1 Bertoncello Brigitte and Bredeloup Sylvie, “The emergence of new African ‘trading posts’ in Hong Kong and Guangzhou,” China Perspectives, No. 1 (2007), pp. 94–105; Bodomo Adams, “An emerging African-Chinese community in Hong Kong: the case of Tsim Sha Tsui's Chungking Mansions,” in Prah Kwesi Kwaa (ed.), Afro-Chinese Relations: Past, Present and Future (Cape Town: The Centre for Advanced Studies in African Societies, 2007) pp. 367–89.
2 Bodomo, “An emerging African-Chinese community in Hong Kong”; Adams Bodomo, “The emergence of African communities in Hong Kong and mainland China,” paper for Africa Table, Stanford University African Studies Centre, 23 May 2007; Zhigang Li, Desheng Xue, Lyons Michael and Brown Alison, “The African enclave of Guangzhou: a case study of Xiaobeilu,” Geographica Sinica, Vol. 63, No. 2 (2008).
3 See e.g. Bodomo, “An emerging African-Chinese community in Hong Kong,” pp. 367–89; Bodomo, “The emergence of African communities in Hong Kong and mainland China”; Brigitte and Bredeloup, “The emergence of new African ‘trading posts’”; Li et al., “The African enclave of Guangzhou.”
4 See e.g. Bok Rae Kim, “The African presence in Korea,” in Kiran Kamal Prasad and Jean-Pierre Angenot (eds.), The African Diaspora in Asia, Explorations on a Less Known Fact: Papers Presented at the First International Conference on the African Diaspora in Asia in Panaji, Goa (2008) pp. 436–44; Stoller Paul, Money Has No Smell: The Africanization of New York City (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2001); MacGaffey Janet and Bazenguissa-Ganga Remy, Cong-Paris: Transnational Traders on the Margins of the Law (Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2000); McIntyre Joseph, Wurzel in zwei Welten: westafrikanische Migranten und Migrantinnen in Hamburg (Frankfurt am Main: Brandes und Apsel, 2004); Urciuoli Bonnie, Exposing Prejudice: Puerto Rican Experiences of Language, Race and Class (Boulder: Westview Press, 1996).
5 Kallen Evelyn, The Western Samoan Kinship Bridge: a Study in Migration, Social Change, and the New Ethnicity (Leiden: Brill, 1982).
6 Li et al., “The African enclave of Guangzhou.”
7 Brigitte and Bredeloup, “The emergence of new African ‘trading posts’.”
8 Cole Jeffrey, The New Racism in Europe: A Sicilian Ethnography (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
9 In its 16 July 2009 edition the SCMP splashed the following sensational headline on its front page: “Africans protest in Guangzhou after Nigerian feared killed fleeing visa check,” with a large picture of black people protesting in Guangzhou, some holding bloodied shirts to onlookers. The SCMP is Hong Kong's main English-language journal read mainly by Western expatriates in Hong Kong, and this sensational reporting really caused a stir in Hong Kong and southern China. Ordinary people suddenly woke up to the presence of a large community of Africans in Guangzhou, with the uncomfortable effect that every African in Hong Kong and southern China was perceived as a potential illegal immigrant.
10 Sullivan Michael, “The 1988–89 Nanjing anti-African protests: racial nationalism or national racism?” The China Quarterly, No 138 (1994), pp. 438–57.
12 Li et al., “The African enclave of Guangzhou.”
13 The South Metropolis Daily in its January 2008 edition wrote: “Due to the skin color of black or brown of Africans here, the region is called ‘Chocolate City’ by Guangzhou people.”
14 Bodomo, “The emergence of African communities in Hong Kong and mainland China.”
15 Bodomo, “An emerging African-Chinese community in Hong Kong,” pp. 367–89.
16 Age-wise, these are people mostly in their 20s and 30s; in terms of gender there are more men than women; and in terms of schooling, many of them have finished high school and some even have tertiary education.
17 For other reasons for this West African preponderance, especially with Ghanaians, Guineans and Malians, see Bodomo, Africans in China, book manuscript in preparation.
19 Other activities such as festivals, dancing and worship are discussed in ibid.
20 They are now given only six-month visas.
21 The author thanks Dr Li Zhigang of Sun Yat-sen University for coming to this meeting and participating in our deliberations.