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Why Paul Nathan Attacked Albert Ballin: The Transatlantic Mass Migration and the Privatization of Prussia's Eastern Border Inspection, 1886–1914

  • Tobias Brinkmann (a1)
Extract

Albert Ballin was one of Imperial Germany's most successful business leaders. He early recognized the impact and possibilities of the expansion and integration of global markets. Within little more than a decade after he had joined the management of the Hamburg-Amerikanische-Paketfahrt-Aktien-Gesellschaft (HAPAG) in 1886, he turned an already significant enterprise into the world's largest steamship line. As a leading manager and later as HAPAG director general, Ballin was a major force behind Hamburg's rise to Imperial Germany's second largest city. Due in no small part to HAPAG's spectacular growth, Hamburg emerged as a key global port for passengers and freight by the turn of the century. But Ballin was not just a gifted business leader in a highly innovative economic sector; he also had access to some of the highest figures in Berlin. Ballin repeatedly met with the Kaiser and government members, and he used his long-standing contacts in England on several diplomatic missions to ease rising tensions between the two powers, albeit without lasting success.

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1 Ferguson, Niall, Paper and Iron: Hamburg Business and German Politics in the Era of Inflation 1897–1927 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 3839.

2 Soon after his death, members of his circle published accounts on the rise and tragic fall of the once-influential business titan: Huldermann, Bernhard, Albert Ballin (Oldenburg: Stalling, 1921); Stubmann, Peter Franz, Ballin. Leben und Werk eines deutschen Reeders (Berlin: Hermann Klemm, 1926); Stubmann published a slightly revised version of his 1926 biography in 1960: Stubmann, Peter Franz, Mein Feld ist die Welt: Albert Ballin. Sein Leben (Hamburg: Christians, 1960); Ballin's longtime personal assistant Erich Murken produced a well-researched study of the transatlantic steamship business before 1914: Murken, Erich, Die großen transatlantischen Linienreederei-Verbände, Pools und Interessengemeinschaften bis zum Ausbruch des Weltkrieges. Ihre Entstehung, Organisation und Wirksamkeit (Jena: G. Fischer, 1922); for the Leo Baeck Institute, founded in 1955 to preserve the legacy of German Jewry, the successful businessman and patriot was an attractive role model: Rosenbaum, Eduard, “Albert Ballin: A Note on the Style of his Economic and Political Activities,” Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 3 (1958): 257299; Mosse, Werner E., “Wilhelm II and the Kaiserjuden: A Problematical Encounter,” in The Jewish Response to German Culture: From the Enlightenment to the Second World War, ed. Reinharz, Jehuda and Schatzberg, Walter (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1985), 164194; Mosse, Werner E., The German-Jewish Economic Elite, 1820–1935: A Socio-Cultural Profile (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989); Prinz, Arthur, Juden im deutschen Wirtschaftsleben. Soziale und wirtschaftliche Struktur im Wandel 1850–1914 (Tübingen: Siebeck Mohr, 1984), 146149, 181–182; Mosse, Werner E., “Drei Juden in der Wirtschaft Hamburgs. Heine—Ballin—Warburg,” in Die Juden in Hamburg 1590–1990, ed. Herzig, Arno (Hamburg: Dölling und Galitz, 1991), 431446; Lamar Cecil's 1967 biography has remained a benchmark study because he took a more detached perspective than his predecessors—he was the first scholar who critically examined HAPAG's business practices in some detail: Cecil, Lamar, Albert Ballin: Business and Politics in Imperial Germany 1888–1918 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967); three recent German biographies of Ballin echo the uncritical biographies of the Weimar period rather than Cecil's balanced portrait: Straub, Eberhard, Albert Ballin. Der Reeder des Kaisers (Berlin: Siedler, 2001); Schölzel, Christian, Albert Ballin (1857–1918). “Ein Schiffsherr ist's: ein Kaiser neigt sich vor dem jüdischen Mann” (Teetz: Hentrich & Hentrich, 2004); and Wiborg, Susanne, Albert Ballin (Hamburg: Ellert & Richter, 2007).

