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Whining and Winning: Male Narratives of Love, Marriage, and Divorce in the Shadow of the Third Reich

  • Elissa Mailänder (a1)
Abstract

This article analyzes the social realities that Austrian and German heterosexual men, all in their reproductive age, confronted in the aftermath of World War II; the kind of sexual and gendered configurations produced under Nazism and during the postwar period; and the ways in which these social and emotional realities were publically and privately dealt with after the war. It draws on reports in, and letters-to-the-editor of, the journal Liebe und Ehe from 1949 to 1951, as well as on a sample of fourteen private letters written by an Austrian policeman in 1951 about his love relationship with a nurse. Such early postwar narratives not only point at issues and conflicts between the sexes, but also suggest the rehabilitation of traditional gender roles in West Germany and Austria. Men struggled to conform to new guidelines of heterosexual domesticity, a development that hints not only at traumatic war experiences, but also at the ideological residuals of Nazism.

Dieser Beitrag untersucht die geschlechterspezifischen Probleme, mit denen sich deutsche und österreichische heterosexuelle Männer im zeugungsfähigen Alter nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg konfrontiert sahen. Der Nationalsozialismus und die Nachkriegszeit schufen jeweils spezifische gesellschaftliche und sexualitätspolitische Realitäten, die nach dem Krieg, emotional aufgeladen, privat wie öffentlich ausgehandelt wurden. Als Quellengrundlage dienen Berichte und Leserbriefe der Zeitschrift „Liebe und Ehe” aus den Jahren 1949 bis 1951 sowie eine Reihe privater Briefe eines österreichischen Polizisten über seine Liebesbeziehung mit einer Krankenschwester aus dem Jahr 1951. Diese Texte aus der frühen Nachkriegszeit weisen nicht nur auf Probleme und Konflikte zwischen den Geschlechtern hin, sie zeigen auch, wie es in Westdeutschland und Österreich zu einer Rehabilitierung traditioneller Geschlechterrollen kam. Männer hatten Schwierigkeiten, sich an die neuen Richtlinien heterosexueller Häuslichkeit anzupassen, was sich zum einen mit ihren traumatischen Kriegserfahrungen, aber auch mit ideologischen Rückständen des Nationalsozialismus erklärt.

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I wish to thank all those who read earlier versions of this article—first of all, to Jennifer L. Rodgers, who did an amazing job editing this article, and to the Direction Scientifique de Sciences Po for its generous funding. Many thanks to Thomas Kühne and Andrew Port for their constructive support, to Cyrille Jean for sharing his knowledge, and to the two anonymous peer reviewers who gave very useful feedback.

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1 Liebe und Ehe. Eine aktuelle Zeitschrift für Mann und Frau (henceforth Liebe und Ehe) 1 (1950): 33.

2 Müller, Philipp, Auf der Suche nach dem Täter. Die öffentliche Dramatisierung von Verbrechen im Berlin des Kaiserreichs (Frankfurt/Main: Campus 2005), 1332.

3 Moeller, Robert G., Protecting Motherhood: Women and the Family in the Politics of Postwar Germany (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 837; Niehuss, Merith, Familie, Frau und Gesellschaft. Studien zur Strukturgeschichte in Westdeutschland 1945–1950 (Göttingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, 2001), 3841.

4 These figures exclude Berlin, which had the highest divorce rates. See Heineman, Elizabeth D., What Difference Does a Husband Make? Women and Marital Status in Nazi and Postwar Germany (Berkeley: University of California Press 1999), 122–23 (see also Appendix, fig. A.3, p. 250). For Berlin, see Timm, Annette F., The Politics of Fertility in Twentieth-Century Berlin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 227–56.

5 Vaizey, Hester, Surviving Hitler's War: Family Life in Germany, 1939–48 (Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 135, 85.

6 Heineman, What Difference does a Husband Make, 108–75, 327–28; Herzog, Dagmar, Sex After Fascism: Memory and Morality in Tweniteh-Century Germany (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005), 65100.

7 Biess, Frank, Homecomings: Returning POWs and the Legacies of Defeat in Postwar Germany (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2006), 85152. See also Goltermann, Svenja, Die Gesellschaft der Überlebenden. Deutsche Kriegsheimkehrer und ihre Gewalterfahrungen im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Munich: DVA, 2009), 4794.

