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The actions of Philip II in 347 and 346 B.C.: a reply to N. G. L. Hammond

  • John Buckler

Extract

Professor N. G. L. Hammond has of late published some of his thoughts on the activities of Philip II in 347 and 346 B.C. In addition he has treated aspects of Philip's earlier involvement in Thessalian, Thracian, and Phokian affairs. In the process he has in many instances disagreed with a number of current findings. Among those challenged are some of mine. Healthy scholarly debate is always desirable, and in this f spirit I should welcome an opportunity to contest Professor Hammond's views on several points, the most important being the basic factor of methodology and the interpretation of various factual details.

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1 ‘Philip's Actions in 347 and Early 346 B.C.’, CQ 44 (1994), 367–74.

2 Philip Hand the Sacred War (Leiden, 1989), 148–95.

3 Op. cit. (n. 1 above), 368 n. 2;Philip of Macedon (Baltimore, 1994), 200 n.

4 The references are to Hammond, N.G.L. and Griffith, G. T., A History of Macedonia II (Oxford, 1979), and Hammond, N. G. L., ‘Diodorus’ Narrative of the Sacred War', JHS 57 (1937), 44–77.

5 ‘ 0 EniKEAAOZ OBOAOZ’, BCH 73 (1949), 177–200.

6 Amphictionie, L., Delphes et le temple d'apollon au IV siècle (Lyon, 1979).

7 Op. cit. (n. 5 above), lines 1–3 of the inscription.

8 Op. cit. (n. 6 above), 39–50.

9 Ibid., 105–11, 114.

10 Bourguet, E., Fouilles de Delphes III.5 (Paris, 1932), no. 19, lines 35; [hereafter cited as FdD].

11 IGII 2 109;FdD 1II.5, nos. 15–18.J., Buckler, ‘Thebes, Delphoi, and the Outbreak of the Third Sacred War’, in Roesch, P. and G., Argoud (eds.), La Béotie Antique (Paris, 1985), 237–46; Buckler (op. cit., n. 2 above), 202 n. 24.

12 Diod. 16.14.3, 30.1; Pouilloux, op. cit. (n. 5 above), 198; Buckler, op. cit. (n. 2 above), 153.

13 FdD III.5, no. 19 lines 8–30, especially 10–11.

14 Ibid., line 31.

15 Ibid., line 71: πε εἰρνα γνετο.

16 Ibid., lines 37, 66, 68–70: τοῖς ναοποιῖς ν τι πολμωι.

17 E., Bourguet, FdD III.l (Paris, 1929), no. 392; see also Buckler, J., Delphi und die Söhne des Kersebleptes, Klio 68 (1986), 348–50.

18 Buckler (n. 2 above), 202–3.

19 FdDUl.5. no. 23, line 114.

20 Similarly, Hammond op. cit. (n. 4 above), prefers Demophilos' account of the Sacred War to the actual documents of the period, even though virtually nothing in the literary source corresponds to the epigraphical evidence.

21 Hammond op. cit. (n. 1 above), 371–3. Throughout the article he is conveniently vague as to whether Trogus or his epitomizer is responsible for the extant text of Justin. On this question, see n. 40 below.

22 Diod. 16.35.2, 38.1; Justin 8.3.2; 11.3.2. Buckler, op. cit. (n. 2 above), 78–80;Errington, R. M., A History of Macedonia, Eng. trans. (Berkeley, 1990), 62–6.

23 A Historical Commentary on Polybius II (Oxford, 1967), 165.

24 Op. cit. (n. 1 above), 368.

25 Dem. 4.35; 19.319; Diod. 16.35.5–6, 61.2. Buckler, op. cit. (n. 2 above), with full bibliography.

26 6.20, 74;Letter to Philip 1.20. Although Hammond opines (n. 1 above, 368) that Isokrates sent a copy of his tract to Philip with the second Athenian peace delegation, which Hammond places in May 346 B.C., Isokrates (6.7) states quite plainly that Philip and the Athenians had already made peace before he had finished his essay. So also Kallisthenes, FGrH 124 F 44.

27 Dem. 19.36, 163, 174.

28 Op. cit. (n. 1 above), 368–9;G., Cawkwell, Philip of Macedon (London, 1978), 92.

29 Dem. 23.179–80, 189; Diod. 16.22.3. Kahrstedt, ‘Ketriporis’, RE 11 (1921), 372;Errington, , op. cit. (n. 22 above), 47–8.

