Skip to main content Accessibility help

The Impact of Disasters on Populations With Health and Health Care Disparities

  • Jennifer R. Davis, Sacoby Wilson, Amy Brock-Martin, Saundra Glover and Erik R. Svendsen...


Context: A disaster is indiscriminate in whom it affects. Limited research has shown that the poor and medically underserved, especially in rural areas, bear an inequitable amount of the burden.

Objective: To review the literature on the combined effects of a disaster and living in an area with existing health or health care disparities on a community's health, access to health resources, and quality of life.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature review using the following search terms: disaster, health disparities, health care disparities, medically underserved, and rural. Our inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed, US studies that discussed the delayed or persistent health effects of disasters in medically underserved areas.

Results: There has been extensive research published on disasters, health disparities, health care disparities, and medically underserved populations individually, but not collectively.

Conclusions: The current literature does not capture the strain of health and health care disparities before and after a disaster in medically underserved communities. Future disaster studies and policies should account for differences in health profiles and access to care before and after a disaster.

(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2010;4:30-38)


Corresponding author

Correspondence: Jennifer Davis, MSPH, Dept of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, 800 Sumter St, Suite 210, Columbia, SC 29208 (


Hide All
1.Andrulis, DP, Siddiqui, NJ, Gantner, JL. Preparing racially and ethnically diverse communities for public health emergencies [published correction appears in Health Aff (Millwood)2007;26(6):1794]. Health Aff (Millwood). 2007;26 (5):12691279.
2.Krol, DM, Redlener, M, Shapiro, A, Wajnberb, A. A mobile medical care approach targeting underserved populations in post–Hurricane Katrina Mississippi. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007;18 (2):331340.
3.Mack, D, Brantley, KM, Bell, KG. Mitigating the health effects of disasters for medically underserved populations: electronic health records, telemedicine, research, screening, and surveillance. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007;18 (2):432442.
4.Mokdad, AH, Mensah, GA, Posner, SF. When chronic conditions become acute: prevention and control of chronic diseases and adverse health outcomes during natural disasters. Prev Chronic Dis. 2005;2 special issue 14.
5.Phifer, JF. Psychological distress and somatic symptoms after natural disaster: differential vulnerability among older adults. Psychol Aging. 1990;5 (4):412420.
6.Shultz, JM, Russell, J, Espinel, Z. Epidemiology of tropical cyclones: the dynamics of disaster, disease, and development. Epidemiol Rev. 2005;27 (1):2135.
7.Straker, H, Finister, S. Not business as usual. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007;18 (2):241246.
8.Hagedorn, M. Hermeneutic photography: an innovative esthetic technique for generating data in nursing research. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 1994;17 (1):4450.
9.Hsu, CE, Mas, FS, Jacobson, HE, Harris, AM, Hunt, VI, Nkhoma, ET. Public health preparedness of health providers: meeting the needs of diverse, rural communities. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98 (11):17841791.
10.Kirk, MA, Deaton, ML. Bringing order out of chaos: effective strategies for medical response to mass chemical exposure. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2007;25 (2):527548, abstract xi.
11.Kleinpeter, MA. Public health preparedness for diverse populations and communities. J Natl Med Assoc. 2007;99 (4):447448.
12.Ford, ES, Mokdad, AH, Link, MW. Chronic disease in health emergencies: in the eye of the hurricane. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006;3 (2):17.
