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Scepticisme, fidéisme et évidentialisme : oppositions et origines

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Abstract

I maintain that among the main views concerning the central questions of epistemology (in particular, the question of justified belief) are evidentialism, (Pyrrhonian) scepticism and fideism. In this paper, I first present the arguments in favour of a form of evidentialism, according to which no false belief can be epistemically justified on the basis of evidence. Second, I consider the historical emergence of evidentialism during the period of the early Enlightenment. In particular, I explore the disagreement between Pierre Bayle and Jean-Pierre de Crousaz, which demonstrates the emergence of the modern opposition between evidentialism and fideism.

Les principales attitudes adoptées devant les questions centrales de l’épistémologie générale (en particulier la question de la croyance justifiée) sont selon nous l’évidentialisme, le scepticisme (pyrrhonien) et le fidéisme. Dans cet article, nous présentons d’une part les arguments permettant d’accepter une forme de l’évidentialisme selon laquelle aucune croyance fausse ne peut être justifiée sur la base de raisons probantes. D’autre part, nous proposons de considérer l’aspect historique de l’émergence de l’évidentialisme au début des Lumières. Nous explorons un cas particulier qui témoigne de l’émergence de l’évidentialisme moderne comme opposition au fidéisme. Il s’agit de l’opposition entre Pierre Bayle et Jean-Pierre de Crousaz.

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Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review / Revue canadienne de philosophie
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