Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

China's UN Peacekeeping in Mali and Comprehensive Diplomacy

  • Marc Lanteigne (a1)

Abstract

China's increasing participation in United Nations peacekeeping operations reached a milestone in 2013 when Beijing agreed to send a large detachment of personnel, including combat forces for the first time, to support UN peacekeeping operations in Mali after that country fell into civil war. This commitment was also distinct in that unlike other African countries where Beijing has supplied peacekeepers, Mali is not a major trading partner with China. However, this mission has both cemented Beijing's greater commitment to building African partnerships as well as demonstrating its determination to move beyond “resource diplomacy” and towards a more comprehensive approach to engaging the continent. Although China has warmed to the principles of humanitarian intervention in civil conflicts, Mali has been a critical test of China's ability to participate in UN operations in a country which is still facing ongoing violence. The Mali mission is an important step in Beijing's turn towards greater realpolitik in Chinese Beijing's peacekeeping policies in keeping with its great power status. At the same time, participation in the Mali mission has been beneficial for China, not only in helping to build the country's peacekeeping credentials in Africa but also in underscoring China's increasingly distinct views on addressing intervention in civil conflicts.

2013 年是中国加大在联合国维和行动里程碑式的一年。在马里陷入内战后,北京同意向其派遣大批人员以支持联合国维和行动,包括第一次派出安全部队。中国在其他一些非洲国家也有维和人员,但因马里并非中国在非洲大陆主要的贸易伙伴,因此在此的维和投入显得非常引人注目。这次行动巩固了北京加深建立与非洲伙伴关系的目标,也展示了中国政府不仅限于追求 “资源外交” 的决心还有更全面参与非洲事务的方法。尽管中国向来对参与在内部冲突情况下的人道主义干预怀有兴趣,马里依然是检验其是否有能力在一个正面临着持续暴力冲突的国家参与联合国维和行动的重要试金石。马里行动既是北京维和政策向 “现实政治” 转变过程中的重要一步,也和中国目前的大国地位相关联。同时,参与此次行动对中国有所裨益,不但利于建立中国在非洲的维和信誉,也有助于凸显中国在其他国家内战情况下如何进行干预的日渐鲜明的观点。