8 Ernst Hanisch was one of the first to establish a typology of (Austrian) masculinities conceptualizing the Berufsmensch, or Homo Faber. See Hanisch, Ernst, Männlichkeiten. Eine andere Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts (Vienna: Böhlau, 2005), 353–84; see also Moeller, Robert G., “Heimkehr ins Vaterland: Die Remaskulinisierung Westdeutschlands in den fünfziger Jahren,” Militärgeschichtliche Zeitschrift 60, no. 2 (2001): 403–36.

9 Connell, R. W., “The Social Organization of Masculinity,” in Masculinities, 2nd ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), 6786 [originally published in 1995].

10 The Decker Verlag published the German edition of the Kinsey Report. See Kallwitz, C., Das Sexualleben des Mannes, nach den Ergebnissen des Kinsey-Reports (Regensburg: F. Decker Verlag für Sexual-Literatur, 1951).

11 Initiated by the Americans and concomitantly introduced by the Western allies, the currency reform replaced the reichsmark with the deutschmark on June 20, 1948.

12 Liebe und Ehe 1 (1949): 1.

13 This applies, most prominently, to grievances and petitions of pardon, but also to commercial or political reports that aim to be rational and objectif. See Stoler, Ann, Along the Archival Grain: Epistemic Anxieties and Colonial Common Sense (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010), 1553.

14 Davis, Natalie Zemon, Fiction in the Archives: Pardon Tales and Their Tellers in Sixteenth-Century France (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1987), 5.

15 Leujeune, Philippe, “Le pacte autobiographique,” Poétique 14 (1973): 137–62.

16 Bänziger, Peter-Paul, Sex als Problem. Körper und Intimbeziehungen in Briefen an die “Liebe Marta” (Frankfurt/Main: Campus, 2010), 103.

17 Liebe und Ehe 1 (1950): 33.

18 Deutsches Zentralinstitut für Soziale Fragen (DZI) 20809, Die Innere Mission 3 (1950), quoted by Vaizey, Surviving Hitler's War, 83.

19 Heineman, What Difference Does a Husband Make, 108.

20 Ibid., 119.

21 “Unser Rechtsberater sagt,” Liebe und Ehe 1 (1950): 33.

22 For both figures, see Heineman, What Difference Does a Husband Make, 122–23, 291.

23 Liebe und Ehe 1 (1950): 33.

24 “Ihre Sorge—unser Rat,” Liebe und Ehe 1 (1950): 34.

25 Meißner, Helmut, “Das Problem der Dreiecksehe,” Liebe und Ehe 1 (1950): 6; idem, “Das Problem der Dreiecksehe,” Liebe und Ehe 7 (1950): 16. See also “Professor Moritz versuchte die Ehe zu Dritt,” and “Zwischen Tragödie und Komödie. Walter von Hollander zum Fall Professor Moritz,” Stern, Nov. 29, 1949; “Fräulein Duggen ausziehen,” Der Spiegel, Nov. 3, 1949.

26 Liebe und Ehe 1 (1950): 6.

27 Ibid.

28 Ibid.

29 Landesarchiv Schleswig, Personalakten Professor Dr. Otto M, Abt. 47 Acc. 16/08, Nr. 102/2.

30 Gesetz zur Vereinheitlichung des Rechts der Eheschließung und der Ehescheidung im Lande Österreich und im übrigen Reichsgebiet, July 6, 1938, RGBl. I, 807.

31 Herzog, Sex after Fascism, 80.

32 Heinrich Himmler started a serious relationship with his secretary Hedwig Potthast in December 1938, and deliberately decided in 1940 to have children with what he called his “second wife.” Rudolf Heß also put pronatalism before marriage. See Longerich, Peter, Akten der Partei-Kanzlei der NSDAP. Rekonstruktion eines verlorengegangenen Bestandes, vol. 3: Akten der Partei-Kanzlei der NSDAP (Berlin: De Gruyter/Saur, 2015), 206; idem, Heinrich Himmler Biographie (Munich: Siedler, 2008), 346, 365–95. See also Himmler, Katrin and Wildt, Michael, eds., The Private Heinrich Himmler: Letters of a Mass Murderer (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2016), 1011.