3 Conrad, Sebastian, Globalisierung und Nation im Deutschen Kaiserreich (Munich: C. H. Beck, 2006), 206212; on the business history of HAPAG, see also Ottmüller-Wetzel, Birgit, Auswanderung über Hamburg. Die HAPAG und die Auswanderung nach Nordamerika 1870–1914 (Ph.D. diss., Free University Berlin, Berlin, 1986).

4 Nathan obituary in Jüdische Rundschau (Berlin), March 18, 1927. See also Feder, Ernst, “Paul Nathan, the Man and his Work,” Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 3 (1958): 6080.

5 1. Geschäftsbericht (1901–1902) des Hilfsvereins der deutschen Juden (Berlin, 1903), 5–11; 11. Geschäftsbericht (1912) des Hilfsvereins der deutschen Juden (Berlin, 1913); in the first two years Eugen Landau served as Hilfsverein president; Simon succeeded him in 1903. On Simon, see Matthes, Olaf, James Simon. Mäzen im Wilhelminischen Zeitalter (Berlin: Borstelmann und Sieben, 1999).

6 Hyman, Paula, The Jews of Modern France (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1998), 115135; on the early history of the Hilfsverein, see Vital, David, A People Apart: The Jews in Europe, 1789–1939 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 324334; on Hamburg, see Liedtke, Rainer, Jewish Welfare in Hamburg and Manchester, c. 1850–1914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

7 Cecil, Ballin, 12–14; Straub, Ballin, 15–31; Stubmann, Ballin, 22–23.

8 McKeown, Adam, “Global Migration, 1846–1940,” Journal of World History 15 (2004): 155190; Hoerder, Dirk, Cultures in Contact: World Migrations in the Second Millennium (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002).

9 Zolberg, Aristide R., “The Great Wall Against China: Responses to the First Immigration Crisis, 1885–1925,” in Migration, Migration History, History, ed. Lucassen, Leo and Lucassen, Jan (Berne: Peter Lang, 1997), 291315; Ngai, Mae M., Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003), 2156.

10 Herbert, Ulrich, Geschichte der Ausländerpolitik in Deutschland (Munich: C. H. Beck, 2001), 1444; Gosewinkel, Dieter, Einbürgern und Ausschließen. Die Nationalisierung der Staatsangehörigkeit vom Deutschen Bund bis zur Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001); Prussian Minister of the Interior and Prussian Minster of Trade and Commerce to Count Bismarck, July 21, 1885, in Geheimes Staatsarchiv Berlin, Preußisches Ministerium für Handel und Gewerbe, Bestimmungen zum Schutze und zur Fürsorge für die Auswanderung und Kolonisation, XIII, 20, 1 (abbreviated hereafter as Auswanderung und Kolonisation), vol. 13; Karlsberg, Bernhard, History and Importance of the German Control of Emigrants in Transit (Hamburg and Leipzig: Gebrüder Enoch, 1922), 1044.

11 Ballin to Hamburg Emigration Authority, April 29, 1887; Report, Hanseatic Legation at Berlin [Hanseatische Gesandschaft zu Berlin], Berlin, July 6, 1887, in State Archive Hamburg, Auswanderungsamt I, 373–7 I (abbreviated hereafter as Auswanderungsamt), II E I 1; Karlsberg, German Control of Emigrants, 32.

12 Herbert, Geschichte der Ausländerpolitik, 14–44; Cecil, Ballin, 112–113; Jahresbericht der HAPAG, Achtundfünfzigstes Geschäftsjahr 1904 (Hamburg: Persiehl, 1905).

13 On the background, see Karlsberg, German Control of Emigrants; Just, Michael, Ost- und südosteuropäische Amerikawanderung: 1881–1914. Transitprobleme in Deutschland und Aufnahme in den Vereinigten Staaten (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1988), 2327; Rogger, Hans, “Tsarist Policy on Jewish Emigration,” Soviet Jewish Affairs 3 (1973): 2636; Ottmüller-Wetzel, Auswanderung über Hamburg, 99–101; Wertheimer, Jack, Unwelcome Strangers: East European Jews in Imperial Germany (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), 75119.

