1Carlson, GP and Mansmann, RA (1974). Serum electrolyte and plasma protein alterations in horses used in endurance rides. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 165: 262–264.
2Carlson, GP (1985). Medical problems associated with protracted work and heat stress in horses. Compendium of Continued Education of the Practicing Veterinarian 7: S550–S552.
3Foreman, JH (1998). The exhausted horse syndrome. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice 14: 205–219.
4Leroux, AJ, Schott, HC and Hines, MT (1995). Ventricular tachycardia associated with exhaustive exercise in a horse. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 207: 335–337.
5Ganong, WF (ed.) (1999). Review of Medical Physiology. 19th edn.Stamford, CT: Appleton and Lange.
7Kronfeld, DS (2001). Body fluids and exercise: replacement strategies. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 21: 368–375.
8Aguilera-Tejero, EJ, Estepa, E, Lopez, I, Bas, S, Garfia, B and Rodriguez, M (2001). Plasma ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations in horses after endurance rides. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219: 488–490.
9Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, MM, Wensing, T, Barneveld, A and Breukink, HJ (1991). Heart rate, blood biochemistry and performance of horses competing in a 100 km endurance race. Veterinary Record 128: 175–179.
10Carlson, GP (1983). Thermoregulation, fluid and electrolyte balance in the exercising horse. In: Snow, DH, Persson, SGB and Rose, RJ (eds) Equine Exercise Physiology I. Cambridge, UK: Granta Editions, pp. 291–309.
11Jahn, P, Hartlova, H, Mal, M, Kaber, R and Hanak, J (1996). PCV and plasma biochemistry in relation to fitness of horses competing in endurance rides. Pferedeheilkunde 12: 506–509.
12Wijnberg, ID, van der Kolk, JH, Franssen, H and Breukink, HJ (2002). Electromyographic changes of motor unit activity in horses with induced hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63: 849–856.
13Fitzpatrick, LA and Bilezikian, JP (1999). Parathyroid hormone: structure, function and dynamic actions. In: Seibel, M, Robins, SP and Bilezikian, JP (eds) Dynamics of Bone and Cartilage Metabolism. London: Academic Press, pp. 187–202.
14Cooper, SR, Topliff, DR, Freeman, DW, Breazile, JE and Geisert, RD (2000). Effect of dietary cation–anion difference on mineral balance, serum osteocalcin concentration and growth in weanling horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 20: 39–44.
15Lindinger, MI and Ecker, GL (1995). Ion and water losses from body fluids during a 163 km endurance ride. Equine Veterinary Journal 20: 335–337.
16Nyman, S, Jansson, A, Dahlborn, K and Lindholm, A (1996). Strategies of voluntary rehydration in horses during endurance exercise. Equine Veterinary Journal 22: 99–106.
17AERC, (1999). Veterinary Guidelines for Judging AERC Endurance Competitions. Auburn, CA: The American Endurance Ride Conference.
18Hess, TM, Kronfeld, DS, Treiber, KH, Crandell, KE, Waldron, JE, Williams, CA, Staniar, WB, Lopes, MA and Harris, PA (2007). Fat adaptation affects insulin sensitivity and elimination of horses during an 80 km endurance race. Pferdeheilkunde 23: 241–246.
19McCutcheon, LJ, Geor, RJ, Hare, MJ, Ecker, GL and Lindinger, MI (1995). Sweat composition and on losses during exercise and recovery in heat and humidity. Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 22: 153–157.
20Meyer, H (1990). Contributions to water and mineral metabolism in the horse. Advances in Animal Metabolism and Animal Nutrition, pp. 1–102.
21Stewart, PA (ed.) (1981). How to Understand Acid Base. 1st ed.New York, NY: Elsevier.
22Stämpfli, HR, Misiaszek, S, Lumsden, JH, Carlson, GP and Heigenhauser, GJF (1999). Weak acid-concentration Atot and dissociation constant K a of plasma proteins in racehorses. Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 30: 438–442.
23Carlson, GP (1987). Hematology and body fluids in the equine athlete: a review. Equine Exercise Physiology 2. Davis, CA: ICEEP Publications, pp. 393–425.
24Schott, HC and Hinchcliff, KW (1993). Fluids, electrolytes and sodium bicarbonate. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice 9: 577–604.
25Rosner, B (1995). Guidelines for Judging the Significance of a P-Value. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
26Fregin, GF (1979). Physiologic observations recorded on 117 horses during 100-mile endurance ride. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Equine Practitioners 25: 315–321.