Copyright

References

Hide All
Afrobarometer Dispatch. 2016. “China's growing presence in Africa wins largely positive popular reviews,” 122. 24 October. http://afrobarometer.org/sites/default/files/publications/Dispatches/ab_r6_dispatchno122_perceptions_of_china_in_africa1.pdf.
AllAfrica/Factiva. 2017. “China pledges further cooperation with Mali in agricultural, industrial development,” 24 May.
Avezov, Xenia, and Smit, Timo. 2014. “The consensus on Mali and international conflict management in a multipolar world,” SIPRI Policy Brief, September, https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/files/misc/SIPRIPB1403.pdf.
Zhou, Bo. 2017. “How China can improve UN peacekeeping: the right way for Beijing to step up,” Foreign Affairs, 15 November. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2017-11-15/how-china-can-improve-un-peacekeeping.
Blanchard, Ben. 2018. “China wins back Burkina Faso, urges Taiwan's last African ally to follow,” Reuters 26 May. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-burkina/china-wins-back-burkina-faso-urges-taiwans-last-african-ally-to-follow-idUSKCN1IR09W.
Black, Ian. 2013. “Mali militants: who's who among Islamist rebels,” The Guardian, 16 January.
Blasko, Dennis J. 2012. The Chinese Army Today. 2nd ed. London and New York: Routledge.
Bodeen, Christopher. 2015. “Militant attacks abroad a diplomatic quandary for China's Xi,” Associated Press, 25 November.
Boeke, Sergei, and Schuurman, Bart 2015. “Operation ‘Serval’: a strategic analysis of the French intervention in Mali, 2013–2014.” Journal of Strategic Studies 38(6), 801825.
Bräutigam, Deborah. 2009. The Dragon's Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Buckley, Chris. 2013. “China's leader tries to calm African fears of his country's economic power,” The New York Times, 25 March.
Bush, Richard C. 2016. “China's Gambia gambit and what it means for Taiwan,” Brookings, 22 March. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2016/03/22/chinas-gambia-gambit-and-what-it-means-for-taiwan/.
Bøås, Morten, and Torheim, Liv Elin. 2013. “The trouble in Mali – corruption, collusion, resistance.” Third World Quarterly 34(7), 1279–92.10.1080/01436597.2013.824647
Callick, Rowan. 2017. “Wolf Warrior II: patriotic Chinese Rambo blows up box office,” The Australian, 12 August.
Chandler, Allison, and Zogg, Benno. 2017. “Mali: une paix fragile” (Mali: a fragile peace), ETH – Centre for Security Studies CSS Analysis 215, https://doi.org/10.3929/ethz-b-000200576.
Chen, Jing. 2009. “Explaining the change in China's attitudes towards UN peacekeeping: a norm change perspective.’ Journal of Contemporary China 18(58), 157173.
China Daily. 2016. “China to become 2nd largest contributor to UN peacekeeping budget,” 30 May 2016, http://europe.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2016-05/30/content_25536341.htm.
Clemens, Morgan. 2016. “PLA thinking on military operations other than war.” In McReynolds, James (ed.), China's Evolving Military Strategy. Washington DC: Jamestown.
Cristiani, Dario, and Fabiani, Riccardo. 2013. “From disfunctionality to disaggregation and back? The Malian crisis, local players and European interests,” Istituto Affari Internazionali, IAI Working Papers 13-08.
Xiaotao, Cui. 2017. “China–Africa relations in 2015: more practical cooperation for strategic goals.” CIIS Blue Book on International Situation and China's Foreign Affairs (2016). Beijing: World Affairs Press, 497511.
Diakon, Birama, and Röschenthaler, Ute. 2017. “The Chinese presence in the Malian mediascape.” Journal of African Cultural Studies 29(1), 96113.
Ehizuelen, Michael, Omoruyi, Mitchell and Abdi, Hodan Osman. 2017. “Sustaining China–Africa relations: slotting Africa into China's One Belt, One Road Initiative makes economic sense.” Asian Journal of Comparative Politics 20(10), 126.
Elischer, Sebastian. 2013. “After Mali comes Niger: West Africa's problems migrate east.” Foreign Affairs, 12 February, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/mali/2013-02-12/after-mali-comes-niger.
English, Charlie. 2017. The Book Smugglers of Timbuktu: The Quest for This Storied City and the Race to Save Its Treasures. London: William Collins.
Evans, Paul M. 2004. “Human security in East Asia: in the beginning.” Journal of East Asian Studies 4(2), 263284.10.1017/S1598240800001831
Fassy, Thomas. 2012. “Gaddafi's influence in Mali's coup,” BBC News, 22 March, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-17481114.
Feng, Bree. 2014. “Obama's ‘Free Rider’ comment draws Chinese criticism,” The New York Times, 13 August.
Foot, Rosemary. 2014. “’Doing some things’ in the Xi Jinping era: the United Nations as China's venue of choice.” International Affairs 90(5), 10851100.
French, Howard W. 2014. China's Second Continent: How a Million Migrants Are Building a New Empire in Africa. New York: Knopf.
Fravel, M. Taylor. 2001. “Economic growth, regime insecurity, and military strategy: explaining the rise of noncombat operations in China.” Asian Security 7(3), 177200.
Fung, Courtney J. 2016. “China's troop contributions to UN peacekeeping,” United States Institute of Peace Peace Brief, 26 July. https://www.usip.org/publications/2016/07/chinas-troop-contributions-un-peacekeeping.
Gadzala, Aleksandra W. 2015. Africa and China: How Africans and Their Governments Are Shaping Relations with China. Lanham, MA: Rowman and Littlefield.
