 19, 1950.

85 For Hirschfeld's draft, see LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, Entwurf für BS ERP Ausgabe, Aug. 1950; Ernst Reuter, “Brennpunkt der Weltpolitik,” Berliner Stadtblatt (BS), Aug. 20, 1950.

86 Willy Brandt, “Marshall- oder Molotow-Plan,” BS, Aug. 20, 1950.

87 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, Vermerk Hans Hirschfeld, Aug. 29, 1950.

88 Ibid., letters from Shepard Stone to Hans Hirschfeld, Nov. 30, 1950, and Jan. 25, 1951; letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, Jan. 13, 1951.

89 Ibid., letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, Jan. 13, 1951.

90 Ibid., letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, Oct. 5, 1950.

91 Berghahn, America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe, 68-76.

92 For the legal stipulations of HICOG loans to the West German press, see Ibid., 69.

93 AdsD, WBA, A6, 1/WBA-BER-0009, Geschäftsübersicht, March 1950 and April 1950.

94 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, Vermerk Hans Hirschfeld, July 28, 1950.

95 Rathenau, Walther, “Die schönste Stadt der Welt,” in Impressionen, ed. Rathenau, Walther (Leipzig: Hirzel, 1902), 144.

96 Willy Brandt, “Von der Idee zur realen Gestalt. Marshall und Clay–zwei Helfer Berlins,” BS, Oct. 29, 1950.

97 LAB, B Rep 002, 3201, HICOG press release, July 9, 1952.

98 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Stone to Hirschfeld, Oct. 27, 1952.

99 Ibid., letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, Sept. 22, 1953.

100 See Berghahn, America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe, 215.

101 Reuters, “Aides of McCarthy Open Bonn Inquiry,” New York Times, April 7, 1953.

102 Reuters, “Aide of M'Carthy Scored on Charge,” New York Times, April 9, 1953.

103 See C.P. Trussell, “Kaghan Tells McCarthy Unit He Has Fought Reds Decade,” New York Times, April 30, 1953; LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, May 22, 1953.

104 Shepard Stone, “Our Program in Germany: Kaghan and Wallenberg Praised for Contributions to Results Achieved,” New York Times, May 11, 1953.

105 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, May 22, 1953.

106 “McCarthy Calls 23 for Book Inquiry,” New York Times, June 28, 1953; George C. Marshall Library, Lexington, VA, Gordon Ewing Collection, Box 1, Folder 3, letter from Stone to Gordon Ewing, July 21, 1953.

107 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letters from Hirschfeld to Stone, May 22, 1953 and Oct. 10, 1953.

108 Ibid., letter from Stone to Hirschfeld, Nov. 11, 1953.

109 Ibid.

110 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 11/3-4 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld Amtsgeschäfte, eulogy for Ernst Reuter by Willy Brandt, Oct. 1, 1953.

111 LAB, E Rep 300-62, 77 Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum “Some Interesting Remarks Made by Dr. Klein (SPD), Formerly Senator for Federal Affairs (Plus a Few Remarks from Ex-Senator Bach),” Dec. 28, 1953.

112 Heimann, Siegfried, “Einleitung,” in Willy Brandt, Berliner Ausgabe, vol. 3 (Berlin bleibt frei. Politik in und für Berlin, 1947–1966), ed. Grebing, Helga, et al. (Bonn: J. H. W. Dietz Nachfolger, 2004), 28.

113 Merseburger, Willy Brandt, 312.

114 LAB, E Rep 200-21, 284 Nachlass Ernst Reuter, letter from Brandt to Hanna Reuter, Aug. 5, 1954. Brandt reiterated this martial phrasing in a letter to Hirschfeld two weeks later; see LAB, E Rep 200-18, 27/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Brandt to Hirschfeld, Aug. 17, 1954.

115 BAB, SAPMO DY/30/IV 2/10.02/98 Zentrales Parteiarchiv der SED, ZK, Westabteilung, 153, memorandum “Weitere Enthüllungen über die ungeheuerliche Tätigkeit der amerikanischen Fraktion in der SPD,” June 12, 1954.

116 LAB, E Rep 300-62, 77 Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum “Willy Brandt Blows the Blues (an informed observeress [sic] prodded this out of Willy),” Oct. 26, 1954.

117 Merseburger, Willy Brandt, 329.

118 LAB, E Rep 300-62, 77 Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum “Dr. Hirschfeld after the Elections,” Dec. 7, 1954.

119 Berghahn, America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe, 178.

120 See Merseburger, Willy Brandt, 126–49, 341.

121 See, e.g., LAB, E Rep 300-62, 77 Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum “Sidelights to the SPD Convention on May 22, 1955,” June 10, 1955; LAB, E Rep 300-62, 68, Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum “SPD Public Meeting in Wedding,” Aug. 31, 1955; LAB, E Rep 300-62, 77 Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum “Willy Brandt Not Resigning His Bundestag Seat,” Sept. 28, 1955.

122 See, e.g., LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Stone to Hirschfeld, July 19,1956.

123 LAB, E Rep 300-62, 77 Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum handwritten by Mautner in English, “W.B.,” June 8, 1956.

124 LAB, E Rep 300-62, 77 Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum “Willy Brandt about SPD Trends in East-West Thinking,” May 31, 1956.

125 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, Oct. 10, 1956.

126 See LAB, E Rep 300-90, 195 Nachlass Franz Neumann, letter from Adolf Arndt to Neumann, Sept. 19, 1957.

127 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, letter from Hirschfeld to Stone, Sept. 23,1957.

128 LAB, E Rep 300-90, 195 Nachlass Franz Neumann, handwritten note by Neumann during executive meeting, postdated Sept. 18, 1957.

129 LAB, E Rep 300-62, 68 Nachlass Karl F. Mautner, memorandum “Again: SPD ‘Inside’ Info,” Nov. 8, 1957.

130 Merseburger, Willy Brandt, 342.

131 See the reports in AdsD, WBA, A6 1/WBA-BER-0085 Auslandsreisen.

132 See Michel, Judith, Willy Brandts Amerikabild und -politik, 1933–1992 (Göttingen: V&R unipress, 2010), 138.

133 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, telegrams from Stone to Brandt, and from Brandt to Stone, June 21, 1958.

134 LAB, E Rep 200-18, 34/1 Nachlass Hans Hirschfeld, note from Hirschfeld to Stone, “Willkommen für einen Freund,” June 1958.

135 BAB, SAPMO DY/30/IV 2/10.02/98 Zentrales Parteiarchiv der SED, ZK, Westabteilung, 149–70, memorandum, “Die amerikanischen Fraktion in der Sozialdemokratie,” Nov. 23, 1953; memorandum “Weitere Enthüllungen über die ungeheuerliche Tätigkeit der amerikanischen Fraktion in der SPD,” June 12, 1954. Also see Barclay, Schaut auf diese Stadt, 326.

Research for this article has been supported by fellowships from the DAAD and the German Historical Institute in Washington, DC. I am indebted to Konrad H. Jarausch for his encouragement and suggestions. Volker Berghahn has given advice on Shepard Stone's network of contacts. I would like to thank Nicole Bauer, Stefanie Eisenhuth, Michael Hochgeschwender, Mark W. Hornburg, Susan Dabney Pennybacker, Donald M. Reid, Meik Woyke, and the two anonymous readers for their important suggestions. This article also draws upon helpful feedback I received from the members of the 2013 GSA panel “Auferstanden aus Ruinen?,” especially from commentator William G. Gray.

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