14 Tichenor, Daniel J., Dividing Lines: The Politics of Immigration Control in America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002), 87149; Zolberg, Aristide R., A Nation by Design: Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006), 199242; Spandauer Anzeiger für das Havelland, November 11, 1891; Centralblatt der Bauverwaltung [Berlin], April 8, 1893, no. 14, 142–143; Berlin, Jörg and Schmoock, Matthias, Auswandererhafen Hamburg (Hamburg: Medien-Verlag Schubert, 2000); Nadell, Pamela Susan, The Journey to America by Steam: The Jews of Eastern Europe in Transition (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, 1982), 119.

15 Kuznets, Simon, “Immigration of Russian Jews to the United States: Background and Structure,” Perspectives in American History 9 (1975): 35124; Klier, John D., “Emigration Mania in Late-Imperial Russia: Legend and Reality,” in Patterns of Emigration, 1850–1914, ed. Newman, Aubrey and Massil, Stephen W. (London: Anglo-Jewish Historical Society, 1996), 2130.

16 Evans, Richard, Death in Hamburg: Society and Politics in the Cholera Years 1830–1910 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), 279284; Murken, Linienreederei-Verbände, 56–58; Jahresbericht der HAPAG, Siebenundvierzigstes Geschäftsjahr 1893 (Hamburg: Persiehl, 1894); Jahresbericht der HAPAG, Achtundvierzigstes Geschäftsjahr 1894 (Hamburg: Persiehl, 1895).

17 Cecil, Ballin, 40–41; Jahresbericht der HAPAG, Siebenundvierzigstes Geschäftsjahr 1893.

18 Die Welt (Vienna), May 5, 1905 (reprinted from a report in the Korrespondenzblatt des Zentralbüros für jüdische Auswanderungsangelegenheiten, published by the Hilfsverein); Prussian Minister of Trade and Commerce to Provincial Governors (Oberpräsidenten) of East and West Prussia, Silesia, and Posen, August 30, 1893, in Auswanderung und Kolonisation, vol. 15.

19 Petzet, Heinrich Wiegand, 36–40; HAPAG and Lloyd to Count Eulenburg, July 24, 1893, in Auswanderung und Kolonisation, vol. 15; Bericht über die Thätigkeit des Reichskommissars für das Auswanderungswesen während des Jahres 1893, no. 156, Deutscher Reichstag, 9. Legislaturperiode, II. Session 1893/94, in Auswanderung und Kolonisation; Ballin to Senator Dr. Hachmann, May 30, 1894, in Auswanderungsamt, II E I 1a 7; Karlsberg, German Control of Emigrants, 60–69. For a rare and unsettling description of Ruhleben in early 1894 from the perspective of a young Jewish migrant, see Antin, Mary, From Plotzk to Boston (Boston: W. B. Clarke, 1899), 4143. The first control stations were erected at Bajohren, Eydtkuhnen, Illowo, Prostken, Ottlotschin, Myslowitz, and Ratibor; a few years later, stations were established in Posen, Leipzig, Tilsit, Oderberg, and Ostrowo. Ruhleben was in operation since late 1891, and it remained the only station operated by the Prussian state (through the Prussian railroad company).

20 Annual Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30th 1894 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1894), 17–19. See also Lee, Erika, “Enforcing the Borders: Chinese Exclusion along the U.S. Borders with Canada and Mexico, 1882–1924,” Journal of American History 89 (2002): 5486.

21 For a rare sample of such an identity certificate issued at the control stations, see “Legitimationskarte,” June 14, 1901 (Ratibor), in Auswanderungsamt, II E III P 23; on transmigrants who were detained in Bebra (Hesse) and deported because they had circumvented a control station, see Israelitisches Familienblatt (Hamburg), September 22, 1905; on disinfection facilities of the North German Lloyd in Bremen and the provision of a “Kontrollschein” (proof of control) required for boarding the ship, see Medizinalamt, July 1, 1906, Auswandererüberwachung/Auswandererunterbringung, in Auswanderung, 3-A.4,21-507, vol. 1, State Archive Bremen.