27Lucke, LN and Hall, GM (1978). Biochemical changes in horses during a 50-mile endurance ride. Veterinary Record 102: 356–358.
28Hargreaves, BJ, Kronfeld, DS, Waldron, JN, Lopes, MA, Gay, LA, Saker, KE, Cooper, WL, Sklan, DJ and Harris, PA (2002). Antioxidant status and muscle cell leakage during endurance exercise. Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 34: 116–121.
29Williams, CA, Kronfeld, DS, Hess, TM, Saker, KE, Waldron, JE, Crandell, KM and Harris, PA (2005). Comparison of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in endurance horses in three 80 km races. Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology 2: 153–157.
30Schott, HC, McGlade, KS, Molander, HA, Leroux, AJ and Hines, MT (1997). Body weight, fluid, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in horses competing in 50- and 100-mile endurance rides. American Journal of Veterinary Research 58: 303–309.
31Hess, TM, Kronfeld, DS, Williams, CA, Hoffman, RM, Waldron, NJ, Graham-Thiers, PM, Greiwe-Crandell, K, Lopes, MA and Harris, PA (2005). Potassium supplementation affects acid–base status and plasma ion concentrations of horses during endurance exercise. American Journal of Veterinary Research 66: 466–473.
32Mansmann, RA, Carlson, GP, White, NA and Milne, DW (1974). Synchronous diaphragmatic flutter in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 15: 265–270.
33Harris, PA (1997). Current Therapy in Equine Medicine 4. 1st edn.Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company, pp. 115–121.
34Kerr, MG and Snow, DH (1982). Alterations in hematocrit, plasma proteins and electrolytes in horses following the feeding of hay. Veterinary Record 110: 538–540.
35Delar, A, Fregin, FG, Bloom, JC and Davanipour, Z (1982). Changes in selected biochemical constituents of blood collected from horses participating in a 50-mile endurance race. American Journal of Veterinary Research 43: 2239–2243.
36Coenen, M, Meyer, H and Steinbrenner, B (1995). Effects of NaCl supplementation before exercise on metabolism of water and electrolytes. Equine Veterinary Journal 18(Suppl.): 270–273.
37Dusterdieck, KF, Schott, HC, Eberhart, SW, Woody, KA and Coenen, M (1999). Electrolyte and glycerol supplementation improve water intake by horses performing a simulated 60 km endurance ride. Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 30: 418–424.
38Marlin, DJ, Scott, CM, Mills, PC, Louwes, H and Vaarten, J (1998). Effects of administration of water versus isotonic oral rehydration solution (ORS) at rest and changes during exercise and recovery. Veterinary Journal 155: 69–78.
39Sampieri, F, Schott, HC, Hichcliff, KW and Geor, RJ (2006). Effects of oral eolectrolyte supplementation on endurance horses competing in 80 km rides. Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 36: 19–26.
40Kingston, JK, McCutcheon, LJ and Geor, RJ (1999). Comparison of three methods for estimation of exercise-related ion losses in sweat of horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 60: 1248–1254.
41Hess, TM, Treiber, KH, Kronfeld, DS, Waldron, JE, Williams, CA, Freire, MS, Braga, AMG, Gay, LS, Ward, DA and Harris, PA (2004). Potassium supplementation affects plasma [K+] during an 80 km endurance exercise test on the treadmill. Journal of Animal Science Supplement 82: 97.
42Flaminio, MJBF and Rush, BR (1998). Fluid and electrolyte balance in endurance horses. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice 14: 147–158.
43Baker, LA, Wall, DL, Topliff, DR, Freeman, DW, Teeter, RG, Breazile, JE and Wagner, DG (1993). Effect of dietary cation–anion balance in anaerobically exercised and sedentary horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 13: 557–561.
44Goff, JP and Horst, L (1997). Effects of the addition of potassium or sodium, but not calcium, to prepartum rations on milk fever in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80: 176–186.
45Block, E (1984). Manipulating dietary anions and cations for prepartum dairy cows to reduce incidence of milk fever. Journal of Dairy Science 67: 2939–2942.
46Goff, JP, Horst, RL, Muller, FJ, Miller, JK, Kiess, GA and Dowlen, HH (1991). Addition of chloride to a prepartal diet high in cations increases 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D response to hypocalcemia preventing milk fever. Journal of Dairy Science 74: 3863–3868.