30 For the date of Demosthenes' speech, see A., Lesky, A History of Greek Literature, Eng. trans., 2nd. ed. (New York, 1963), 601.

31 FGrH IIIB, 371.

32 Judeich, ‘Amadokos’, RE 1 (1894), 1713;Schaefer, A., Demosthenes und seine Zeit I 2 (Leipzig, 1885), 446; Griffith, op. cit. (n. 4 above), 282–5. Amadokos III: Polyb. 22.14.12; Livy 39.35.4.Walbank, F. W., A Historical Commentary on Polybius III (Oxford, 1979), 199; Errington, op. cit. (n. 22 above), 209.

33 ‘The Macedonian Navies of Philip and Alexander until 330 B.C.’, Antichthon 26 (1992), 30–41.

34 Polyain. 4.2.22. Badian, ‘Philip II and Thrace’, Pulpudeva 4 (1983), 57–60;Buckler, J., ‘Pammenes, die Perser und der Heilige Krieg’, in H. Beister and J., Buckler (eds.), BOIOTIKA (Munich, 1989), 157–60.

35 Ps. Dem. 7 passim, especially 2–16, for Philip's alleged reasons for suppressing piracy.

36 Ps. Dem. 12.2, 16.

37 Both Griffith, op. cit. (n. 4 above), 567, and Errington, op. cit. (n. 22 above), 80, have mistranslated the aorists in the passage as presents. Hammond, op. cit. (n. 33 above), 34, also misinterprets the meaning of the passage. For a fuller discussion of the episode, see my ‘Philip's Designs on Greece’, in Wallace, R. W. and Harris, E. M. (eds.), Transitions to Empire in the Greco-Roman World, 360–146 B.C. (Norman, Okla., forthcoming in 1997).

38 Buckler, op. cit. (n. 2 above), 127–8, with earlier bibliography.

39 Op. cit. (n. 1 above), 370–71.

40 Kroll, ‘Iunianus’, RE 10 (1918), 956–8;R. Syme, ‘The Date of Justin and the Discovery of Trogus’, Historia 37 (1988), 358–71.

41 Klotz, A., ‘Pompeius Trogus’, RE 21 (1952), 2300–13, where direct knowledge of Theopompos is assumed. Jacoby, FGrH IIC, 220–2, takes a more cautious position. For Trogus' use of Timagenes, see R. Laquer, ‘Timagenes’, RE 6A (1936), 1063–71, especially 1065–6.

42 Jacoby, FGrH 88 T7; F 1, prove that Timagenes had used a variety of sources, and had also treated Greek prehistory (see F 1 and Hdt. 1.173). Theopompos had likewise known his Herodotus quite well, as proven by his epitome of The Histories in two books: Jacoby, FGrH 115 FF 1–4.

43 DePraefatio des Pompeius Trogus (Erlangen, 1955), 18–23;Forni, G., Valorestorico efonti diPompeo Trogo (Urbino, 1958), 45–9;Yardley, J. C., trans., Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus (Atlanta, 1994).

44 Flower, M. A., Theopompus of Chios (Oxford, 1994), 5, 133 n. 44, 148–9, also points out that Hammond himself in ‘Sources of Justin on Macedonia to the death of Philip’, CQ 41 (1991), 496–508, prefers Marsyas as Trogus' source for early Macedonian history. Pertinent also is Homblower, J., Hieronymus of Cardia (Oxford, 1981), 66 n. 160

45 Op. cit. (n. 1 above), 370.

46 Tronson, A., ‘Satyrus the Peripatetic and the Marriages of Philip II’, JHS 104 (1984), 116–26; Buckler, op. cit. (n. 2 above), 59–63.

47 Although Hammond, op. cit. (n. 3 above), 206 n. 15, rejects my interpretation of the peace treaties of 346 B.C., a detailed exposition of my views can be found in ‘Philip II, the Greeks, and the King, 346–336 B.C.’, ICS 19 (1994), 99–122. See also the excellent article of Dobesch, G., ‘Phokion und der Korinthische Bund Philipps II’, in Vita e Pensiero (Milan, 1994), 231–55.

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