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ΗΘΙκΗ ΛЕΞΙΣ and Dinarchus.

  • J. F. Lockwood (a1)
Abstract

In the opening chapter of the Iudicium de Dinarcho Dionysius quotes a passage from the Περì ὁμωνὐμων of Demetrius Magnes, mat the end of which come the words ἧ δέ λὲξις ἐςτί τοῦ Δεινάρχου κυρὶως ἠθική πάθος κινοῦσα σχεδòν τῇ πικρíᾳ μóνον καì τῷ τóνῶ τοὖ Δημοσθθενικοὖ χαρακτῆρος λειπομὲνη τοῦ δέ πιθανοὖ καì κυρíιυ μηδὲν ἐνδέονσα. [I have deliberately omitted all punctuation marks, because the punctuation of this sentence is still doubtful, though I hope to suggest a possible interpretation of its meaning at the end of this article.] Now there is nothing in this sentence or in the words preceding it to indicate beyond all possibility of doubt the precise meaning ofκυρíως ἠθικὴ. And in such circumstances, to allow free play to personal (or perhaps natural) prejudices regarding the significance of thephrase is more than dangerous. The whole problem of ἠθική λὲξις has been treated too cursorily. If one mentions the phrase to a non-professional student of Greek, who, however, has some acquaintance with the Attic orators, he immediately replies: ‘I suppose you mean the sort of thing you meet in Lysias.’ And he is to beexcused, because, after all, that is the predominant meaning of the term. But it has other senses, and therefore one must fight shy of vague statements like that of Finke, who, after quoting the above lines, comment: ‘Demetrius Magnus attribuit ei (sc. Dinarcho)τἡν κυρíαν λὲξιν qua non sit Demosthene inferior’(the last few words of which are possibly not even a correct translation of the text); or of Burgess, who enumerates qualities, ideas, and topics ‘of special value to the epideictic and court orators, ’ among which appears ἠθοποιἷα which he merely translates ‘impersonation or delineation of character, ’ without offering any further comment. Sandys talks of ‘the ethical warmth of colouring, by which the dullest details are lit up with a fresh life and interest.’ Gromska is even more vague (and seems almost to confuse ἦθ∨ς and χαρακτὴρ: ‘Grammatici antiqui, qui de Hyperide tractabant, de eloquentiae eius genere disputabant, orationum Hyperidearum compositionem et ἦθ∨ς respicientes, i.e. quantum in arte rhetorica et oratoria valeret, examinantes.’ In the hope, therefore, of being able to represent the difficulty inherent in these lines, and of attempting to remove it, or at any rate to shed a broader beam of light upon it than has been shed hitherto, I propose to review very briefly the fluctuations of meaning in the life of this phrase and its equivalents, as we find them used in the critical writings of the Greek philosophers and rhetoricians.

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page 180 note 1 Dionys. Hal., Opusc., Vol. I., 299 (ed. Usener and Radermacher ).

page 180 note 2 Finke Reinholdus, Quaestiones Dinarcheae, p. 4.

page 180 note 3 Burgess Theodore C., Epideictic Literature: Studies in Classical Philology, Univ. of Chicago (Vol. III., p. 109 footnote): ‘for the epideictic orator ἐγκωμíον, φóγις, κοινòς τóπος σὐγκρισις, ἠθποιὴα, γνὼμη, θὲσις for the Court orator θἑσις, κοινòς, τóπος, ἀνασκευὴ, παρασκευὴ, ήθοποι$$$$α, θὲσις νóμον εìσπιρὰ.’

page 180 note 4 Sandys and Paley , Demosthenes' Priv. Orat. II., p. xxx.

page note 5 Gromska D.De Sermoue Hyperidis, in Studia Leopolitana, 1927.

page 181 note 1 Cf. also Cope, Introd.to Arist . Rhet., pp. 108113; and possiblyr Rhet. III. 16. 9, ἠθικὰ τὰἑπóμενα ἑκάστπ ἥθει.

page 181 note 2 Cf. Cornific . I. 5.8, Wyse , Speeches of Isaeus, pp. 180181, for the ‘captatio benivolentiae ab nostra persona’; Stephanus, ἠθιĸóν πρооιμιоνquale sit Ulpianusdocet ad Demosth.Olynth. I.(ad init), τó έν τν έξκι έτιоν κаι έπíκĸέ; è;θо έχоν ενоνν πоκľ τóν áκρоγèν κτι’.

page 181 note 3 On the analogy of the suggestion of MrDenniston in C.Q., 01 1929(ρκτικó=to mark a beginning).

page 181 note 4 Opuscula II., p. 97, 11. 7–8.