13.Guglielmo, WJ. New Orleans' doctors: still MIA. Medical Economics. 2006;83 (6):17.
14.Ridenour, ML, Cummings, KJ, Sinclair, JR, Bixler, D. Displacement of the underserved: medical needs of Hurricane Katrina evacuees in West Virginia. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007;18 (2):369381.
15.National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004.
16.US Department of Health and Human Services Health Resources and Services Administration. HPSA Designation Criteria. HRSA Web site. Accessed March 3, 2008.
17.Ricketts, TC, Goldsmith, LJ, Randolph, R, Lee, R, Taylor, DH, Ostermann, J. Designating places and populations as medically underserved: a proposal for a new approach. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007;18 (3):567589.
18.Bronstein, JM, Morrisey, MA. Determinants of rural travel distance for obstetrics care. Med Care. 1990;28 (9):853866.
19.Casey, MM, Thiede Call, K, Klingner, JM. Are rural residents less likely to obtain recommended preventive healthcare services? Am J Prev Med. 2001;21 (3):182188.
20.Eberhardt, MS, Pamuk, ER. The importance of place and residence: examining health in rural and nonrural areas. Am J Public Health. 2004;94 (10):16821686.
21.Hartley, D. Rural health disparities, population, health, and rural culture. Am J Public Health. 2004;94 (10):16751678.
22.Rosenblatt, RA, Andrilla, HA, Curtin, T, Hart, G. Shortages of medical personnel at community health centers: implications for planned expansion. JAMA. 2006;295 (9):10421049.
23.Stamm, BH, Lambert, D, Piland, NF, Speck, NC. A rural perspective on health care for the whole person. Prof Psychol Res Pr. 2007;38 (3):298304.
24.Cunningham, PJ, Felland, LE. Falling behind: Americans' access to medical care deteriorates, 2003-2007. Track Rep. June 2008 1915.
25.Johnson, M, Brems, C, Warner, T, Roberts, L. Rural-urban health care provider disparities in Alaska and New Mexico. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2006;33 (4):504507.
26.Moscovice, I, Rosenblatt, R. Quality-of-care challenges for rural health. J Rural Health. 2000;16 (2):168176.
27.Slifkin, RT, Goldsmith, LJ, Ricketts, TC. Race and place: urban-rural differences in health for racial and ethnic minorities. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 2000. NC RHRP Working Paper Series, No. 66.
28.Gazewood, JD, Rollins, LK, Galazka, SS. Beyond the horizon: the role of academic health centers in improving the health of rural communities. Acad Med. 2006;81 (9):793797.
29.Kawachi, I, Daniels, N, Robinson, DE. Health disparities by race and class: why both matter. Health Aff (Millwood). 2005;24 (2):343352.
30.Low, AK, Grothe, KB, Wofford, TS, Bouldin, MJ. Addressing disparities in cardiovascular risk through community-based interventions. Ethn Dis. 2007;17 (2 suppl 2):S2-55S2-59.
31.Lurie, N, Jung, M, Lavizzo-Mourey, R. Disparities and quality improvement: federal policy levers. Health Aff (Millwood). 2005;24 (2):354364.
32.Meyers, K. Issue Brief: Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. Oakland, CA: Kaiser Permanente Institute for Health Policy; 2007.
33.O'Brien, T, Denham, SA. Diabetes care and education in rural regions. Diabetes Educ. 2008;34 (2):334348.
34.Perlino, CM. Issue Brief: The Public Health Workforce Shortage: Left Unchecked, Will We Be Protected? Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 2006.
35.Smith, DB. Racial and ethnic health disparities and the unfinished civil rights agenda. Health Aff (Millwood). 2005;24 (2):317324.
36.Messias, DKH, Lacy, E. Katrina-related health concerns of Latino survivors and evacuees. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007;18 (2):443464.
37.Forrest, CB. Strengthening primary care to bolster the health care safety net. JAMA. 2006;295 (9):10621064.
38.Iglehart, JK. Grassroots activism and the pursuit of an expanded physician supply. N Engl J Med. 2008;358 (16):17411749.
