Recent years have brought to light much new evidence which has sometimes compelled considerable revision of the consular fasti of the early Empire. Of especial importance have been the large number of tabulae ceratae forthcoming from the area around the Bay of Naples and the new fragments or reinterpretations of known fragments of municipal fasti The aim of the present paper is to examine the effect which recent discoveries have had on knowledge of the fasti for the reign of Claudius and in the light of the interpretation of this new evidence to produce a revised list of consuls for the period 41–54.
1 For a survey see Reynolds, J., ‘Roman Inscriptions, 1971–5’, JRS 66 (1976), 184, esp. n.129.
2 All dates are A.D. unless otherwise specified.
3 Smallwood, , pp.2, ff.
4 For the most recent discussion of whom see Thomasson, B. E., Senatores Procuratoresque Romani, pp.53 f.
5 See further on this list from Antium Weaver, P. R. C., ‘Dated Inscriptions of Imperial Freedmen and Slaves’, ES 11 (1976), 215 f.
6 For the full name see Barbieri, 1967, 6; Eck, W., RE Suppl. xiv. 51.
7 Forthe full name see now AE (1978), 549; Eck, W.‘M. Pompeius Silvanus, consul designatus tertium — ein Vertrauter Vespasians und Domitians’, ZPE 9 (1972), 259 ff; RE Suppl. xiv. 437.
8 So also Eck, W., ZPE op.cit. 264 n.l5.
9 See also Barbieri, G., ‘Ancora sui consoli dell'anno 40’, Epigraphica 30 (1978), 185 correcting his earlier attribution of this tablet to A.D. 40 in Barbieri, 1967, 3.
10 Barbieri's report of a tablet which places Vespasianus in office on 30 October (Barbieri, 1967, 9 f.) is clearly erroneous. The error has also been noted by Eck, 1975, 339 n.94.
11 For more detailed discussions of each of the following see § II.
13 Barbieri, 1967, 3, 7 wrongly attributed a wax tablet to this pair which he thought placed them in office during January and February of 40. A revised reading attributed the tablet to the ordinarii of 49 – see now Barbieri, G., Epigraphica 30 (1978), op.cit. 185.
13 Corte, M. Delia, ‘Tabelle cerate Ercolanesi’, PP 6 (1951), 226.
14 I wish to thank Professor G. W. Houston for pointing out to me that these individuals known only from coins of Apamea (BMC Phrygia, 94 nos. 143, 147) were not governors of Asia (as assumed in Gallivan 1974, 300 following Magie 1582) but were in fact either real or honorary local officials at Apamea. See further Houston, G. W., ‘M. Plancius Varus and the Events of A.D. 69–70’, TAPHA. 103 (1972), 173 f. and Jameson, S., ‘Cornutus Tertullus and the Plancii of Perge’, JRS 55 (1965), 58.
15 See Degrassi, , pp.5 ff., Ehrenberg, V. and Jones, A. H. M., Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, pp.38 ff.
16 Degrassi, , pp.7 ff., Ehrenberg, V. and Jones, A. H. M., op.cit., pp.40 ff.
17 Gallivan, 1974, 294 f.
18 Ianus Pater is described as – … is designatus erat in kal. lulias postmeridianus consul. … (Sen, . Apoc. 9). I accept the Senecan authorship of this work and a date for its publication of November or December 54; see further now, the discussion by Griffin, M. T., Seneca. A Philosopher in Politics, pp.129 f.
