1.Institute of Medicine. Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations: A Letter Report. Washington, DC: National Academies of Science; 2010.
2.Hick, JL, Barbera, JA, Kelen, GD.Refining surge capacity: conventional, contingency, and crisis capacity. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3 2(Suppl)S59–S67.
3.Devereaux, AV, Dichter, JR, Christian, MDTask Force for Mass Critical Care. Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: a framework for allocation of scarce resources in mass critical care from a Task Force for Mass Critical Care summit meeting, January 26-27, 2007, Chicago, IL. Chest. 2008;133 5(Suppl)51S–66S.
5.Barnett, DJ, Taylor, HA, Hodge, JG Jr, Links, JM.Resource allocation on the frontlines of public health preparedness and response: report of a summit on legal and ethical issues. Public Health Rep. 2009;124 (2):295–303.
7.Hick, JL, Chipman, J, Loppnow, G.Hospital response to a major freeway bridge collapse. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2008;2(Suppl 1)S11–S16.
8.Hogan, DE, Waeckerle, JF, Dire, DJ, Lillibridge, SR.Emergency department impact of the Oklahoma City terrorist bombing. Ann Emerg Med. 1999;34 (2):160–167.
9.Gutierrez De Ceballos, JP, Turégano Fuentes, F, Perez Diaz, D, Sanz Sanchez, M, Martin Llorente, C, Guerro Sanz, JE.Casualties treated at the closest hospital in the Madrid, March 11, terrorist bombings. Crit Care Med. 2005;33 1(Suppl)S107–S112.
10.Cairns, BA, Stiffler, A, Price, F, Peck, MD, Meyer, AA.Managing a combined burn trauma disaster in the post-9/11 world: lessons learned from the 2003 West Pharmaceutical plant explosion. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2005;26:114–150.
11.Kirschenbaum, L, Keene, A, O’Neill, P, Westfal, R, Astiz, ME.The experience at St. Vincent's Hospital, Manhattan, on September 11, 2001: preparedness, response and lessons learned. Crit Care Med. 2005;33 1(Suppl)S48–S52.
12.Schultz, CH, Koenig, KL, Lewis, RJ.Implications of hospital evacuation after the Northridge, California, earthquake. N Engl J Med. 2003;348 (14):1349–1355.
14.Hodge, JG, Anderson, ED.Principles and practice of legal triage during public health emergencies. NYU Ann Surv Am L. 2008;64:249–291.
15.Hoffman, S, Goodman, RA, Stier, DD.Law, liability, and public health emergencies. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3 (2):117–125.
16.Rosenbaum, S, Harty, MB, Sheer, J.State laws extending comprehensive legal liability protections for professional health-care volunteers during public health emergencies. Public Health Rep. 2008;123 (2):238–241.
17.Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Altered Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events: Bioterrorism and Other Public Health Emergencies. Publ No. 05-0043. Rockville, MD; 2005.
18.Hodge, JG Jr, Garcia, A, Anderson, ED, Kaufman, T.Emergency legal preparedness for hospitals and health care personnel. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3 2(Suppl)S37–S44.
19.Campbell, VA, Gilyard, JA, Sinclair, L, Sternberg, T, Kailes, JI.Preparing for and responding to pandemic influenza: implications for people with disabilities. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(Suppl 2)S294–S300.
21.Coleman, CH, Reis, A.Potential penalties for health care professionals who refuse to work during a pandemic. JAMA. 2008;299 (12):1471–1473.
22.US Constitution. amend. XIII.
23.US Constitution. amend. V and XIV.
24.Quigley, WP.Thirteen ways of looking at Katrina: human and civil rights left behind again. Tulane Law Rev. 2007;81:1009–1010.
25.Kass, NE, Otto, J, O’Brien, D, Minson, M.Ethics and severe pandemic influenza: maintaining essential functions through a fair and considered response. Biosecur Bioterror. 2008;6 (3):227–236.
26.Preparedness and Catastrophic Event Response (PACER) consortium. Domain B2: Assessment and Recommendation for Standardization of Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) for Enhanced Health System Integration. Briefing Book Re: MOUs in Emergency Settings (on file with the author), October 9, 2007.
28.International Emergency Management Group. International Emergency Management Assistance Memorandum of Understanding. http://www2a.cdc.gov/PHLP/docs/IEMAC.pdf. Published July 2000. Accessed March 25, 2010.
29.Stier, DD, Goodman, RA.Mutual aid agreements: essential legal tools for public health preparedness and response. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(Suppl 1)S62–S68.
30.US Constitution. art. I, sec. 10, cl. 3.
31.Franklin, MA, Rabin, RL.Tort Law and Alternatives. New York: Foundation Press; 2001.
32.Valhal Corporation v Sullivan Associates, Inc, 44 F3d 195, 202 (3d Cir. 1995).
33. 42 USC § 1395dd (2003).
34. PACER Model MOU § 1.8.
35. PACER Model MOU § 2.9(a).
36. PACER Model MOU § 2.9(b).
37. PACER Model MOU § 2.5.
38. PACER Model MOU § 2.6.
39. PACER Model MOU § 2.4.
40. PACER Model MOU § 3.1.
41. PACER Model MOU § 3.1(f).
42. PACER Model MOU § 3.2.