Getahun D, Jacobsen SJ, Fassett MJ, Chen W, Demissie K, Rhoads GG. Recent trends in childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JAMA Pediatr. 2013; 167(3): 282–288.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. JAMA. 2014; 311(8): 806–814.
Barlow SE. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics. 2007; 120(Suppl 4): S164–S192.
5. World Health Organization. Obesity and Overweight: Fact Sheet no
. 311. 2011. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/
Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164(6): 942–948.
Tanofsky-Kraff M, Shomaker LB, Olsen C, et al. A prospective study of pediatric loss of control eating and psychological outcomes. J Abnorm Psychol. 2011; 120(1): 108–118.
Tanofsky-Kraff M, Marcus MD, Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. Loss of control eating disorder in children age 12 years and younger: proposed research criteria. Eat Behav. 2008; 9(3): 360–365.
Holtkamp K, Konrad K, Muller B, et al. Overweight and obesity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004; 28(5): 685–689.
Hanć T, Słopień A, Wolańczyk T, et al. ADHD and overweight in boys: cross-sectional study with birth weight as a controlled factor. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015; 24(1): 41–53.
Fuemmeler BF, Ostbye T, Yang C, McClernon FJ, Kollins SH. Association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and obesity and hypertension in early adulthood: a population-based study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011; 35(6): 852–862.
Cortese S, Ramos Olazagasti MA, Klein RG, Castellanos FX, Proal E, Mannuzza S. Obesity in men with childhood ADHD: a 33-year controlled, prospective, follow-up study. Pediatrics. 2013; 131(6): e1731–e1738.
Agranat-Meged AN, Deitcher C, Goldzweig G, Leibenson L, Stein M, Galili-Weisstub E. Childhood obesity and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a newly described comorbidity in obese hospitalized children. Int J Eat Disord. 2005; 37(4): 357–359.
Erermis S, Cetin N, Tamar M, Bukusoglu N, Akdeniz F, Goksen D. Is obesity a risk factor for psychopathology among adolescents?
Pediatr Int. 2004; 46(3): 296–301.
Khalife N, Kantomaa M, Glover V, et al. Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms are risk factors for obesity and physical inactivity in adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014; 53(4): 425–436.
Cortese S, Angriman M, Maffeis C, et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity: a systematic review of the literature. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.
2008; 48(6): 524–537.
Mattos P, Saboya E, Ayrao V, Segenreich D, Duchesne M, Coutinho G. [Comorbid eating disorders in a Brazilian attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder adult clinical sample]. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2004; 26(4): 248–250.
Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick MD, Garwick A, Blum RW. Body dissatisfaction and unhealthy weight-control practices among adolescents with and without chronic illness: a population-based study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995; 149(12): 1330–1335.
Reinblatt SP, Leoutsakos JM, Mahone EM, Forrester S, Wilcox HC, Riddle MA. Association between binge eating and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in two pediatric community mental health clinics. Int J Eat Disord. In press. DOI: 10.1002/eat.22342.
Mikami AY, Hinshaw SP, Patterson KA, Lee JC. Eating pathology among adolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2008; 117(1): 225–235.
Alderson RM, Rapport MD, Kofler MJ. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavioral inhibition: a meta-analytic review of the stop-signal paradigm. J Abnorm Child Psychol.
2007; 35(5): 745–758.
Hartmann AS, Rief W, Hilbert A. Impulsivity and negative mood in adolescents with loss of control eating and ADHD symptoms: an experimental study. Eat Weight Disord. 2013; 18(1): 53–60.
Cortese S, Morcillo Penalver C. Comorbidity between ADHD and obesity: exploring shared mechanisms and clinical implications. Postgrad Med. 2010; 122(5): 88–96.
Liu LL, Li BM, Yang J, Wang YW. Does dopaminergic reward system contribute to explaining comorbidity obesity and ADHD?
Med Hypotheses. 2008; 70(6): 1118–1120.
Campbell BC, Eisenberg D. Obesity, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and the dopaminergic reward system. Coll Antropol. 2007; 31(1): 33–38.