Gao, Charlotte. 2017. “China officially sets up its first overseas base in Djibouti,” The Diplomat, 12 July, https://thediplomat.com/2017/07/china-officially-sets-up-its-first-overseas-base-in-djibouti/.
Garwood-Gowers, Andrew. 2012. “China and the ‘responsibility to protect’: the implications of the Libyan intervention.” Asian Journal of International Law 2, 375393.
Gill, Bates, and Huang, Chin-Hao. 2009. “China's expanding peacekeeping role: its significance and policy implications.” SIPRI Policy Brief. February.
Global Energy Research/Factiva. 2018. “Mali – projects – electricity – hydro,” 4 February.
Gosset, David. 2013. “Time to defeat poverty in Mali,” China Daily, 25 January.
Hammer, Joshua. 2014. “The race to save Mali's priceless artefacts,” The Smithsonian, http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/Race-Save-Mali-Artifacts-180947965/.
Hanauer, Larry, and Morris, Lyle J.. 2014. Chinese Engagement in Africa: Drivers, Reactions, and Implications for US Policy, Washington, DC: Rand. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR500/RR521/RAND_RR521.pdf.
He Wenping. 2013. “Hollande has set alarming precedent for intervention,” Global Times, 23 January.
Heisbourg, François. 2013. “A surprising little war: first lessons of Mali.” Survival 55(2), 718.
Hille, Kathrin. 2013. “China commits combat troops for Mali,” Financial Times, 28 June.
Hirono, Miwa. 2011. “China's charm offensive and peacekeeping: the lessons of Cambodia – what now for Sudan?International Peacekeeping 18(3), 328343.
Hirono, Miwa, and Lanteigne, Marc. 2012. “Introduction: China and UN peacekeeping.” In Lanteigne, Marc and Hirono, Miwa (eds.), China's Evolving Approach to Peacekeeping, ed. London and New York: Routledge, 114.
Holsag, Jonathan. 2009. “Embracing Chinese global security ambitions.” Washington Quarterly 32(3), 105118.
Human Rights Watch. 2017. “Mali: events of 2017,” 21 December. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2018/country-chapters/mali.
Xia, Hua. 2016. “Chinese peacekeeper's body brought home from Mali,” Xinhua, 9 June.
Huang, Kristin. 2018. “Chinese peacekeepers in tense stand-off with armed militants in South Sudan,” South China Morning Post, 6 January 2018.
Infos Plus Gabon. 2017. “Plus de 5400 tonnes de riz de la Chine pour lutter contre l'insécurité alimentaire au Mali,” 17 December, https://infosplusgabon.com/index.php/actualites/submenu-1/7950-plus-de-5400-tonnes-de-riz-de-la-chine-pour-lutter-contre-linsecurite-alimentaire-au-mali.
Lecocq, Baz, Mann, Gregory, Whitehouse, Bruce, Badi, Dida, Pelckmans, Lotte, Belalimat, Nadia, Hall, Bruce et al. 2013. “One hippopotamus and eight blind analysts: a multi-vocal analysis of the 2012 political crisis in the divided republic of Mali.” Review of African Political Economy 40(137), 346–47.
Lanteigne, Marc. 2011. “A change in perspective: China's engagement in the East Timor UN peacekeeping operations.” International Peacekeeping 18(3), 313327.
Li, Jian and Jing, Jin 2013. “Zhongguo zai Mali bu chubing ye bu chu qian jun fang cheng zhan hou keyi weihe,” (“China will neither send troops to Mali, nor will it give money”), Global Times/Sohu.com, 22 January 2013, http://mil.sohu.com/20130122/n364250702.shtml.
“Macron revives France's partnership with China in Africa,” France 24, 12 January 2018, http://www.france24.com/en/20180111-france-china-africa-macron-resuscitates-partnership-security-g5-sahel-climate-investment.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the People's Republic of China, 2000. “Some thoughts on establishing a new regional security order, (Statement by Ambassador Sha Zukang),” 7 August, http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjdt/zyjh/t24961.htm.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 2012. “Statement by Ambassador Li Baodong at the Security Council Ministerial Meeting on the Sahel Region situation – from Chinese Mission to the United Nations,” 10 December, http://www.china-un.org/eng/hyyfy/t1109431.htm.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 2013. “2013 Nian 1 yue 14 ri waijiao bu fayan ren hong lei zhuchi li xíng jìzhe hui,” (“Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hong Lei's regular press conference on 14 January”), http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/web/fyrbt_673021/jzhsl_673025/t1004906.shtml.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 2017. “Zhongguo tong Mali de guanxi,” (“The relationship between China and Mali”), August, http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/chn//gxh/cgb/zcgmzysx/fz/1206_33/1206x1/t6607.htm.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 2017. “Wang Yi meets with Minister of Foreign Affairs Abdoulaye Diop of Mali,” 8 November, http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1509004.shtml.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 2018. “Wang Yi talks about the FOCAC Beijing summit: jointly build the ‘Belt and Road’ and elevate China–Africa mutually beneficial cooperation to new highs,” 13 January. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1525999.shtml.
Ministry of National Defence of the People's Republic of China. 2018. “Chinese peacekeepers to Mali awarded UN Peace Medals of Honor,” 24 February. http://eng.mod.gov.cn/news/2018-02/24/content_4805315.htm.
Murray, Craig. 2013. “China to deploy ‘security force’ to UN peacekeeping operation in Mali,” US–China Economic and Security Review Commission Staff Research Backgrounder, 9 July.
