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Quality of general movements in infancy is related to neurological dysfunction, ADHD, and aggressive behaviour

  • Mijna Hadders-Algra (a1) and Annelies M C Groothuis (a1)
    • Published online: 01 June 1999

The quality of general movements (GMs) was assessed repeatedly during the first postnatal months in a mixed group of 52 children at either low or high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition, all children were reexamined at 4 to 9 years. The follow-up assessment consisted of a neurological examination and an evaluation of behaviour by means of parental questionnaires. The quality of GMs changed frequently, to stabilize in the final phase. The final GM phase is that of the so-called fidgety GMs which occurs between 2 and 4 months postterm. The quality of the fidgety GMs predicted outcome very well. Definitely abnormal GMs were associated with a high risk for the development of cerebral palsy, whereas mildly abnormal GMs were associated with the development of minor neurological dysfunction, attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder, and aggressive behaviour.

Corresponding author
Developmental Neurology, University Hospital Groningen, CMC-IV, 3rd floor, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 KZ Groningen, The Netherlands. E-mail:
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Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
  • ISSN: 0012-1622
  • EISSN: 1469-8749
  • URL: /core/journals/developmental-medicine-and-child-neurology
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