2. CA Buscema , QA Abbasi , DJ Barry , TH Lauve . An algorithm for the treatment of schizophrenia in the correctional setting: the Forensic Algorithm Project. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000; 61(10): 767–783.
3. D Castle , J Daniel , J Knott , J Fielding , J Goh , B Singh . Development of clinical guidelines for the pharmacological management of behavioural disturbance and aggression in people with psychosis. Australas Psychiatry. 2005; 13(3): 247–252.
4. N Herrmann , KL Lanctôt , DB Hogan . Pharmacological recommendations for the symptomatic treatment of dementia: the Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia 2012. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2013; 5(Suppl 1): S5.
5. BA List , DH Barzman . Evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of aggression in pediatric patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatr Q. 2011; 82(1): 33–42.
6. HC Morana , FP Camara . International guidelines for the management of personality disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2006; 19(5): 539–543.
7. P Oliver-Africano , D Murphy , P Tyrer . Aggressive behaviour in adults with intellectual disability: defining the role of drug treatment. CNS Drugs. 2009; 23(11): 903–913.
9. P Tyrer , N Seivewright . Pharmacological treatment of personality disorders. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1988; 11(6): 493–499.
12. DL Warden , B Gordon , TW McAllister , et al. Guidelines for the pharmacologic treatment of neurobehavioral sequelae of traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2006; 23(10): 1468–1501.
14. M Fava . Psychopharmacologic treatment of pathologic aggression. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1997; 20(2): 427–451.
15. MH Sheard . Clinical pharmacology of aggressive behavior. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1988; 11(6): 483–492.
18. C Dack , J Ross , C Papadopoulos , D Stewart , L Bowers . A review and meta-analysis of the patient factors associated with psychiatric in-patient aggression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2013; 127(4): 255–268.
20. HG Kennedy . Therapeutic uses of security: mapping forensic mental health services by stratifying risk. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 2002; 8(6): 433–443.
21. AE Vaaler , VC Iversen , G Morken , JC Flovig , T Palmstierna , OM Linaker . Short-term prediction of threatening and violent behaviour in an acute psychiatric intensive care unit based on patient and environment characteristics. BMC Psychiatry. 2011; 11: 44.
25. J Volavka , L Citrome . Pathways to aggression in schizophrenia affect results of treatment. Schizophr Bull. 2011; 37(5): 921–929.
26. RD Hare , CS Neumann . Psychopathy as a clinical and empirical construct. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2008; 4: 217–246.
27. CS Hankin , A Bronstone , LM Koran . Agitation in the inpatient psychiatric setting: a review of clinical presentation, burden, and treatment. J Psychiatr Pract. 2011; 17(3): 170–185.
29. R Wortley . Situational Prison Control: Crime Prevention in Correctional Institutions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2002.
34. J Mabli , C Holley , J Patrick , J Walls . Age and prison violence: increasing age heterogeneity as a violence-reducing strategy in prisons. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 1979; 6(2): 175–186.
35. DJ Cooke , E Wozniak . PRISM applied to a critical incident review: a case study of the Glendairy prison riot and its aftermath in Barbados. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health. 2010; 9(3): 159–172.
36. S Ekland-Olson . Crowding, social control, and prison violence: evidence from the post-Ruiz years in Texas. Law & Society Review. 1986; 20(3): 389–421.
40. E Morrison , G Morman , G Bonner , C Taylor , I Abraham , L Lathan . Reducing staff injuries and violence in a forensic psychiatric setting. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2002; 16(3): 108–117.
41. P Katz , FR Kirkland . Violence and social structure on mental hospital wards. Psychiatry. 1990; 53(3): 262–277.
43. RB Flannery Jr, MA Hanson , WE Penk . Risk factors for psychiatric inpatient assaults on staff. Journal of Mental Health Administration. 1994; 21(1): 24–31.
44. RB Flannery , A Staffieri , S Hildum , AP Walker . The violence triad and common single precipitants to psychiatric patient assaults on staff: 16-year analysis of the Assaulted Staff Action Program. Psychiatr Q. 2011; 82(2): 85–93.
45. W Mistral , A Hall , P McKee . Using therapeutic community principles to improve the functioning of a high care psychiatric ward in the UK. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2002; 11(1): 10–17.