Graziano PA, Bagner DM, Waxmonsky JG, Reid A, McNamara JP, Geffken GR. Co-occurring weight problems among children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the role of executive functioning. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012; 36(4): 567–572.
Pauli-Pott U, Albayrak O, Hebebrand J, Pott W. Association between inhibitory control capacity and body weight in overweight and obese children and adolescents: dependence on age and inhibitory control component. Child Neuropsychol. 2010; 16(6): 592–603.
Cortese S, Comencini E, Vincenzi B, Speranza M, Angriman M. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and impairment in executive functions: a barrier to weight loss in individuals with obesity?
BMC Psychiatry. 2013; 13: 286.
Choudhry Z, Sengupta SM, Grizenko N, et al. Body weight and ADHD: examining the role of self-regulation. PLoS one. 2013; 8(1): e55351.
Dempsey A, Dyehouse J, Schafer J. The relationship between executive function, AD/HD, overeating, and obesity. West J Nurs Res. 2011; 33(5): 609–629.
Cortese S, Vincenzi B. Obesity and ADHD: clinical and neurobiological implications. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2012; 9: 199–218.
Haber SN, Knutson B. The reward circuit: linking primate anatomy and human imaging. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010; 35(1): 4–26.
Knutson B, Cooper JC. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of reward prediction. Curr Opin Neurol. 2005; 18(4): 411–417.
Paloyelis Y, Mehta MA, Faraone SV, Asherson P, Kuntsi J. Striatal sensitivity during reward processing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012; 51(7): 722–732.
Nigg JT, Casey BJ. An integrative theory of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder based on the cognitive and affective neurosciences. Dev Psychopathol. 2005; 17(3): 785–806.
Sonuga-Barke EJ. Causal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: from common simple deficits to multiple developmental pathways. Biol Psychiatry. 2005; 57(11): 1231–1238.
Scheres A, Milham MP, Knutson B, Castellanos FX. Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 61(5): 720–724.
Strohle A, Stoy M, Wrase J, et al. Reward anticipation and outcomes in adult males with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuroimage. 2008; 39(3): 966–972.
Plichta MM, Scheres A. Ventral-striatal responsiveness during reward anticipation in ADHD and its relation to trait impulsivity in the healthy population: a meta-analytic review of the fMRI literature. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014; 38: 125–134.
Rubia K, Halari R, Cubillo A, Mohammad AM, Brammer M, Taylor E. Methylphenidate normalises activation and functional connectivity deficits in attention and motivation networks in medication-naive children with ADHD during a rewarded continuous performance task. Neuropharmacology. 2009; 57(7–8): 640–652.
Luman M, Oosterlaan J, Sergeant JA. The impact of reinforcement contingencies on AD/HD: a review and theoretical appraisal. Clin Psychol Rev. 2005; 25(2): 183–213.
Costa Dias TG, Wilson VB, Bathula DR, et al. Reward circuit connectivity relates to delay discounting in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013; 23(1): 33–45.
Rada P, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell. Neuroscience. 2005; 134(3): 737–744.
Avena NM, Carrillo CA, Needham L, Leibowitz SF, Hoebel BG. Sugar-dependent rats show enhanced intake of unsweetened ethanol. Alcohol. 2004; 34(2–3): 203–209.
Davis C, Levitan RD, Muglia P, Bewell C, Kennedy JL. Decision-making deficits and overeating: a risk model for obesity. Obes Res. 2004; 12(6): 929–935.
Davis C, Strachan S, Berkson M. Sensitivity to reward: implications for overeating and overweight. Appetite. 2004; 42(2): 131–138.
Avena NM, Hoebel BG. A diet promoting sugar dependency causes behavioral cross-sensitization to a low dose of amphetamine. Neuroscience. 2003; 122(1): 17–20.
Corwin RL, Hajnal A. Too much of a good thing: neurobiology of non-homeostatic eating and drug abuse. Physiol Behav.