33 Timm, Politics of Fertility, 80–117; Lilienthal, Georg, Der “Lebensborn e.V.”: Ein Instrument nationalsozialistischer Rassenpolitik (Frankfurt/Main: Fischer, 2008), 131–59.

34 In his Kinderzeugungsbefehl (“edict to procreate”), Himmler called on SS men to enter into a second marriage and have children—without dissolving the first marriage and with the first wife keeping all her legal rights. See the SS-Befehl für die gesamte SS und Polizei, Berlin (Oct. 28, 1939), in Himmler, Heinrich, Geheimreden 1933 bis 1945 und andere Ansprachen, ed. Peterson, Agnes F. and Smith, Bradley F. (Berlin: Propyläen, 1974), 116.

35 Timm, Politics of Fertility, 14–21.

36 Gesetz zur Vereinheitlichung des Rechts der Eheschließung und der Ehescheidung im Lande Österreich und im übrigen Reichsgebiet, July 6, 1938, RGBl. I (1938), 807–23.

37 Liebe und Ehe 1 (1950): 6.

38 On the experiences of bombing raids in Germany, see Süß, Dietmar, Tod aus der Luft. Kriegsgesellschaft und Luftkrieg in Deutschland und England (Munich: Sielder, 2011), 319482.

39 Mouton, Michelle, From Nurturing the Nation to Purifying the Volk: Weimar and Nazi Family Policy, 1918–1945 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 8687.

40 Landesarchiv Schleswig, Abt. 47 Nr. 6864, Schreiben SS-Hauptsturmführer Dr. Fischer, Berlin, Jan. 24, 1945.

41 Liebe und Ehe 1 (1950): 6

42 Ibid.

43 “Was halten sie vom Frauenüberschuss?,” Liebe und Ehe 1 (1949): 13; see also Liebe und Ehe 1 (1950): 30; Liebe und Ehe 2 (1950): 10. Atina Grossmann refers to a 1945 census that reported an overall population of 2,600,000, of which 60 percent were women. See Grossmann, Atina, Jews, Germans, and Allies: Close Encounters in Occupied Germany (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007), 2.

44 Liebe und Ehe 7 (1950): 16.

45 Landesarchiv Schleswig, Abt. 47 Nr. 6864, Abschrift Urteil Dienstkammerstrafverfahren gegen Otto M., July 20, 1951.

46 Grossmann, Atina, Reforming Sex: The German Movement for Birth Control and Abortion Reform, 1920–1950 (Oxford: Oxford Univerity Press, 1995), 4677, 189–216; Timm, Politics of Fertility, 80–156, 227–56.

47 Drawing upon readers' letters addressed to the popular sexual consultant and columnist Marta Emmenegger, the Swiss historian concluded that, in the 1980s and 1990s, male and female readers still disproportionately mentioned problems related to the sexual health of women more often than to male sexual health issues. See Bänziger, Sex als Problem, 130.

48 Ibid., 129; Foucault, Michel, The History of Sexuality, vol. 3: The Care of Self, trans. Hureley, Robert (London: Penguin 1988); idem, Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault, ed. Luther H. Martin, Huck Gutman, and Patrick H. Hutton (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988), 16–49.

49 Liebe und Ehe 2 (1950): 4–6.

50 Ibid.

51 Ibid.

52 Ibid.

53 April Trask, “Remaking Men: Masculinity, Homosexuality and Constitutional Medicine in Germany, 1914–1933,” German History 36, no. 2 (2018): 182.

54 Sengoopta, Chandak, The Most Secret Quintessence of Life: Sex, Glands, and Hormones, 1850–1950 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 85.

55 Liebe und Ehe 7 (1950): 27; Fritzsche, Peter, A Nation of Fliers: German Aviation and the Popular Imagination (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992).

