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Evaluating the Impact of Pharmacies on Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Administration

  • Joy Schwerzmann (a1), Samuel B. Graitcer (a2), Barbara Jester (a1), David Krahl (a3), Daniel Jernigan (a4), Carolyn B. Bridges (a2) and Joseph Miller (a5)...
Abstract Objectives

The objective of this study was to quantify the potential retail pharmacy vaccine administration capacity and its possible impact on pandemic influenza vaccine uptake.


We developed a discrete event simulation model by use of ExtendSim software (Imagine That Inc, San Jose, CA) to forecast the potential effect of retail pharmacy vaccine administration on total weekly vaccine administration and the time needed to reach 80% vaccination coverage with a single dose of vaccine per person.


Results showed that weekly national vaccine administration capacity increased to 25 million doses per week when retail pharmacist vaccination capacity was included in the model. In addition, the time to achieve 80% vaccination coverage nationally was reduced by 7 weeks, assuming high public demand for vaccination. The results for individual states varied considerably, but in 48 states the inclusion of pharmacies improved time to 80% coverage.


Pharmacists can increase the numbers of pandemic influenza vaccine doses administered and reduce the time to achieve 80% single-dose coverage. These results support efforts to ensure pharmacist vaccinators are integrated into pandemic vaccine response planning. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:587–593)

Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to Joseph Miller, Mail Stop C-17, Division of Scientific Resources/National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333 (e-mail:
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Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
  • ISSN: 1935-7893
  • EISSN: 1938-744X
  • URL: /core/journals/disaster-medicine-and-public-health-preparedness
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