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Formulae and Asymptotics for Coefficients of Algebraic Functions

  • CYRIL BANDERIER (a1) and MICHAEL DRMOTA (a2)

Abstract

We study the coefficients of algebraic functions ∑ n≥0 f n z n . First, we recall the too-little-known fact that these coefficients f n always admit a closed form. Then we study their asymptotics, known to be of the type f n ~ CA n n α. When the function is a power series associated to a context-free grammar, we solve a folklore conjecture: the critical exponents α cannot be 1/3 or −5/2; they in fact belong to a proper subset of the dyadic numbers. We initiate the study of the set of possible values for A. We extend what Philippe Flajolet called the Drmota–Lalley–Woods theorem (which states that α=−3/2 when the dependency graph associated to the algebraic system defining the function is strongly connected). We fully characterize the possible singular behaviours in the non-strongly connected case. As a corollary, the generating functions of certain lattice paths and planar maps are not determined by a context-free grammar (i.e., their generating functions are not ℕ-algebraic). We give examples of Gaussian limit laws (beyond the case of the Drmota–Lalley–Woods theorem), and examples of non-Gaussian limit laws. We then extend our work to systems involving non-polynomial entire functions (non-strongly connected systems, fixed points of entire functions with positive coefficients). We give several closure properties for ℕ-algebraic functions. We end by discussing a few extensions of our results (infinite systems of equations, algorithmic aspects).

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