56 Rogg, Matthias, “Die Luftwaffe im NS-Propagandafilm,” in Krieg und Militär im Film des 20. Jahrhunderts, ed. Chiari, Bernhard, Rogg, Matthias, and Schmidt, Wolfgang (Oldenbourg: De Gruyter 2003), 343–48; see also Schüler-Springorum, Stefanie, “Flying and Killing: Military Masculinity in German Pilot Literature, 1914–1939,” in Home/Front: The Military, War and Gender in Twentieth-Century Germany, ed. Hagemann, Karen and Schüler-Springorum, Stefanie (Frankfurt/Main: Campus, 2002), 205–32.

57 See, e.g., the 1941 action movie and blockbuster STUKAS, a UFA production by Karl Ritter.

58 Liebe und Ehe 2 (1950): 4.

59 Ibid.

60 Steinach, Eugen, Sex and Life: Forty Years of Biological and Medical Experiments (New York: Viking Press, 1940), 75. See Trask, “Remaking Men,” 4–6.

61 Werner, Frank, “Es ist alles verkehrt in der Welt.” Agnes und Albert Neuhaus: Eine Ehe als Leistungsgemeinschaft im Krieg,” in Geschlechterbeziehungen und “Volksgemeinschaft,” ed. Latzel, Klaus, Mailänder, Elissa, and Maubach, Franka (Göttingen: Wallstein, 2018), 175–96.

62 Liebe und Ehe 2 (1950): 5.

63 Ibid.

64 Voronoff, Serge, Vivre: étude des moyens de relever l'énergie vitale et de prolonger la vie (Paris: Grasset, 1920); see also Voronoff, Serge, La Greffe testiculaire du singe à l'homme. Technique opératoire, manifestations physiologiques, évolution histologique, statistique (Paris: Doin, 1930), 6980. I thank Cyrille Jean for having brought Voronoff's work to my attention.

65 Virgili, Fabrice, Naître ennemi. Les enfants de couples franco-allemands nés pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale (Paris: Payot, 2009), 98142, 171–90, 249–316.

66 Bänziger, Sex als Problem, 196; Rothman, Seila M. and Rothman, David J., The Pursuit of Perfection: The Promise and Perils of Medical Enhancement (New York: Pantheon Books, 2003).

67 Liebe und Ehe 2 (1950): 5.

68 Ibid.

69 Butler, Judith, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (London: Routledge, 2007), 910, 30–31; Mühlhäuser, Eroberungen, 30–47; Kühne, Thomas, The Rise and Fall of Comradeship: Hitler's Soldiers, Male Bonding and Mass Violence in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2017), 114.

70 See, e.g., Bundesarchiv Berlin Lichterfelde, NS7 – 267, Rost, Dr. Joachim, “Sexuelle Probleme im Felde”, Medizinische Welt, no. 15/16 (1944): 26.

71 What the Wehrmacht was most concerned about were not moral issues such as adultery, but rather the medical safety of its soldiers and their families, as well as the prevention of unwanted pregnancies with enemy women judged to be racially “inferior.” See Meinen, Insa, Wehrmacht und Prostitution während des Zweiten Weltkriegs im besetzten Frankreich (Bremen: Edition Temmen, 2002); Mühlhäuser, Eroberungen, 175–239, 317–31; Röger, Maren, Kriegsbeziehungen: Intimität, Gewalt und Prostitution im besetzten Polen 1939 bis 1945 (Frankfurt/Main: Fischer, 2015), 2758, 75–167.

72 Mühlhäuser, Regina, “Reframing Sexual Violence as a Weapon and Strategy of War: The Case of the German Wehrmacht during the War and Genocide in the Soviet Union, 1941–1944,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 26, no. 3 (2017): 366401. Historians have calculated that two hundred thousand children were born from consensual or enforced relationships between French women and German men over the entire occupation period. See Herzog, Dagmar, Sexuality in Europe: A Twentieth-Century History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 90.

73 Liebe und Ehe 2 (1950): 5.

74 Virgili, Fabrice, Shorn Women: Gender and Punishment in Liberation France (Oxford: Berg, 2002), 75112.

75 Liebe und Ehe 2 (1950): 5.

76 Ibid.

77 Ibid.

78 Ibid.

79 Ibid.

80 For a general overview and a case study of Berlin, see Steege, Paul, Black Market, Cold War: Everyday Life in Berlin, 1946–1949 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

81 Liebe und Ehe 2 (1950): 5.

82 Ibid.

83 Ibid.

84 Ibid.

85 Abelshauser, Werner, Deutsche Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Von 1945 bis zur Gegenwart (Munich: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2011), 126–29.