19 AE (1973), 166 = Giordano, 1971, 194 tablet 17 reads in part – I (Actum) (Puteol) is XIII K[alendas] Aug[ustas] I (Sex. Palpellio Histr)o, L. Pediano Secundo co(n)s(ulibus), i.e. 20 July. Barbieri, 1975, 155 placing the consular pair in 43 accepts the date without hesitation. Misreadings of these tablets are not unknown (see e.g. Degrassi, A., ‘Epigraphica IV’, RAL 14 (1969), 138) but the Aug. of the tablet cannot be questioned (see Giordano, 1971 loc.cit.). However, recently discovered fragments of the Fasti Potentini (see Barbieri, 1975, 153) show that the fasti for 43 contained ten consuls (see § III). It is impossible to accommodate all of these in 43 if Hister and Secundus were still in office during July since no consul can be shown to have held office for less than two months during the Claudian and Neronian periods, (see § III. The two (?) week consulship of C. Antistius Vetus in 46 is clearly unique.). The tablet must therefore be in error. In all probability the consular pair in question will have left office at the end of June thus leaving six months to accommodate the three pairs of suffects still to be fitted into this year. For a further complication about the year 43 see below.
20 The individuals involved, with two exceptions (the favoured Q. Veranius and C. (or A.) Pompeius Longinus Gallus), were holding the consulship for either the second time or the third time in the case of L. Vitellius or the third and fourth time in the case of Claudius himself.
21 I give in italics the suffects whose terms of office need to be added to those of the ordinarii to make up the six-month period of office.
22 Suet, . Claud. 46; Vesp. 4.2.
23 Gallivan, 1974, 295 f.
24 The unique case of C. Antistius Vetus consul for a maximum period of two weeks, need not be taken into account here.
25 See below for further discussion of this date.
28 CIL x. 4881 = ILS 8530 reads: C. Herennio C.F. | Ter. Melai | aedili 11 vir | L. Nonio Asprenate cos. | 111 non. Sept. h. X natus est | A. Gabinio Secundo cos. | 111 non. Sept. h. X moritu[r]. | Mel ant a filio.
29 PIR1 2 G. 4 ff.; Taylor, L. R., The Voting Districts of the Roman Republic, p.217.
30 Gallivan, 1974, 296 f.
31 T. (or L.) Mussidius Pollianus; C. Ummidius Durmius Quadratus; Pompeius Pedo; C. Suetonius Paullinus; C. Calpetanus Rantius Sedatus (Metronius?); C. Fuufius? (Fufius?); Cn. Minicius; L. Popillius Balbus; P. Anteius Rufus; P. Volasenna; Pompeius Paulinus; Lurius Varus; C. Calpurnius Piso; Ignotus I; Ignotus II; P. Sulpicius Scribonius Proculus; Sulpiciu Scribonius Rufus; Caesennius (or Caesonius) Maximus; Cluvius Rufus; Hordeonius Flaccus and Rubrius Gallus. The last six consuls are just as likely to have been Neronian consuls but it is not possible on the present evidence to dismiss them from the Claudian fasti.
32 This would be the number if C. Suetonius Paullinus were the same person as either Ignotus I or Ignotus II.
33 DE. ii. 1331 f.; Hirschfeld, O., Die Kaiserlichen Verwaltungsbeamten bis auf Diocletian, p. 205.
34 Mommsen, Th., Römisches Staatsrecht, ii 3.669 n.5.
35 e.g. Groag, , RE xvi. 901; De Laet no. 255.
36 Degrassi, A., ‘Osservazioni su alcuni consoli suffetti dell' età di Augusto e Tiberio’, Epigraphica 8 (1946), 38 f.
37 See e.g. the fasti in De Laet 231 f.
38 Op.cit. (n.33), pp.206 f.
39 These extraordinary curatores were allocated the task of looking after roads close to Rome. See further Hirschfeld, op.cit. 206 following Mommsen, op.cit. ii 3. 668 ff.
40 Cf. his handling of the Aerarium (Tac, . Ann. 13. 29).
41 Ritterling, E., Fasti des römischen Deutschland unter dem Prinzipat, p.14.
42 Ibid., pp.12 ff.
43 For this date see Wilkes, J., Dalmatia p.114.
44 So also, PIR 2 L. 449.
45 Cited by Alföldy, G. in the Addenda et Corrigenda to PIR 2 L. 449.
46 Add now the recently discovered inscription from Aquinum, AE (1973), 188 = Gianetti, A., ‘Epigrafi Latine della Campania e del Latium Adiectum (REGIO 1)’, RAL 28 (1973), 476.
