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Metabolic Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease: A Link to a Vascular Hypothesis?

  • Haralampos J. Milionis, Matilda Florentin and Sotirios Giannopoulos


Current evidence from epidemiological, neuroimaging, pathological, pharmacotherapeutic, and clinical studies indicate an association of Alzheimer's disease with risk factors of vascular atherosclerotic disease either in isolation or in aggregate. “Metabolic syndrome” (MetS) is the name for a clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes that are of metabolic origin. These include central obesity, elevated plasma glucose, high blood pressure, atherogenic dyslipidemia, a prothrombotic state, and a proinflammatory state. In this article, we provide an overview of the relevant literature with regard to the relationship of Alzheimer's disease with MetS. Accumulating evidence suggests a “vascular hypothesis” to be related to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. In the light of this evidence, clinician may consider lifestyle interventions toward an early and effective cardiovascular risk-factor management to reduce the cardiometabolic and the cognitive decline risk, while further research of other preventive strategies may be warranted.


Corresponding author

Please direct all correspondence to: Sotirios Giannopoulos, MD, DSc, University of loannina School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, 45110, loannina, Greece; Tel: 30-265-1097514, Fax: 30-265-1097011; E-mail:


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