86 Liebe und Ehe 2 (1950): 6.

87 Liebe und Ehe 7 (1950): 26–27.

88 Ibid.

89 Liebe und Ehe 5 (1950): 25.

90 Ibid.

91 Ibid.

92 Ibid., 26.

93 Ibid.

94 Ibid., 25–26.

95 Ibid., 27.

96 Kühne, Rise and Fall of Comradeship, 124–28, 174–78.

97 Herzog, Sex After Fascism, 101–7.

98 Connell, R. W., “Swots and Wimps: The Interplay of Masculinity and Education,” Oxford Review of Education 15, no. 3 (1989): 295.

99 Connell, Raewyn and Messerschmidt, James W., “Hegemonic masculinity: rethinking the concept,” Gender and Society 19, no. 6 (2005): 836.

100 Eley, Geoff, “The Return of Ideology: Everyday Life, the Volksgemeinschaft, and the Nazi Appeal,” in Nazism as Fascism: Violence, Ideology, and the Ground of Consent in Germany 1930–1945 (New York: Routledge, 2013), 59130. For a general overview, see Gotto, Bernhard and Steber, Martina, eds., Visions of Community in Nazi Germany: Social Engineering and Private Lives (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014); Bajohr, Frank and Wildt, Michael, eds., Volksgemeinschaft. Neue Forschungen zur Gesellschaft des Nationalsozialismus (Frankfurt/Main: Fischer Taschenbuch, 2009).

101 Moeller, Robert G., War Stories: The Search for a Usable Past in the Federal Republic of Germany (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 150; Biess, “Men of Reconstruction,” 335–58; idem, Homecomings, 52–69.

102 Herzog, Dagmar, “Sexual Morality in 1960 West Germany,” German History 23, no. 3 (2005): 371–84. For the link between violence and sexuality, see Mühlhäuser, Eroberungen, 28–58, 73–140; Röger, Kriegsbeziehungen, 9–26, 169–208.

103 Institut für Zeitgeschichte (IfZ), Vienna, Sammlung Frauennachlässe (SFN), Nachlass (NL) 147 II.

104 Ingrid Bauer and Christa Hämmerle, “Liebe und Paarbeziehungen im Zeitalter der Briefe—ein Forschungsprojekt im Kontext,” in Liebe schreiben. Paarkorrespondenzen des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, ed. Ingrid Bauer and Christa Hämmerle (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht), 9–47.

105 It is not clear from the correspondence when and where the two first met.

106 IfZ, Vienna, SFN, NL 147 II, letter from Hans to Marianne, Steinhaus, April 14, 1951.

107 Ibid., letter from Hans to Marianne, Steinhaus, June 11, 1951.

108 Ibid., letter from Hans to Marianne, Steinhaus, June 20, 1951.

109 Ibid.

110 Kühne, Rise and Fall of Comradeship, 84–87.

111 Meyer, Jennifer, “Mouvement völkisch et féminisme en Allemagne. Une approche intersectionnelle à partir de l'exemple de Sophie Rogge-Börner,” in Le premier féminisme allemand 1848–1933. Un mouvement social de dimension international, ed. Farges, Patrick and Saint-Gille, Anne-Marie (Paris: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion, 2013), 7790. See also Bitzan, Renate, Selbstbilder rechter Frauen: Zwischen Antisexismus und völkischem Denken (Tübingen: Diskord, 2000).

112 Brandhauer-Schöffmann, Irene, “Der ‘Christliche Ständestaat’ als Männerstaat? Frauen- und Geschlechterpolitik im Austrofaschismus,” in Austrofaschismus. Politik–Ökonomie–Kultur 1933–1938, ed. Tàlos, Emmerich and Neugebauer, Wolfgang (Vienna: LIT, 2014), 254–80.

113 In 1942, 71 percent of the women who gave birth in Lebensborn maternity wards were unmarried. See Lilienthal, Der “Lebensborn e. V., 63. Annette F. Timm is currently working on a project titled “Lebensborn: Myth, Memory, and the Sexualization of the Nazi Past.”