47 He was perhaps in charge there from 31 to 37. So Syme, R., ‘The Ummidii’, Historia, 17 (1978), 74. Alföldy, G., Fasti Hispanienses, 136 dates his governorship ‘etwa 31–39’.
48 Whether this means that he was governor of Pannonia or Dalmatia is uncertain. See further, Wilkes, J., Dalmatia, p.443; Jagenteufel, A.op.cit. (n.60), pp.32 ff. A military diploma of 61 (CIL xvi.4 = ILS 1987 = Smallwood no. 296) calls Pannonia Illyricum which might suggest that Quadratus was governor of that province rather than Dalmatia.
49 See further, Syme, R., ‘Consulates in Absence’, JRS 48 (1958), 1 ff.
50 See n.58.
51 On this connection see further Syme, R., Historia, 17 (1978), 78 f.
52 For acceptance of this date, ibid., 74 Wilkes, J., Dalmatia, p.443 and Alföldy, G., Fasti Hispanienses, p.136
53 This date is accepted by Thomasson, B. E., Die Statthalter der römischen Provinzen Nordafrikas von Augustus bis Diocletianus, ii. 242 but Miltner (RE iv A. 591 ff.) has argued that Dio has combined the campaigns of Paullinus which, he argues, ought to be assigned to the autumn of 41 and those of Paullinus' successor Cn. Hosidius Geta which ought to be assigned to the summer of 42, in his view. I can find no evidence in favour of Miltner's view against the date given by Dio.
54 42 is preferred by Birley, A. R., ‘The Roman Governors of Britain’, ES 4 (1967), 66; 43 by Syme, R., Tacitus, p.387 n.2 and Ogilvie, R. M. and Richmond, I. A., Cornelii Taciti de vita Agricolae, p.145.
55 It would be tempting to identify Paullinus with the L.S — of the fragment of the Fasti Potentini for 43 but according to Barbieri, 1975, 153 f, the praenomen L. seems certain. Paullinus could of course be one of the two Ignoti on the same fragment.
56 Supporting this year see Eck, 1975, 342 n.120 who unfortunately overlooks the fact that the November/December suffection in 45 is unfilled. So also Barbieri, 1975, 156 f.
57 Favoured by Syme, R., ‘Domitius Corbulo’, JRS 66 (1970), 28.
58 e.g. Gallus, A. Didiuscos. 39 (not 36 as previously believed – see now Barbieri, G., ‘A. Didius Gallus e Ti. Iulius lulianus’, RAL 29 (1974), 259); Cn. Domitius Afer cos. suff. 39, praetor in 25 Tac, . Ann. 4. 52) and C. Ummidius Durmius Quadratus cos. suff. c.40 (see above), praetor in 18 (ILS 972). Others were clearly in the pipeline and are duly recorded in the fasti for the early years of Claudius, e.g. Sex. Palpellius Hister cos. suff. 43 (see § I) who was given as a comes to Tiberius by Augustus (ILS 946) and Rufus, Q. Curtiuscos. suff. 43 (see below) who was elderly when he held the governorship of Upper Germany in 47 (Tac, . Ann. 11. 21. 3).
59 For the intervals between holding the consulship and receiving the governorship of Britain under Claudius see Birley, A. R., ES 4 (1967), 64 f.
60 Jagenteufel, A., Die Statthalter der römischen Provinz Dalmatia von Augustus bis Diokletian, p.39; Wilkes, J., Dalmatia, pp.83, 444.
61 e.g. by Wilkes, J., Dalmatia, p.536.
62 Römisches Staatsrecht, ii 3. 588, 642.
63 The case would be strengthened further if Groag (RE xix. 1216) is correct in identifying this Petronius Lurco with the Lurco, A. Petroniuscos. suff. 58. However M. Petronius may be a younger brother.