New York Times/Associated Press. 2016. “China resumes ties with São Tomé, which turned away from Taiwan,” 26 December.
Page, Jeremy, and Stevis, Matina. 2016. “China discovers the price of global power: soldiers returning in caskets,’ Wall Street Journal, 15 November.
Pang, Zhongying. 2009. “China's non-intervention question.” Global Responsibility to Protect 1, 237252.
Pang, Zhongying. 2012. “Issues in the transformation of China's engagement with international peacekeeping.” In Goldstein, Lyle J. (ed.), Not Congruent but Quite Complementary: U.S. and Chinese Approaches to Non-traditional Security. Newport, RI: China Maritime Studies Institute, Naval War College, 5455.
Pilling, David. 2018. “US abdication in Africa hands political opportunities to China,” Financial Times, 7 February.
Poh, Angela, and Li, Mingjiang. 2017. “A China in transition: the rhetoric and substance of Chinese foreign policy under Xi Jinping.” Journal of Contemporary China 13(2), 8497.
Polgreen, Lynda, and Sayare, Scott. 2013. “With Timbuktu retaken, France signals its plans to pull back in Mali,” The New York Times, 28 January.
Zhongwei, Qin. 2017. “Africa seeks to learn a lesson from China,” China Daily, 16 February 2013.
Rettman, Andrew. 2012. “Mali coup is ‘spill-over’ from EU-led war in Libya,” EU Observer, 28 March 2012, https://euobserver.com/foreign/115733.
Richardson, Courtney J. 2011. “A responsible power? China and the UN peacekeeping regime.” International Peacekeeping 18(3), 286297.
Sangare, Idrissa, and Diarra, Adama. 2017. “Al-Qaeda-linked group claims deadly attack at Mali resort,” Reuters, 19 June.
Daily, Shanghai. 2017. “Chinese workers help bring prosperity to countries along Belt and Road,” Shanghai Daily, 12 May.
Shaw, Scott. 2013. “Fallout in the Sahel: the geographic spread of conflict from Libya to Mali.” Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 19(2), 199210.
Snetkov, Aglaya, and Lanteigne, Marc. 2015. “‘The loud dissenter’ and its ‘cautious partner’ – Russia, China, global governance and humanitarian intervention.” International Relations of the Asia-Pacific 15, 113146.
Sun, Yun. 2013. “How China views France's intervention in Mali: an analysis,” Brookings, 23 January, https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/how-china-views-frances-intervention-in-mali-an-analysis/.
Teitt, Sarah. 2011. “The responsibility to protect and China's peacekeeping policy.” In Lanteigne, Marc and Hirono, Miwa (eds.), China's Evolving Approach to Peacekeeping. New York: Routledge, 5670.
Verhoeven, Harry. 2014. “Is Beijing's non-interference policy history? How Africa is changing China.” Washington Quarterly 37(2), 5570.
Wang, Xin, 2012. “Weihe xue chuanglì de pingpan-weihe xue chuyi zhi” (“On the founding of peacekeeping discipline”). Hunan jingcha xueyuan xuebao (Journal of Hunan Police Academy) 1, 138143.
Wing, Susanna D. 2013. “Briefing – Mali: politics of a crisis.” African Affairs 112(248), 476485.
Wing, Susanna D. 2015. “’Hands off my constitution’: constitutional reform and the workings of democracy in Mali.” Journal of Modern African Studies 53(3), 451475.
Xi, Jinping. 2017. “A new partnership of mutual benefit and a community of shared future (speech at the General Debate of the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly at the UN Headquarters in New York), 28 September 2015,” The Governance of China II. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 569575.
Xi, Jinping. 2017. “A new era of China–Africa cooperation and common development, December 4, 2015,” Xi Jinping: The Governance of China II. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 496501.
Xinhua. 2013. “China sends security force for peacekeeping mission in Mali,” 5 December.
Xinhua. 2015. “Chinese foreign minister terms Mali hotel attack ‘inhuman atrocity’,” 21 November.
Xinhua. 2017. “China–Africa trade surges in Q1,” 11 May.
Xinhua. 2017. “China to dispatch 5th peacekeeping force to Mali,” Xinhua, 11 May.
Xinhua. 2017. “Chinese FM pledges further cooperation with African countries on Belt and Road,” 23 May.
Xinhua. 2018. “China to send 395 peacekeepers to Mali,” 19 April.
Xinhua's China Economic Information Service/Factiva. 2017. “China's trade with Mali in February 2007,” 25 April.
Xing, Hua. 2014. “The past, present and future of Sino-French relations.” In Xing, Qu (ed.), China's New Diplomacy and Changing World. Beijing: World Affairs Press, 348364.
Yong, Deng. 2006. “Reputation and the security dilemma: China reacts to the China threat theory.” In Johnston, Alastair Iain and Ross, Robert S., New Directions in the Study of Chinese Foreign Policy (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006), 186214.
Yu, Jincui. 2013. “Mali conflict shows dangers of leaving Africa in poverty,” Global Times, 18 January.
Zajec, Oliver. 2013. “The Mali intervention.” Le Monde Diplomatique (English) 1302, 13.
Shengnan, Zhao. 2013. “China offers to provide peacekeepers to Mali,” China Daily, 24 May.
Zheng, Chen. 2016. “China and the responsibility to protect.” Journal of Contemporary China 25(101), 686700.
Zheng, Jinran. 2016. “Return of a hero,” China Daily, 10 June.
Zheng, Sarah. 2017. “China completes registration of 8,000-strong UN peacekeeping force, Defence Ministry says,” South China Morning Post, 29 September.
Zuo, Mandy. 2015. “Chinese troops did not ‘fail’ hostages in Mali hotel siege, military experts say,” South China Morning Post, 22 November.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed