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Dysphoric mania, mixed states, and mania with mixed features specifier: are we mixing things up?

  • Susan L. McElroy (a1) (a2) and Paul E. Keck (a1) (a2)

Various terms have been used to describe mania when it is accompanied by depressive symptoms. In this article, we attempt to define and discuss 3 of these terms: dysphoric mania, mixed state, and mania with mixed features specifier. We conclude that whatever term is used, it is important to be aware that mania is more often unpleasant than pleasant, and that the unpleasantness is not limited to depression.

Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: Dr. Susan L. McElroy, Lindner Center of HOPE, 4075 Old Western Row Road, Mason, OH 45040, USA. (Email: or
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CNS Spectrums
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