64 Dobson, B., ‘The Praefectus Fabrum in the Early Principate’, in Britain and Rome, 65.
65 Mommsen, , Römisches Staatsrecht, i 3. 300 n.5; ii3. 98 n.4.
66 The new order of names has been occasioned by the recently discovered fragment of the Fasti Potentini (Barbieri, 1975, 153).
67 Syme, R., JRS 60 (1970), 38.
68 See also Barbieri, G., RAL 29 (1974), 259.
69 See Gallivan, 1974, 300 where it is argued that the vacant September/October suffection in 5 5 should be filled by M. Iunius Silanus and A. Ducenius Geminus.
70 See also Harrer, G. A., Studies in the History of the Roman Province of Syria, pp.64 f.
11 See the lists ibid. 63 f.; De Laet 241 f.
72 Jagenteufel, A., op.cit., p.34; Wilkes, J., op.cit., p.444.
73 Jagenteufel, A., op.cit., pp.18 ff.; Wilkes, J., op.cit., pp.443 f.
74 This date was deduced by W. H. Waddington, Pastes des provinces asiatiques de I ‘Empire romain, no. 90 (followed by Magie 1582 and Eck, 1975, 339) on the grounds that a coin with the name Volasenna bears a portrait of Poppaea Sabina whom Nero married in 62 (Tac, . Ann. 14. 59 f.; Suet, . Nero 35; Dio 62. 23) and who was killed by the emperor in 65 (Tac, . Ann. 16. 6).
75 L. Salvius Otho Titianus was proconsul for 63/4 (Tac, . Agric. 6); L. Antistius Vetus for 64/5 (Magie 1582; 1422 n.78) and M'. Acilius for 65/6 (ibid. 1582). Since C. (or A.) Pompeius Longinus Gallus was proconsul in 59/60 (ibid. 1582; 1421 n.72), we are left with only two years, 60/1 and 61/2 for Volasenna and Marcius Barea Soranus (ibid. 1582; 1422 n.77).
76 Cf. Gallivan, 1974, 299.
78 Cf. Eck's view (Eck, 1975, 339) – ‘bleibt mit grösserer Wahrscheinlichkeit nur noch das Jahr 54 übrig, in dem P. Volasenna die Fasces geführt haben kann’. P. Volasenna (the praenomen is given by coins BMC Phrygia, 58 nos. 1 ff.) is perhaps the younger brother of C. Volasenna Severus suff. 44 (see below). It is highly unlikely that the two Volasennae should be one and the same person despite the confusion over the praenomen of the governor of Asia (see PIR, V. 616), for an interval of almost twenty years between the consulship and the proconsulship of Asia is unparalleled for these years (Magie 15181 f.; Eck, 1975, 339).
79 Zevi, F., ‘Nuovi frammenti dei Fasti Ostienses’, Akten des VI internationalen Kongresses für griechische und lateinische Epigraphik München 1972, p.437.
80 See the discussion under P. Trebonius/Q. Caecina Primus below.
81 Gallivan, 1974, 301.
82 Ibid., 300 f.
83 See PIR 2 C. 284 and, most recently, Scheid, J., Les Frères Arvales, 206 ff.
84 Gallivan, 1974, 301.
85 Ibid. 304.
86 So also Alföldy, G., Fasti Hispanienses, pp.16 f. Syme, R., Tacitus, pp.293 f. suggested that Josephus may have added anachronistically.
87 Gallivan, 1974, 305 f.
89 Zevi, F., op.cit. (n.79), p.437.
90 RE Suppl. xiv. 810.
91 I follow Smallwood's practice of giving Claudius' years of tribunician power in brackets. My suggested revisions are italicized.
92 The year is complete because one of the two pairs C. Vibius Rufinus/M. Cocceius Nerva and P. Fabius Firmianus/L. Tampius Flavianus belong in July/August.
93 Gallivan, 1974, 299 f.
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