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The effect of caloric restriction on working memory in healthy non-obese adults

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 April 2019

Emilie Leclerc
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Research Group in Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience of Bipolar Disorder, Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Alisson Paulino Trevizol
Affiliation:
Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit (MDPU), University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Ruth B. Grigolon
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Research Group in Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience of Bipolar Disorder, Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Mehala Subramaniapillai
Affiliation:
Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit (MDPU), University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Roger S. McIntyre
Affiliation:
Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit (MDPU), University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Brain and Cognition Discovery Foundation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Elisa Brietzke
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Research Group in Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience of Bipolar Disorder, Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, SP, Brazil Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit (MDPU), University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Rodrigo B. Mansur
Affiliation:
Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit (MDPU), University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Objective.

We aim to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR) in cognition by comparing performance in neuropsychological tests for working memory between a group of non-obese healthy subjects doing CR for 2 years with another consuming ad libitum diet (AL).

Methods.

This study was part of a larger multicenter trial called CALERIE that consisted of a randomized clinical trial with parallel-group comparing 2 years of 25% CR and AL in 220 volunteers with a BMI between 22 and 28 kg/m2, across 3 sites. The cognitive tests used were the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB) for Spatial Working Memory (SWM) including the total number of errors (SWMTE) and strategy (SWMS). Included as possible moderators were sleep quality, mood states, perceived stress, and energy expenditure. Analyses were performed at baseline and months 12 and 24.

Results.

After adjustments, there was a significantly greater improvement in working memory assessed by the SWM for CR individuals, compared to AL. At month 24, it was related mostly to lower protein intake, compared to other macronutrients. Changes in SWM were moderated by changes in sleep quality, physical activity, and energy expenditure.

Conclusion.

On the long term, CR in healthy individuals seems to have a slightly positive effect on working memory. The study of brain CR targets opens new possibilities to prevent and treat cognitive deficits.

Type
Original Research
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2019

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