page 181 note 5 Viz. C. 36, λбγоμςλπоóĺςωо... τоîτκπρóωπоις κι τς τε πρλγμλóυν c.41, λειπоντς ς óκоπεîν ι τε πρоóκоτλ λι τоς óκо τεπρλγμλоν πρоóπоι τоîς Μλιоς оικειоι c. 45, πρ λγμινоι περι τς έιενθερις τоîς κιρоîςκιτоιςàλλоτς πóιν.

page 181 note 6 Attic Orators I., P.171.

page 182 note 1 Attic Orators, I., p.169.

page 182 note 2 Ibid., p.170.

page note 3 The other three passages in the De Lyeare c.8 ‘suitability’ c. 19; ‘faithful representation’ c. 24 ‘good impression˝ μέν γε λρχ κέχρτι, őπειρоςει πργμλτων κλι оúδμενоς εις ςικóτριоν ειоένλι. λιπιφέρει πνυθκŵς.

page 182 note 5 With this cf. perhaps c.33 κρаτιоτ ιέξέι κаίιρο;аνλνθώιоνπúоóμεν.

page 182 note 6 cf.especially c.22, where the regernce is to the effect on the heare's mental outlook. isocrates is like a military band; he makes you stick out your chest and think yourself ‘no end of a fellow.’ Cf.Isocrates, Evagoras, §73–75.

page 182 note 7 Cf. Uhlig's note ap. Apollonius Dyscolus in Grammatici Graeci, Vol. II. (index).

page 183 note 1 Cf. Finke, p.21, ‘suavi ac moratae dictioni Lysianae.’.

page 183 note 2 Cf. ed. Schmid, pp.55, 74, 76, 83, 84–94, 102, 104, 111, 112, 117.

page 183 note 3 There remain in Aristides some passages to which these general statements are perhaps in applicable, viz. p. 93, 11. 9 sqq., and especially p.117, 11. 9 sqq., őτаν δέ τνбμа εξ ενúς τоû оνμγιμρоôντς όνμŋνς ε ìμ εì έψоιντо, оυνаκоιоúθ, νγγρаφικ ν έоτι ιбγоν оτ κаι ιбγоθоςέоντоς.

page 183 note 4 περì ιδεŵν (ed. Rabe ). B.V. περì θоνς, pp. 320322.

page 183 note 5 Cf. Anon. τεχνῄ ῤ;ῄτ. Spengel I. 444, ἐλνμντоι διῄγῄμа ῄθικν ῄ κаβаρú.

page 183 note 6 Progymeasm, Spengel III.489.

page 183 note 7 ėκ τŵν Аоγγινоν, NO.13. Spenger I., p.327, ῄθικόκς ιбιоς γìννετаι κаìà διáνо;аν, őτаν χρῄоτν χ πρς τà βειτìω ῤέπоνσаν. But ought we to make a distinction here between ιбγоς and ιέξι—‘discourse’ or ‘story’ as opposed to ‘style’?.

page 183 note 8 Progymn. περì μúθоυ (ed.Rabe ), p. 2, 11. 3–4.

page 183 note 9 Spengel III. 162.

page 183 note 10 Ibid. 177.

page 183 note 11 Aphthonius, l.c.

page 184 note 1 Vid. Ernesti, Lex. Tech. Graec. Rhet. s.v. ἢθоς ῄθικόν, ῄθκόìа πρσ ωπоπιа, and Lex. Tech. Lat. Rhet. S.v. ‘affection, ’ ‘affectus‘prosop-opoeia’.

page 184 note 2 Sopater , Progymn.(ed. Rabe ), p. 64, 11. 11–16.

page 184 note 3 Cf. Aphthonius, I.c.

page note 4 περì σχῄμàτων, Spengel III.21.

page 184 note 5 περì πιχερμλτωνSpengel I. 418.

page 184 note 6 περι τŵν τῄς διаνоаς σχλτων. pgr;ερι μετаθέσως, Spengel II. 52.

page 184 note 7 S. v. ὴθικóς

page 184 note 8 To cite merely a single instance. In the Scholia ad Pindar (ed. Drachmann) there are five references to ἦθος or ἠθικóς, viz. I 326. 8, II. 225. 24 II. 228. I, III. 146. 2, III. 274. 25, in all of which the meaning is ‘in character.’

page 184 note 9 Iudic. de Din., c. 7.

page 184 note 10 L.c., p.4, also suggested as an alternative by Blass.

page 184 note 11 Din. Oratt., p. xix.

page 185 note 1 Cf. Hermogenes' note on Dinarchus.

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