22 Murken, Linienreederei-Verbände, 24–60; the sometimes bitter rivalry between HAPAG and Lloyd cannot be discussed here; see ibid., especially 321–322; for a protest of the Red Star against restrictions its passengers faced on Silesian border crossings, see Red Star (Antwerp) to Royal [Prussian] Government in Oppeln (Upper Silesia), July 27, 1898, in Auswanderung und Kolonisation, vol. 16.

23 Petzet, Heinrich Wiegand, 36–40; Annual Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration 1894, 16.

24 Kiliszewski to Office of Imperial Chancellor, June 10, 1895, in Auswanderungsamt, II E III P 3; Just, Ost- und südosteuropäische Amerikawanderung, 78–79; Ottmüller-Wetzel, Auswanderung über Hamburg, 59.

25 Sthamer, Walter, Die Auswandererhallen in Hamburg (Hamburg: Hamburg-Amerika Linie, 1904); Cecil, Ballin, 44. For a series of remarkable photographs of the Auswandererhallen, see Hamann, Johann, Mein Feld ist die Welt. Die Hamburger Auswandererhallen in Johann Hamanns Fotographien (1909)—mit einem Text von Ulrich Keller (Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walter König, 1981); for a report on unclean hostels in Rotterdam, see Hamburger Echo, November 12, 1912. On Bremen, see the extensive file: Bremer Auswandererhallen (F. Mißler) und Logierhaus Stadt Warschau (1906–1915), in Auswanderung 3-A.4,21-509, State Archive Bremen.

26 Murken, Linienreederei-Verbände, 264–282; New York Times, June 14, September 22, November 13, 1904. For a detailed treatment, see Karlsberg, German Control of Emigrants.

27 Karlsberg, German Control of Emigrants, 115; Die Welt, October 7, 1904; Murken, Linienreederei-Verbände, 264–282; Biermann (German Embassy, St. Petersburg) to Imperial Chancellor (Berlin), June 19, 1906 (attached translated article from Handels- und Industrie Zeitung, St. Petersburg, June 6, 1906), in Auswanderungsamt, II C I 8. On subsidy payments to Cunard, see Davis, Lance Edwin and Huttenback, Robert A., Mammon and the Pursuit of Empire: The Economics of British Imperialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 7677. On the Hungarian government's actions, see Overzier, Paul, Der Amerikanisch-Englische Schiffahrtstrust, Morgan-Trust, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Beziehungen zu den deutschen Dampfschiffahrtsgesellschaften (Berlin: Carl Heymann, 1912), 89; The Times (London), May 16 and June 2, 1904 (Ballin responded to open letters by Lord Inverclyde, the Cunard chairman, referring to reports that Hungarian officials were forcing HAPAG passengers to travel via Fiume with Cunard).

28 Historical Statistics of the United States, Millennial Edition Online, U.S. Immigrants and Emigrants: 1820–1998, Series Ad1-2, http://hsus.cambridge.org/HSUSWeb/toc/tableToc.do?id=Ad1-2 (accessed April 11, 2009). For an argument for not overrating the influence of ticket prices on migration rates, see Keeling, Drew, “Transport Capacity Management and Transatlantic Migration, 1900–1914,” Research in Economic History 25 (2008): 225283.

29 Alroey, Gur, “Bureaucracy, Agents, and Swindlers: Hardships Faced by Russian Jewish Emigrants in the Early Twentieth Century,” Studies in Contemporary Jewry 19 (2003): 214231. On the background, see Klier, John D. and Lambroza, Shlomo, eds., Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992); and Nathans, Benjamin, Beyond the Pale: The Jewish Encounter with Late Imperial Russia (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002), 713, 187–194.

30 Wertheimer, Unwelcome Strangers, 143–175; Aschheim, Steven, Brothers and Strangers: The East European Jew in German and German Jewish Consciousness, 1800–1923 (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982), 3238.