49. CD Webster , TD Nicholls , ML Martin , SL Desmarais , J Brink . Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START): the case for a new structured professional judgment scheme. Behav Sci Law. 2006; 24(6): 747–766.
50. D Stewart , M Van der Merwe , L Bowers , A Simpson , J Jones . A review of interventions to reduce mechanical restraint and seclusion among adult psychiatric inpatients. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2010; 31(6): 413–424.
56. S Bader , SE Evans , E Welsh . Aggression among psychiatric inpatients: the relationship between time, place, victims, and severity ratings. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc. 2014; 20(3): 179–186.
59. G Weizmann-Henelius . Suutala HJO. Violence in a Finnish forensic psychiatric hospital. Nord J Psychiatry. 2000; 54(4): 269–273.
63. A Maden . Treating Violence: A Guide to Risk Management in Mental Health. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.
67. S Bjørkly , P Hartvig , FA Heggen , H Brauer , TA Moger . Development of a brief screen for violence risk (V-RISK-10) in acute and general psychiatry: an introduction with emphasis on findings from a naturalistic test of interrater reliability. Eur Psychiatry. 2009; 24(6): 388–394.
73. JRP Ogloff , M Daffern . The Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression: an instrument to assess risk for imminent aggression in psychiatric inpatients. Behav Sci Law. 2006; 24(6): 799–813.
77. G Huf , J Alexander , MH Allen , NS Raveendran . Haloperidol plus promethazine for psychosis-induced aggression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; (3): CD005146.
78. G Huf , ES Coutinho , CE Adams . Rapid tranquillisation in psychiatric emergency settings in Brazil: pragmatic randomised controlled trial of intramuscular haloperidol versus intramuscular haloperidol plus promethazine. BMJ. 2007; 335(7625): 869.
80. F Nobay , BC Simon , MA Levitt , GM Dresden . A prospective, double-blind, randomized trial of midazolam versus haloperidol versus lorazepam in the chemical restraint of violent and severely agitated patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2004; 11(7): 744–749.
81. JM Silver , SC Yudofsky , JA Slater , et al. Propranolol treatment of chronically hospitalized aggressive patients. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999; 11(3): 328–335.
83. MS Stanford , CW Mathias , DM Dougherty , SL Lake , NE Anderson , JH Patton . Fifty years of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: an update and review. Personality and Individual Differences. 2009; 47(5): 385–395.
84. M Azermai , M Petrovic , MM Elseviers , J Bourgeois , LM Van Bortel , RH Vander Stichele . Systematic appraisal of dementia guidelines for the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms. Ageing Res Rev. 2012; 11(1): 78–86.
86. C Ballard , A Corbett . Agitation and aggression in people with Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2013; 26(3): 252–259.
87. SJ Ruberg , L Chen , V Stauffer , et al. Identification of early changes in specific symptoms that predict longer-term response to atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry. 2011; 11: 23.
89. D Erhardt , JN Epstein , CK Conners , JDA Parker , G Sitarenios . Self-ratings of ADHD symptoms in adults II: reliability, validity, and diagnostic sensitivity. Journal of Attention Disorders. 1999; 3(3): 153–158.
91. LN Yatham , F Grossman , I Augustyns , E Vieta , A Ravindran . Mood stabilisers plus risperidone or placebo in the treatment of acute mania: international, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. [Erratum appears in Br J Psychiatry. 2003;182:369]. Br J Psychiatry. 2003; 182(2): 141–147.
100. H Grunze , E Vieta , GM Goodwin , et al. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders: update 2009 on the treatment of acute mania. [Erratum appears in World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10(3):255. Note: Dosage error in article text]. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009; 10(2): 85–116.
101. L Osterberg , T Blaschke . Adherence to medication. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353(5): 487–497.
102. M Bauer , M Adli , T Bschor , et al. Lithium’s emerging role in the treatment of refractory major depressive episodes: augmentation of antidepressants. Neuropsychobiology. 2010; 62(1): 36–42.
104. NA Crossley , M Bauer . Acceleration and augmentation of antidepressants with lithium for depressive disorders: two meta-analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007; 68(6): 935–940.
106. AA Nierenberg , M Fava , MH Trivedi , et al. A comparison of lithium and T(3) augmentation following two failed medication treatments for depression: a STAR*D report. Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163(9): 1519–1530; quiz 1665.
