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Ille Ego Qui Quondam…

  • R. G. Austin (a1)

Of these lines Markland wrote in 1728 (on Statius, S. 5. 3. 8) ‘patet ignari cuiusdam et barbari interpolatoris esse’; Dr. Trapp in 1735 found them ‘in themselves flat, and improper, and altogether unworthy of Virgil’; ‘in his ipsis miror qui factum sit ut Viri Doctissimi non agnouerint orationis uim et elegantiam’ (Wagner, 1832); ‘finding in them … all Virgil's usual ease and suavity … [we] hail those verses with joy, and reinstate them in their rightful … position as the commencing verses of the great Roman epic’ (Henry, 1873); ‘uersus praeclarissimos iniuria poeta abiudicauerunt editores plerique’ (Hirtzel, OGT, 1901);

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page 107 note 1 Authenticity is now supported by Duckworth G. E., Structural Patterns and Proportions in Vergil's Aeneid (Ann Arbor, 1962), p. 84.

page 107 note 2 Not on the Fasti of Ovid, as is sometimes stated (e.g. Rostagni , Riv. di Fil. lxvii [1939]. I).

page 108 note 1 The words occur among the Pompeian graffiti: see Hoogma R. P., Der Einfluβ Ver-gils auf die Carmina Latina Epigraphica (Amsterdam, 1959), pp. 222 f.

page 108 note 2 For a wild idea that Propertius' nunc here echoes at nunc in these lines (with other ‘echoes’ also) see Fitz-Hugh T., TAPA xxxiv (1903), xxxii; Rostagni agreed (Riv. di Fil. lxvii [1939], 6ff.). The theory is de servedly attacked by Brandt E., Philologus lxxxiii (1928), 330, and by Funaioli G., Atene e Roma, N.S. viii (1940), 97 ff. (= Studi di Utteratura antica (Bologna, 1958), ii. 1. 149ff.).

page 108 note 3 So DeWitt N. W., CP xvi (1921), 344; the argument there made, that Virgil meant the lines to ‘guarantee for all time the unity of authorship’, is absurd. Virgil needed no such ‘guarantee’; if nothing else showed this, it is shown by Propertius' reference to the imminent Aeneid (2. 34. 6566).

page 108 note 4 See Fraenkel , Kleine Beitrdge, ii. 214 f., and Horace , p. 362; Leo , Kleine Schriflen, ii. 170; Funaioli , Studi di Utteratura antica, ii. 1. 145.

page 108 note 5 Cf. Ars 3. 812, Am. 2. 1. 12.

page 109 note 1 Cf. Fraenkel , Horace, p. 36a.

page 109 note 2 See Kroll , Studien zum Verständnis der römischen Literatur, p. 27; Norden on Am. 6. 264 ff.; Il. 2. 485 f., Apoll. Rhod. 4. 1381, Callimachus, h. 3. 186.

page 109 note 3 Thus the lines appear in the sixteenth-century translations made by Gavin Douglas, Phaer, and Stanyhurst.

page 110 note 1 See Fraenkel , Kleine Beiträge, ii. 148 f.

page 110 note 2 I cannot agree with Leo, who observes of the ‘Helen’ lines ‘besser als der unechte Angang sind sie nicht’ (Plautinische For-schungen2, p. 42).

page 111 note 1 Cf. Phillimore J. S., Ille ego: Virgil and Professor Richmond (Oxford, 1920), p. 16: an entertaining but wickedly biased polemic.

page 111 note 1 For other examples cf. Stat. S. 2. 7. 57, 4. 2. 2; Claudian , iv Cons. Hon. 38, Cons. Stil. 1. 105, in Eutrop. I. 294; Prudentius , Symm. 2. 52, 55 (see Gronovius , In P. Papinii Statii Silvarum Libros V Diatribe [1637], pp. 1 119 ff.).

page 112 note 1 It could reasonably be argued further that the idea of ‘forcing’ obedience is out of keeping with Virgil's feeling for the soil. However, cogere sometimes has a weakened sense (‘prevail upon’, or the like, as in Hor. Epp. i. 9. 2 ‘rogat et prece cogit’; cf. Roth-stein on Prop. I. 4. 2). Nor need it imply even an unwilling object: cf. Vitruvius 7, praef. 13 ‘quorum artis eminens excellentia coegit ad septem spectaculorum eius operis peruenire famam’, quoted by Shackleton Bailey in his defence of cogis at Prop. 2.1.5. My attention was drawn to this by Professor G. W. Williams-more suo, he has helped me a great deal with this paper-and also to Suetonius , vit. Hor. (p. 2. 21 ff., Klingner) ‘ut non modo saeculare carmen conponen-dum iniunxerit, sed et Vindelicam uic-toriam … priuignorum suorum, eumque coegerit propter hoc tribus carminum libris … quartum addere.’

page 112 note 2 See the valuable discussion by Fuchs H., Museum Helveticum iv (1947), 191, n. 114; and cf. Buchheit V., Vergil über die Sendung Roms, 13 ff. (Gymnasium Beihefte 3, 1963).

page 113 note 1 Cf. Norden , Aeneis VI, Anh. ii (‘Perio-dik’), p. 376: ‘Vergil hat die Gesetze der kunstmäβigen Prosa auf die Poesie über-tragen und für sie verbindlich gemacht: begreiflich genug, denn diese Art von Poesie war ja, wie rhetorische Prosa, zum lauten Lesen und Horen bestimmt’; see also p. 379, n. 1.

page 113 note 2 van Berchem D. (RÉL. xx [1942], 73 ff.) propounded, apparently seriously, the view that the lines are a riposte by Virgil to Horace , Sat. 2. 1. 13 ff. ‘neque enim quiuis horrentia pilis / agmina … describat’, together with other absurdities.

page 113 note 3 The Servian tradition made Tucca joint editor with Varius; but see Leo , Plautiniscke Forschungen2, p. 41, Norden , Hermes xxviii (1893), 501.

page 113 note 4 Cf. Sparrow , Half-lines and Repetition in Virgil (Oxford, 1931), p. 13.

page 113 note 5 See Leo , loc. cit. 40 f.: Donatus (35) shows that emendare was equivalent to sum-mam manum imponere, a very different matter for a conscientious editor from what it was for the author himself; Servius says of the Georgics ‘scripsit emendauitque’, of the Aeneid ‘nee emendauit nee edidit’.

page 113 note 6 Nisus' story of this has caused endless confusion, which fortunately does not con cern me here.

page 114 note 1 Cf. Leo . loc. cit. 41. Servius'language is odd: ‘semiplenos eius inuenimus uersiculos … et aliquos detractos’: how could inuenire apply to what is detractum?

page 114 note 2 C.Q. N.S. xi (1961), 185 ff. I should like to correct here an inaccuracy on p. 192 n. 5, where I stated that Thilo reads ultoris Jama in ii. 587: this is a conjecture only (see his critical notes, p. xxxii), and he does not admit it to his text.

page 114 note 3 Philologus lxxxiii (1928), 331 ff.

page 114 note 4 Cf. Friedländer , Sittengeschichte Roms9, iii. 55.

page 114 note 5 Cf. Hoogma , op. cit. 222.

page 114 note 6 Roman Revolution, p. 219.

page 115 note 1 Cf. Marx , Lucilius i, proleg. p. li.

page 115 note 2 Kleine Beiträge, ii. 192 ff.

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