31 Ottmüller-Wetzel, Auswanderung über Hamburg, 125–129. For an example of a successful intervention by a Jewish aid worker on behalf of Jewish migrants rejected by Prussian officials at Eydtkuhnen in early 1894, see Antin, From Plotzk to Boston, 26–34.

32 Almost every issue of the major Jewish papers carried extensive articles on Jewish “emigration”: Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums (Berlin), December 16, 1904; Die Welt, June 17, and September 23, 1904; Bernhard Kahn, “Die jüdische Auswanderung,” Ost und West (Berlin) 1905: 457–492.

33 Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums, September 2, 1904; 3. Geschäftsbericht (1904) des Hilfsvereins der Deutschen Juden (Berlin, 1905), 20–31.

34 3. Geschäftsbericht (1904) des Hilfsvereins der Deutschen Juden (Berlin, 1905), 30–35, 41; Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums, October 28, 1904, 529; Im Deutschen Reich (Berlin), November 1904, 616–617; Die Welt, November 4, 1904; Israelitisches Familienblatt, October 27, 1904; Berliner Tageblatt, October 27, 1904. On formal recognition of the Hilfsverein at the control stations by Prussia, see Die Welt, May 5, 1905. On conservative attacks against HAPAG as a grain importer, see Cecil, Ballin, 112–113. For quotes by Böckler afterward, see Mosse, Werner E., “Die Juden in Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft,” in Juden im Wilhelminischen Deutschland, 1890–1914, ed. Mosse, Werner E. and Paucker, Arnold (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1976), 57114, here: 96 (author's translation).

35 Berliner Tageblatt (Berlin), September 27, October 4, 8, and 28, 1904; Vorwärts (Berlin), November 30, 1904; Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums, October 7, 1904; see also Karlsberg, German Control of Emigrants, 111–114.

36 Protokoll über die Verhandlungen des Parteitages der Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands, Abgehalten zu Bremen (Berlin: Vorwärts, 1904), 137 (motion 138), 322–324 (discussion), Liebknecht quote: 323; Wertheimer, Unwelcome Strangers, 40.

37 Halpern, Georg, “Bade bei Ballin,” in Freistatt, Süddeutsche Zeitschrift für Politik, Literatur und Kunst (Munich), October 8, 1904, 812813. Halpern was an economist who became a prominent Zionist in the 1920s.

38 Stubmann, Mein Feld ist die Welt, 128; Cecil, Ballin, 123–132.

39 Vorwärts (Berlin), August 3, 28, and 30 (quote), September 2, December 1, 1904.

40 Jahresbericht der HAPAG, Achtundfünfzigstes Geschäftsjahr 1904 (Hamburg: Persiehl, 1905).

41 Cecil, Lamar, “Coal for the Fleet that had to Die,” The American Historical Review 69 (1964): 9901005.

42 The left-wing attacks mentioned in this article on Ballin were not anti-Semitic (a more detailed analysis remains a desideratum). Anti-Semites attacked Ballin repeatedly; see, for instance, Im Deutschen Reich, August 1899, 443.

43 On rumors of a business deal between the London Rothschild bank and Russia, see Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums, October 7, 14, and 28, 1904; Best, Gary Dean, To Free A People: American Jewish Leaders and the Jewish Problem in Eastern Europe, 1880–1914 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985), 101.

44 Best, To Free A People, 98–113, 146; Cohen, Naomi W., Jacob H. Schiff: A Study in American Jewish Leadership (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1999), 3334; 134–137; Endelman, Todd, The Jews of Britain, 1650 to 2000 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002), 160. For immigrant statistics, see Ruppin, Arthur, Soziologie der Juden (Berlin: Jüdischer Verlag, 1930), vol. 1, 126.

45 Israelitisches Familienblatt, September 29, October 13, 1904; Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums, October 7, 1904.