108. JC Nelson , GI Papakostas . Atypical antipsychotic augmentation in major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials. Am J Psychiatry. 2009; 166(9): 980–991.
109. RW Lam , SH Kennedy , S Grigoriadis , et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder in adults. III. Pharmacotherapy. J Affect Disord. 2009; 117(Suppl 1): S26–S43.
110. KH Kho , MF van Vreeswijk , S Simpson , AH Zwinderman . A meta-analysis of electroconvulsive therapy efficacy in depression. J ECT. 2003; 19(3): 139–147.
112. D Pagnin , V de Queiroz , S Pini , GB Cassano . Efficacy of ECT in depression: a meta-analytic review. J ECT. 2004; 20(1): 13–20.
113. J Spijker , WA Nolen . An algorithm for the pharmacological treatment of depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2010; 121(3): 180–189.
114.UK ECT Review Group. Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2003; 361(9360): 799–808.
115. RM Jones , J Arlidge , R Gillham , S Reagu , M van den Bree , PJ Taylor . Efficacy of mood stabilisers in the treatment of impulsive or repetitive aggression: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2011; 198(2): 93–98.
118. N Huband , M Ferriter , R Nathan , H Jones . Antiepileptics for aggression and associated impulsivity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010; 17(2): CD003499.
120. A Takahashi , IM Quadros , RM de Almeida , KA Miczek . Brain serotonin receptors and transporters: initiation vs. termination of escalated aggression. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011; 213(2–3): 183–212.
121. RC Young , JT Biggs , VE Ziegler , DA Meyer . A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity. Br J Psychiatry. 1978; 133(5): 429–435.
128. RK Hanson , G Bourgon , L Helmus , S Hodgson . The principles of effective correctional treatment also apply to sexual offenders: a meta-analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 2009; 36(9): 865–891.
133. S Evershed , A Tennant , D Boomer , A Rees , M Barkham , A Watsons . Practice-based outcomes of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) targeting anger and violence, with male forensic patients: a pragmatic and non-contemporaneous comparison. Crim Behav Ment Health. 2003; 13(3): 198–213.
134. DJ Drummond , LF Sparr , GH Gordon . Hospital violence reduction among high-risk patients. JAMA. 1989; 261(17): 2531–2534.
135. E Carroll , K Tyson . Therapeutic management of violence in residential care for severely mentally ill clients: an application for intrapsychic humanism. Smith College Studies in Social Work. 2004; 74(3): 539–561.
137. SL Rizvi , MM Linehan . Dialectical behavior therapy for personality disorders. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2001; 3(1): 64–69.
139. DJ Flannery , MI Singer , M Van Dulmen , J Kretschmar , L Belliston . Exposure to violence, mental health and violent behavior. In: Flannery DJ, Vazsonyi AT, Waldman I, eds. The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2007: 306–319.
143. H Steiner , IG Garcia , Z Matthews . Posttraumatic stress disorder in incarcerated juvenile delinquents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997; 36(3): 357–365.
146. DJ Flannery , MI Singer , KL Wester . Violence exposure, psychological trauma, and suicide risk in a community sample of dangerously violent adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001; 40(4): 435–442.
147. LM Najavits , M Schmitz , S Gotthardt , RD Weiss . Seeking safety plus exposure therapy: an outcome study on dual diagnosis men. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2005; 37(4): 425–435.
149. RW Heinrichs , KK Zakzanis . Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology. 1998; 12(3): 426–445.
150. RS Keefe , RM Bilder , PD Harvey , et al. Baseline neurocognitive deficits in the CATIE schizophrenia trial. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006; 31(9): 2033–2046.
151. RS Keefe , WS Fenton . How should DSM-V criteria for schizophrenia include cognitive impairment? Schizophr Bull. 2007; 33(4): 912–920.
153. K D’Silva , C Duggan , L McCarthy . Does treatment really make psychopaths worse? A review of the evidence. J Personal Disord. 2004; 18(2): 163–177.
162. WJ Livesley . Practical Management of Personality Disorder. New York: Guilford Press; 2003.
164. T Coombs , M Taylor , J Pirkis . Benchmarking forensic mental health organizations. Australas Psychiatry. 2011; 19(2): 133–142.