Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Unequal Access to College in China: How Far Have Poor, Rural Students Been Left Behind?*

  • Hongbin Li (a1), Prashant Loyalka (a2), Scott Rozelle (a3), Binzhen Wu (a4) and Jieyu Xie (a5)...
Abstract
Abstract

In the 1990s, rural youth from poor counties in China had limited access to college. After mass college expansion started in 1998, however, it was unclear whether rural youth from poor counties would gain greater access. The aim of this paper is to examine the gap in college and elite college access between rural youth from poor counties and other students after expansion. We estimate the gaps in access by using data on all students who took the college entrance exam in 2003. Our results show that gaps in access remained high even after expansion. Rural youth from poor counties were seven and 11 times less likely to access any college and elite Project 211 colleges than urban youth, respectively. Much larger gaps existed for disadvantaged subgroups (female or ethnic minority) of rural youth from poor counties. We also find that the gaps in college access were mainly driven by rural–urban differences rather than differences between poor and non-poor counties within rural or urban areas.

摘要

在 20 世纪 90 年代, 中国贫困地区的农村青年上大学的机会非常有限。即便 1998 年大学扩招后, 贫困地区农村青年是否享有更多机会也不甚明朗。本文目的在于检验大学扩招后, 贫困地区农村学生与其他学生在考取大学乃至名牌大学上的差距。为此我们使用了 2003 年全国参加高考学生的数据。结论显示: 即便在扩招之后, 这种差距依然很大。具体地, 贫困地区农村学生考取大学的机会比城市学生小 7 倍; 考取 211 名牌大学的机会比城市学生小 11 倍。这一差距在贫困地区农村学生的子群体中 (贫困地区农村、女性、少数民族学生) 更大。我们也发现这些差距主要由城乡差别, 而不是由贫困与非贫困地区差别所致。

Copyright
Corresponding author
Email: xiejy.09@sem.tsinghua.edu.cn (corresponding author).
Footnotes
Hide All

We would like to thank the Tsinghua University China Data Center for supporting this work. The support of CK and Mei Liu is also gratefully acknowledged. Hongbin Li acknowledges financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project ID: 71025004 and 71121001). Binzhen Wu acknowledges the support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project ID: 70903042 and 71373136).

Footnotes
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Hanna Ayalon , and Yossi Shavit . 2004. “Educational reforms and inequalities in Israel: the MMI hypothesis revisited.” Sociology of Education 77(2), 103120.

Martin Carnoy , Prashant Loyalka and Isak Froumin . 2013. “University expansion in the BRIC countries and the global information economy.” Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning 45(4), 3643.

Emily Hannum , and Meiyan Wang . 2006. “Geography and educational inequality in China.” China Economic Review 17(3), 253265.

Eric A. Hanushek , and Ludger Woessmann . 2008. “The role of cognitive skills in economic development.” Journal of Economic Literature 46(3), 607668.

Eric A. Hanushek , and Ludger Woessmann . 2011. “The economics of international differences in educational achievement.” Handbook of the Economics of Education 3, 89200.

James Heckman . 2005. “China's human capital investment.” China Economic Review 16(1), 5070.

Chengfang Liu , Linxiu Zhang , Renfu Luo , Scott Rozelle , Brian Sharbono and Yaojiang Shi . 2009. “Development challenges, tuition barriers and high school education in China.” Asia Pacific Journal of Education 29(4), 503520.

Jacob Mincer . 1984. “Human capital and economic growth.” Economics of Education Review 3(3), 195205.

David Reimer , and Reinhard Pollak . 2010. “Educational expansion and its consequences for vertical and horizontal inequalities in access to higher education in West Germany.” European Sociological Review 26(4), 415430.

Xue Lan Rong , and Tianjian Shi . 2001. “Inequality in Chinese education.” Journal of Contemporary China 10(26), 107124.

Denis Fred Simon , and Cong Cao . 2009. China's Emerging Technological Edge: Assessing the Role of High-end Talent. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Selcuk R. Sirin 2005. “Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: a meta-analytic review of research.” Review of Educational Research 75(3), 417453.

Xiaogang Wu . 2010. “Economic transition, school expansion and educational inequality in China, 1990–2000.” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 28(1), 91108.

Xiaogang Wu , and Zhuoni Zhang . 2010. “Changes in educational inequality in China, 1990–2005: evidence from the population census data.” In Emily Hannum , Hyunjoon Park and Yoko Goto Butler (eds.), Research in the Sociology of Education (Vol. 17). Emerald Group Publishing.

Hongmei Yi , Linxiu Zhang , Renfu Luo , Yaojiang Shi , Di Mo , Xinxin Chen , Carl Brinton and Scott Rozelle . 2012. “Dropping out: why are students leaving junior high in China's poor rural areas?International Journal of Educational Development 32(4), 555563.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The China Quarterly
  • ISSN: 0305-7410
  • EISSN: 1468-2648
  • URL: /core/journals/china-quarterly
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 18
Total number of PDF views: 230 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 529 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th March 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.