Silver, RC, Holman, EA, McIntosh, DN, et al. Nationwide longitudinal study of psychological response to September 11. J Am Med Assoc. 2002;288:1235-1244.
Henriksen, CA, Bolton, JM, Sareen, J. The psychological impact of terrorist attacks: examining a dose-response relationship between exposure to 9/11 and Axis I mental disorders. Depress Anxiety. 2010;27:993-1000.
Vlahov, D, Galea, S, Resnick, H, et al. Increased use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among Manhattan, New York residents after the September 11th terrorist attacks. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155(11):988-996.
Vlahov, D, Galea, S, Resnick, H, et al. Consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among New York City residents six months after the September 11 terrorist attacks. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2004;30(2):385-407.
Ferrando, L, Galea, S, Corton, ES, et al. Long-term psychopathological changes among the injured and members of the community after a massive terrorist attack. Eur Psychiatry. 2011;26(8):513-517.
Gabriel, R, Ferrando, L, Corton, ES, et al. Psychopathological consequences after a terrorist attack: an epidemiological study among victims, the general population, and police officers. Eur Psychiatry. 2007;22:339-346.
Miguel-Tobal, JJ, Cano-Vindel, A, Gonzalez-Ordi, H, et al. PTSD and depression after the Madrid March 11 train bombings. J Trauma Stress. 2006;19(1):69-80.
North, CS, Nixon, SJ, Shariat, S, et al. Psychiatric disorders among survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing. J Am Med Assoc. 1999;282(8):755-762.
Zhang, G, North, CS, Narayanan, P, et al. The course of postdisaster psychiatric disorders in directly exposed civilians after the US Embassy bombing in Nairobi, Kenya: a follow-up study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013;48(2):195-203.
DiMaggio, C, Galea, S, Guohua, L. Substance use and misuse in the aftermath of terrorism. A Bayesian approach. Addiction. 2009;104:894-904.
Boscarino, JA, Adams, RE, Galea, S. Alcohol use in New York after the terrorist attacks: a study of the effects of psychological trauma on drinking behavior. Addict Behav. 2006;31:606-621.
Ursano, RJ, Fullerton, CS, Norwood, AE, eds. Planning for Bioterrorism: Behavior and Mental Health Responses to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Mass Disruption. Bethesda, MD: Defense Technical Information Center (available from authors on request); 2001.
Ursano, RJ. Post-traumatic stress disorder. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:130-132.
Marshall, RD, Bryant, RA, Amsel, L, et al. The psychology of ongoing threat: relative risk appraisal, the September 11 attacks, and terrorism-related fears. Am Psychol. 2007;62(4):304-316.
Torabi, MR, Seo, DC. National study of behavioral and life changes since September 11. Health Educ Behav. 2004;31:179-192.
Grieger, TA, Fullerton, CS, Ursano, RJ. Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol use, and perceived safety after the terrorist attack on the Pentagon. Psychiatr Serv. 2003;54(10):1380-1382.
Grieger, TA, Fullerton, CS, Ursano, RJ, et al. Acute stress disorder, alcohol use, and perception of safety among hospital staff after the sniper attacks. Psychiatr Serv. 2003;54(10):1383-1387.
Schulden, J, Chen, J, Kresnow, M-J, et al. Psychological responses to the sniper attacks: Washington, D.C. area, October 2002. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31(4):324-327.
Fullerton, CS, Gifford, RK, Flynn, BW, et al. Effects of the 2002 sniper attacks on the homeless population in Washington, D.C. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3(3):163-167.
Weiss, DS, Marmar, CR. The Impact of Event Scale- Revised. In: Wilson JP, Keane TM, eds. Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD: A Practitioner’s Handbook. New York: Guilford Press; 1997:399-411.
Creamer, M, Bell, R, Failla, S. Psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Behav Res Ther. 2003;41:1489-1496.
Kroenke, K, Spitzer, RL, Williams, JBW. The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16:606-613.
Spitzer, RL, Kroenke, K, Williams, JBW. Validity and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: The PHQ Primary Care Study. J Am Med Assoc. 1999;282:1737-1744.
IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp; 2013.
Fullerton, CS, Ursano, RJ, Norwood, A. Planning for the psychological effects of bioterrorism. In: Ursano RJ, Norwood AE, Fullerton CS, eds. Bioterrorism: Psychological and Public Health Interventions. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press; 2004:2-14.
Kessler, RC, Berglund, P, Demler, O, et al. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):593-602.
Kessler, RC, Chiu, WT, Demler, O, et al. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):617-627.
Kessler, RC, Berglund, R, Demler, O, et al. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). J Am Med Assoc. 2003;289(13):3095-3105.
Compton, WM, Conway, KP, Stinson, FS, et al. Changes in the prevalence of major depression and comorbid substance use disorders in the United States between 1991-1992 and 2001-2002. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(12):2141-2147.
Balasinorwala, VP, Shah, N. Acute stress disorder in victims after terror attacks in Mumbai, India. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;195:462.
Fullerton, CS, Ursano, RJ, Wang, L. Acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in disaster or rescue workers. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(8):1370-1376.
Charuvasta, A, Cloitre, M. Social bonds and posttraumatic stress disorder. Annu Rev Psychol. 2008;59:301-328.
Kawachi, I, Berkman, LF. Social ties and mental health. J Urban Health. 2001;78(3):458-467.
Kessler, RC, Price, RH, Wortman, C. Social factors in psychopathology: Stress, social support, and coping processes. Annu Rev Psychol. 1985;36:531-572.
Freh, FM, Chung, MC, Dallos, R. In the shadow of terror: posttraumatic stress and psychiatric co-morbidity following bombing in Iraq: the role of shattered world assumptions and altered self-capacities. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47(2):215-225.
Hasin, DS, Keyes, KM, Hatzenbueler, ML, et al. Alcohol consumption and posttraumatic stress after exposure to terrorism: effects of proximity, loss, and psychiatric history. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:2268-2275.
Levenson, RW, Sher, K, Grossman, L, et al. Alcohol and stress response dampening: Pharmacological effects, expectancy, and tension reduction. J Abnorm Psychol. 1980;89:528-538.
Wills, TA, Shiffman, S. Coping and substance use: a conceptual framework. In: Shiffman S, Wills TA, eds. Coping and Substance Use. Orlando, FL: Academic Press; 1985:3-24.
Cooper, ML, Russell, M, Skinner, JB, et al. Development and validation of a three-dimensional measure of drinking motives. Psychol Assess. 1992;4(2):123-132.
Stewart, SH. Alcohol abuse in individuals exposed to trauma: a critical review. Psychol Bull. 1996;120(1):83-112.
Sax, LJ, Gilmartin, SK, Bryant, AN. Assessing response rates and nonresponse bias in web and paper surveys. Res High Educ. 2003;44(4):409-432.
Palmquist, J, Steuve, A. Stay plugged into new opportunities. Mark Res Mag Manage Appl. 1996;8:13-15.
Kehoe, CM, Pitkow, JE. Surveying the territory: GVU’s five WWW user surveys. W3J. 1996;1:77-84.
Smith, MA, Leigh, B. Virtual subjects: using the Internet as an alternative source of subjects and research environment. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput. 1997;29:496-505.