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Scientific Historiography Revisited: An Essay on the Metaphysics and Epistemology of History

  • Aviezer Tucker (a1)
Abstract
Résumé

La pragmatique et la sémantique de l'historiographie révèlent une fragmentation croissante qui s'étendpar-delà les écoles jusqu' aux historiens individuels. Alors que les scientifiques normalisent les donnéespour qu'elles s'ajustent aux théories, les historiens interprétent lews théories, de manières incompatibles entre elles, pour qu'elles s'ajustent aux différents cas historiques. Les difficultés qui en découlent dans la communication historiographique remettent en cause les philosophies herméneutiques de l'historiographie et redonnent un nouvel intérêt à la question d'une historiographie scientifique. Mais les réponses existantes sont philosophiquement obsolètes. Une façon de reformuler le problème est de partir de la complexite du chaos et de l'unicité de l'histoire. Seule la science peut évaluer si les propriétés d'un domaine donné en interdisent une approche scientifique. Or la science s'étend par réductions méthodologiques explicatives, en ramenant des propriétés d'événements complexes, chaotiques et uniques, qui sont familières, mais d'un niveau plus él–ve, à des propriétés ou interrelations non familières et d'un niveau moins éléve. La culture disciplinaire de l'historiographie, cependant, empêche le développement par essais et erreurs de telles tentatives de réductions scientifiques, qui seules permettraient d'évaluer lespossibilités d'une historiographie scientifique, laquelle, dans la situation présente, relève de la science-fiction.

Résumé

La pragmatique et la sémantique de l'historiographie révèlent une fragmentation croissante qui s'étendpar-delà les écoles jusqu' aux historiens individuels. Alors que les scientifiques normalisent les donnéespour qu'elles s'ajustent aux théories, les historiens interprétent lews théories, de manières incompatibles entre elles, pour qu'elles s'ajustent aux différents cas historiques. Les difficultés qui en découlent dans la communication historiographique remettent en cause les philosophies herméneutiques de l'historiographie et redonnent un nouvel intérêt à la question d'une historiographie scientifique. Mais les réponses existantes sont philosophiquement obsolètes. Une façon de reformuler le problème est de partir de la complexite du chaos et de l'unicité de l'histoire. Seule la science peut évaluer si les propriétés d'un domaine donné en interdisent une approche scientifique. Or la science s'étend par réductions méthodologiques explicatives, en ramenant des propriétés d'événements complexes, chaotiques et uniques, qui sont familières, mais d'un niveau plus él–ve, à des propriétés ou interrelations non familières et d'un niveau moins éléve. La culture disciplinaire de l'historiographie, cependant, empêche le développement par essais et erreurs de telles tentatives de réductions scientifiques, qui seules permettraient d'évaluer lespossibilités d'une historiographie scientifique, laquelle, dans la situation présente, relève de la science-fiction.

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Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review / Revue canadienne de philosophie
  • ISSN: 0012-2173
  • EISSN: 1759-0949
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