114 IfZ, Vienna, SFN, NL 147 II, letter from Hans to Marianne, Steinhaus, July 2, 1951.

115 Ibid.

116 Ibid.

117 IfZ, Vienna, SFN, NL 147 II, letter from Hans to Marianne, Steinhaus, July 3, 1951.

118 Ibid.

119 Ibid.

120 IfZ, Vienna, SFN, NL 147 II, letter Hans to Marianne, Steinhaus, July 6, 1951.

121 Hanisch, Männlichkeiten, 165–69.

122 IfZ, Vienna, SFN, NL 147 II, letter Hans to Marianne, Steinhaus, July 6, 1951.

123 Ibid.

124 Ibid.

125 Ibid.

126 IfZ, Vienna, SFN, NL 147 II, letter from Hans to Marianne, Steinhaus, Oct. 3, 1951.

127 Ibid.

128 IfZ, Vienna, SFN, NL 147 II, letter from Hans to Marianne, Steinhaus, Oct. 24, 1951.

129 IfZ, Vienna, SFN, NL 147 II, letter from Hans to Marianne, Steinhaus, Oct. 21, 1951.

130 See also ”Darf der Ehemann seiner Frau eine Berufsausübung verbieten?,” Liebe und Ehe 1 (1949): 37.

131 IfZ, Vienna, SFN, NL 147 II, letter from Hans to Marianne, Steinhaus, Oct. 21, 1951.

132 For the lover, see also the typology by Hanisch, Männlichkeiten, 206; Werner, “Es ist alles verkehrt in der Welt,” 175–96.

133 IfZ, Vienna, SFN, NL 147 II, Damenwahl (poem).

134 Maubach, Franka, Die Stellung halten. Kriegserfahrungen und Lebensgeschichten von Wehrmachthelferinnen (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2009), 4576, 299–308.

135 Herzog, Sex After Fascism, 27–63; Mühlhäuser, Regina, “Between ‘Racial Awareness’ and Fantasies of Potency: Nazi Sexual Politics in the Occupied Territories of the Soviet Union, 1942–1945,“ in Brutality and Desire: War and Sexuality in Europe's Twentieth Century, ed. Herzog, Dagmar (Basingstoke: Palgrave Mcmillan, 2009), 197220.

136 Kühne, Rise and Fall of Comradship, 17–214.

137 Hanisch, Männlichkeiten, 225–26. See also Heineman, What Difference Does a Husband Make, 137; Herzog, Sex after Fascism, 86; Timm, Politics of Fertility, 248.

138 Moeller, Protecting Motherhood, 38–209; Heineman, Elizabeth, “‘The Hour of the Woman’: Memories of Germany's ‘Crisis Years’ and West German National Identity,” American Historical Review 101, no. 2 (1996): 354–95.

139 Landesarchiv Schleswig, Personalakten Professor Dr. Otto M., Akt Abt. 47, Nr. 6863.

140 Moeller, Robert G., “Reconstructing the Family in Reconstruction Germany: Women and Social Policy in the Federal Republic, 1949–1955,” Feminist Studies 15, no. 1 (1989): 137–69; Herzog, Sex after Fascism, 96–100.

141 Heineman, What Difference Does a Husband Make?, 122.

142 Connell and Messerschmidt, “Hegemonic masculinity,” 832, 846. See also Werner, “‘Es ist alles verkehrt in der Welt.’”

143 Butler, Judith, “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory,” Theatre Journal 40, no. 4 (1988): 519–31.

144 Biess, “Men of Reconstruction,” 335–58; Hanisch, Männlichkeiten, 71–123.

145 Connell and Messerschmidt, “Hegemonic masculinity,” 848.

I wish to thank all those who read earlier versions of this article—first of all, to Jennifer L. Rodgers, who did an amazing job editing this article, and to the Direction Scientifique de Sciences Po for its generous funding. Many thanks to Thomas Kühne and Andrew Port for their constructive support, to Cyrille Jean for sharing his knowledge, and to the two anonymous peer reviewers who gave very useful feedback.

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Central European History
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