46 Vorwärts, September 3, 1904.

47 Berliner Tageblatt, September 23 and 27, October 4 and 23, 1904.

48 Cecil, “Coal for the Fleet that had to Die,” 996.

49 Berliner Zeitung, October 28, 1904, quoted in a translation in Karlsberg, German Control of Emigrants, 119; Murken, Linienreederei-Verbände, 268–278; New York Times, November 13 and 14, 1904; Karlsberg, German Control of Emigrants, 116–117.

50 Murken, Linienreederei-Verbände, 278–325; German Embassy St. Petersburg (Biermann) to Imperial Chancellor, December 5, 1908, in Auswanderungsamt, II C I 8 (failure of Russian attempts to start a competing passenger service from Libau).

51 Murken, Linienreederei-Verbände, 278–325; Jahresbericht der Hamburg Amerika Linie, Siebenundsechzigstes Geschäftsjahr 1913 (Hamburg: Persiehl, 1914); Reich Minister of the Interior to Prussian Minister of Trade and Commerce, December 10, 1912, in Auswanderung und Kolonisation, vol. 18; Berliner Tageblatt, February 18, 1913; Die königlich bayerische Auswanderer-Kontroll-Station Marktredwitz und der Auswanderer-Durchgangsverkehr durch Bayern (Rotterdam: PTG, 1914?).

52 Stenographische Berichte der Verhandlungen des Deutschen Reichstags, 166. Session, Friday, March 17, 1905, 5328; Vorwärts (Berlin), May 1, 1905.

53 Report by Kiliszewki, November 28, 1907, in Auswanderungsamt, II E I 1b Beiheft 2. See also Berliner Tageblatt, May 27, 1907 (a doctor employed by Lloyd lodged a formal complaint against a police officer who had beaten migrants in Ruhleben).

54 Zolberg, A Nation by Design, 264–267; Yans-McLaughlin, Virginia and Lightman, Marjorie, Ellis Island and the Peopling of America: The Official Guide (New York: The New Press, 1997), 70; Annual Report of the Surgeon General of the Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service of the United States, for the Fiscal Year 1904 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1904), 188–193 (Yokohama, Nagasaki, Kobe, and Shanghai), 217 (Naples and Palermo); Annual Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration 1894, 16.

55 Anthes, Louis, Lawyers and Immigrants, 1870–1940: A Cultural History (Levittown, NY: LFB Scholarly Publishing, 2003), 5390; Yans-McLaughlin and Lightman, Ellis Island, 70; Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society, Third Annual Report (1911) (New York, 1912), 14–15.

56 Julius Kaliski, “Mit Ballin Unterwegs,” Vorwärts, December 20, 23, and 27, 1904, January 5 and 10, 1905; HAPAG, Abt. Personenverkehr to Kiliszewski, December 12, 1904, in Auswanderungsamt, II E III P 45.

57 Emigrant Conditions in Europe, in 61st Congress, 3rd Session, Senate, Reports of the Immigrant Commission, presented by Mr. Dillingham (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1911), 93–97 (quote, 93); Steerage Conditions, in ibid., 29–31; Schneider, Dorothee, “The United States Government and the Investigation of European Emigration in the Open Door Era,” in Citizenship and Those Who Leave: The Politics of Emigration and Expatriation, ed. Green, Nancy and Weil, François (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2007), 195210, here 203–204; for a 1911 inspection of the control stations by the U.S. Consul General at Hamburg, R. P. Skinner, see Annual Report of the Surgeon General of the Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service of the United States, for the Fiscal Year 1911 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1912), 99–103.

58 Wertheimer, Unwelcome Strangers, 40–42.

59 Wyman, David S., Paper Walls: America and the Refugee Crisis, 1938–1941 (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1968); “Paper Walls” already applied in the post-1918 period.

The author is grateful to Rainer Liedtke, Heléna Toth, Christhard Hoffmann, and two anonymous reviewers for this journal for helpful comments. I would also like to thank the University of Southampton, the Minda de Gunzburg Center of European Studies at Harvard University, and the Department of History and Religious Studies at Penn State University for supporting the research for this article.

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