2005; 86(1–2): 5–8.
Carnell S, Gibson C, Benson L, Ochner CN, Geliebter A. Neuroimaging and obesity: current knowledge and future directions. Obes Rev. 2012; 13(1): 43–56.
Kennedy J, Dimitropoulos A. Influence of feeding state on neurofunctional differences between individuals who are obese and normal weight: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Appetite. 2014; 75: 103–109.
Stice E, Figlewicz DP, Gosnell BA, Levine AS, Pratt WE. The contribution of brain reward circuits to the obesity epidemic. Neurosci Biobehav Rev.
2013; 37(9 Pt A): 2047–2058.
Bruce AS, Holsen LM, Chambers RJ, et al. Obese children show hyperactivation to food pictures in brain networks linked to motivation, reward and cognitive control. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010; 34(10): 1494–1500.
Stice E, Yokum S, Bohon C, Marti N, Smolen A. Reward circuitry responsivity to food predicts future increases in body mass: moderating effects of DRD2 and DRD4. Neuroimage. 2010; 50(4): 1618–1625.
Bruce AS, Lepping RJ, Bruce JM, et al. Brain responses to food logos in obese and healthy weight children. J Pediatr. 2013; 162(4): 759–764.
Gearhardt AN, Yokum S, Stice E, Harris JL, Brownell KD. Relation of obesity to neural activation in response to food commercials. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014; 9(7): 932–938.
Davids S, Lauffer H, Thoms K, et al. Increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in obese children during observation of food stimuli. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010; 34(1): 94–104.
Shank LM, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Nelson EE, et al. Attentional bias to food cues in youth with loss of control eating. Appetite. 2015; 87: 68–75.
Stice E, Spoor S, Bohon C, Veldhuizen MG, Small DM. Relation of reward from food intake and anticipated food intake to obesity: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Abnorm Psychol. 2008; 117(4): 924–935.
Burger KS, Stice E. Greater striatopallidal adaptive coding during cue-reward learning and food reward habituation predict future weight gain. Neuroimage. 2014; 99: 122–128.
Kishinevsky FI, Cox JE, Murdaugh DL, Stoeckel LE, Cook EW 3rd, Weller RE. fMRI reactivity on a delay discounting task predicts weight gain in obese women. Appetite. 2012; 58(2): 582–592.
Stice E, Yokum S, Burger KS, Epstein LH, Small DM. Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food. J Neurosci. 2011; 31(12): 4360–4366.
Balodis IM, Kober H, Worhunsky PD, et al. Monetary reward processing in obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2013; 73(9): 877–886.
Balodis IM, Grilo CM, Kober H, et al. A pilot study linking reduced fronto-striatal recruitment during reward processing to persistent bingeing following treatment for binge-eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord. 2014; 47(4): 376–384.
Mostofsky SH, Schafer JG, Abrams MT, et al. fMRI evidence that the neural basis of response inhibition is task-dependent. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2003; 17(2): 419–430.
Rubia K, Smith AB, Woolley J, et al. Progressive increase of frontostriatal brain activation from childhood to adulthood during event-related tasks of cognitive control. Hum Brain Mapp. 2006; 27(12): 973–993.
Blasi G, Goldberg TE, Weickert T, et al. Brain regions underlying response inhibition and interference monitoring and suppression. Eur J Neurosci. 2006; 23(6): 1658–1664.
Willcutt E, Doyle AE, Nigg JT, Faraone SV, Pennington BF. Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Biol Psychiatry. 2005; 57(11): 1336–1346.
Nigg JT. Neuropsychologic theory and findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the state of the field and salient challenges for the coming decade. Biol Psychiatry. 2005; 57(11): 1424–1435.
Willcutt E, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Nigg JT, Sergeant JA. Recent developments in neuropsychological models of childhood psychiatric disorders. In: Banaschewski T, Rohde LA, eds. Biological Child Psychiatry: Recent Trends and Developments. Basel, Switzerland: Karger; 2008: 195–226.
Rubia K, Russell T, Overmeyer S, et al. Mapping motor inhibition: conjunctive brain activations across different versions of go/no-go and stop tasks. Neuroimage. 2001; 13: 250–261.
Nigg JT. On inhibition/disinhibition in developmental psychopathology: views from cognitive and personality psychology and a working inhibition taxonomy. Psychol Bull. 2000; 126(2): 220–246.
Eagle DM, Bari A, Robbins TW. The neuropsychopharmacology of action inhibition: cross-species translation of the stop-signal and go/no-go tasks. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008; 199(3): 439–456.
Booth JR, Burman DD, Meyer JR, et al. Larger deficits in brain networks for response inhibition than for visual selective attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005; 46(1): 94–111.
Smith AB, Taylor E, Brammer M, Toone B, Rubia K. Task-specific hypoactivation in prefrontal and temporoparietal brain regions during motor inhibition and task switching in medication-naive children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163(6): 1044–1051.
Tamm L, Menon V, Ringel J, Reiss AL. Event-related fMRI evidence of frontotemporal involvement in aberrant response inhibition and task switching in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004; 43(11): 1430–1440.
Durston S, Tottenham NT, Thomas KM, et al. Differential patterns of striatal activation in young children with and without ADHD. Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 15(10): 871–878.
Suskauer SJ, Simmonds DJ, Caffo BS, Denckla MB, Pekar JJ, Mostofsky SH. fMRI of intrasubject variability in ADHD: anomalous premotor activity with prefrontal compensation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008; 47(10): 1141–1150.
Rubia K, Smith AB, Brammer MJ, Toone B, Taylor E. Abnormal brain activation during inhibition and error detection in medication-naive adolescents with ADHD. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162(6): 1067–1075.
Rubia K, Overmeyer S, Taylor E, et al. Hypofrontality in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during higher-order motor control: a study with functional MRI. Am J Psychiatry. 1999; 156(6): 891–896.
Pliszka SR, Glahn DC, Semrud-Clikeman M, et al. Neuroimaging of inhibitory control areas in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treatment naive or in long-term treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163(6): 1052–1060.
Passarotti AM, Sweeney JA, Pavuluri MN. Neural correlates of response inhibition in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2010; 181(1): 36–43.
Rubia K, Cubillo A, Smith AB, Woolley J, Heyman I, Brammer MJ. Disorder-specific dysfunction in right inferior prefrontal cortex during two inhibition tasks in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared to boys with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Hum Brain Mapp. 2010; 31(2): 287–299.
Cubillo A, Halari R, Ecker C, Giampietro V, Taylor E, Rubia K. Reduced activation and inter-regional functional connectivity of fronto-striatal networks in adults with childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and persisting symptoms during tasks of motor inhibition and cognitive switching. J Psychiatr Res. 2010; 44(10): 629–639.
Hart H, Radua J, Nakao T, Mataix-Cols D, Rubia K. Meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of inhibition and attention in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: exploring task-specific, stimulant medication, and age effects. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013; 70(2): 185–198.
Cortese S, Kelly C, Chabernaud C, et al. Toward systems neuroscience of ADHD: a meta-analysis of 55 fMRI studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2012; 169(10): 1038–1055.
Batterink L, Yokum S, Stice E. Body mass correlates inversely with inhibitory control in response to food among adolescent girls: an fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2010; 52(4): 1696–1703.
Hendrick OM, Luo X, Zhang S, Li CS. Saliency Processing and Obesity: A Preliminary Imaging Study of the Stop Signal Task. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012; 20(9): 1796–1802.
Maayan L, Hoogendoorn C, Sweat V, Convit A. Disinhibited eating in obese adolescents is associated with orbitofrontal volume reductions and executive dysfunction. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011; 19(7): 1382–1387.
Thompson RA. Emotion regulation: a theme in search of definition. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 1994; 59(2–3): 25–52.
Phillips ML, Drevets WC, Rauch SL, Lane R. Neurobiology of emotion perception I: the neural basis of normal emotion perception. Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 54(5): 504–514.
Ochsner KN, Gross JJ. The cognitive control of emotion. Trends Cogn Sci. 2005; 9(5): 242–249.
Shaw P, Stringaris A, Nigg J, Leibenluft E. Emotion dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2014; 171(3): 276–293.
Leibenluft E, Gobbini MI, Harrison T, Haxby JV. Mothers’ neural activation in response to pictures of their children and other children. Biol Psychiatry. 2004; 56(4): 225–232.
Gobbini MI, Leibenluft E, Santiago N, Haxby JV. Social and emotional attachment in the neural representation of faces. Neuroimage. 2004; 22(4): 1628–1635.
Gobbini MI, Haxby JV. Neural systems for recognition of familiar faces. Neuropsychologia. 2007; 45(1): 32–41.
Dickstein DP, Castellanos FX. Face processing in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2012; 9: 219–237.
Brotman MA, Rich BA, Guyer AE, et al. Amygdala activation during emotion processing of neutral faces in children with severe mood dysregulation versus ADHD or bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2010; 167(1): 61–69.
Posner J, Nagel BJ, Maia TV, et al. Abnormal amygdalar activation and connectivity in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011; 50(8): 828–837.
Marsh AA, Finger EC, Mitchell DG, et al. Reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children and adolescents with callous-unemotional traits and disruptive behavior disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2008; 165(6): 712–720.
Posner J, Maia TV, Fair D, Peterson BS, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Nagel BJ. The attenuation of dysfunctional emotional processing with stimulant medication: an fMRI study of adolescents with ADHD. Psychiatry Res. 2011; 193(3): 151–160.
Passarotti AM, Sweeney JA, Pavuluri MN. Differential engagement of cognitive and affective neural systems in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2010; 16(1): 106–117.
Dallman MF, Pecoraro N, Akana SF, et al. Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of “comfort food”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003; 100(20): 11696–11701.
Block JP, He Y, Zaslavsky AM, Ding L, Ayanian JZ. Psychosocial stress and change in weight among US adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 170(2): 181–192.
Dedovic K, D'Aguiar C, Pruessner JC. What stress does to your brain: a review of neuroimaging studies. Can J Psychiatry. 2009; 54(1): 6–15.
Jastreboff AM, Potenza MN, Lacadie C, Hong KA, Sherwin RS, Sinha R. Body mass index, metabolic factors, and striatal activation during stressful and neutral-relaxing states: an FMRI study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011; 36(3): 627–637.
Rudenga KJ, Sinha R, Small DM. Acute stress potentiates brain response to milkshake as a function of body weight and chronic stress. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013; 37(2): 309–316.
Czaja J, Rief W, Hilbert A. Emotion regulation and binge eating in children. Int J Eat Disord. 2009; 42(4): 356–362.
Tanofsky-Kraff M, Goossens L, Eddy KT, et al. A multisite investigation of binge eating behaviors in children and adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2007; 75(6): 901–913.
Tanofsky-Kraff M, Faden D, Yanovski SZ, Wilfley DE, Yanovski JA. The perceived onset of dieting and loss of control eating behaviors in overweight children. Int J Eat Disord. 2005; 38(2): 112–122.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Maynard L, et al. Brain dopamine is associated with eating behaviors in humans. Int J Eat Disord. 2003; 33(2): 136–142.
Bohon C, Stice E, Spoor S. Female emotional eaters show abnormalities in consummatory and anticipatory food reward: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Int J Eat Disord. 2009; 42(3): 210–221.
Phelps EA, LeDoux JE. Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: from animal models to human behavior. Neuron. 2005; 48(2): 175–187.
Paton JJ, Belova MA, Morrison SE, Salzman CD. The primate amygdala represents the positive and negative value of visual stimuli during learning. Nature. 2006; 439(7078): 865–870.
Yokum S, Stice E. Cognitive regulation of food craving: effects of three cognitive reappraisal strategies on neural response to palatable foods. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013; 37(12): 1565–1570.