39.International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. World Disasters Report 2003: Focus on Ethics in Aid. Geneva, Switzerland: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; 2003.
40.Quarantelli, EL. Urban Vulnerability to Disasters in Developing Societies. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Disaster Research Center; 2003.
41.Balmes, JR. The World Trade Center collapse: a continuing tragedy for lung health? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174 (3):235236.
42.Banauch, GI, Hall, C, Weiden, M. Pulmonary function after exposure to the World Trade Center collapse in the New York City Fire Department. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174 (3):312319. la Hoz, RE, Shohet, MR, Bienenfeld, LA, Afilaka, AA, Levin, SM, Herbert, R. Vocal cord dysfunction in former World Trade Center (WTC) rescue and recovery workers and volunteers. Am J Ind Med. 2008;51 (3):161165.
44.Herbert, R, Moline, J, Skloot, G. The World Trade Center disaster and the health of workers: five-year assessment of a unique medical screening program. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114 (12):18531858.
45.Izbicki, G, Chavko, R, Banauch, GI. World Trade Center “sarcoid-like” granulomatous pulmonary disease in New York City Fire Department rescue workers. Chest. 2007;131 (5):14141423.
46.Lin, S, Jones, R, Reibman, J, Bowers, J, Fitzgerald, EF, Hwang, SA. Reported respiratory symptoms and adverse home conditions after 9/11 among residents living near the World Trade Center. J Asthma. 2007;44 (4):325332.
47.Mann, JM, Sha, KK, Kline, G, Breuer, FU, Miller, A. World Trade Center dyspnea: bronchiolitis obliterans with functional improvement: a case report. Am J Ind Med. 2005;48 (3):225229.
48.Mendelson, DS, Roggeveen, M, Levin, SM, Herbert, R, de la Hoz, RE. Air trapping detected on end-expiratory high-resolution computed tomography in symptomatic World Trade Center rescue and recovery workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2007;49 (8):840845.
49.Miller, A. Sarcoidosis, firefighters sarcoidosis, and World Trade Center “sarcoid-like” granulomatous pulmonary disease [letter]. Chest. 2007;132 (6):2053.
50.Moline, J, Herbert, R, Nguyen, N. Health consequences of the September 11 World Trade Center attacks: a review. Cancer Invest. 2006;24 ()3)):294301.
51.Oppenheimer, BW, Goldring, RM, Herberg, ME. Distal airway function in symptomatic subjects with normal spirometry following World Trade Center dust exposure. Chest. 2007;132 (4):12751282.
52.Prezant, DJ. World Trade Center cough syndrome and its treatment. Lung. 2008;186 (suppl 1):S94S102.
53.Prezant, DJ, Levin, S, Kelly, KJ, Aldrich, TK. Upper and lower respiratory diseases after occupational and environmental disasters. Mt Sinai J Med. 2008;75 (2):89100.
54.Samet, JM, Geyh, AS, Utell, MJ. The legacy of World Trade Center dust. N Engl J Med. 2007;356 (22):22332236.
55.Szeinuk, J, Padilla, M, de la Hoz, RE. Potential for diffuse parenchymal lung disease after exposure at World Trade Center disaster site. Mt Sinai J Med. 2008;75 (2):101107.
56.Wheeler, K, McKelvey, W, Thorpe, L. Asthma diagnosed after 11 September 2001 among rescue and recovery workers: findings from the World Trade Center Health Registry. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115 (11):15841590.
57.Liu, D, Tager, IB, Balmes, JR, Harrison, RJ. The effect of smoke inhalation on lung function and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;146 (6):14691473.
58.Stefanidou, M, Athanaselis, S, Spiliopoulou, C. Health impacts of fire smoke inhalation. Inhal Toxicol. 2008;20 (8):761766.
59.Bridgewater, FH, Aspinall, ET, Booth, JP. Team Echo: observations and lessons learned in the recovery phase of the 2004 Asian tsunami. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2006;21 (1):s20s25.
60.Chierakul, W, Winothai, W, Wattanawaitunechai, C. Melioidosis in 6 tsunami survivors in southern Thailand. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41 (7):982990.
61.Kongsaengdao, S, Bunnag, S, Siriwiwattnakul, N. Treatment of survivors after the tsunami. N Engl J Med. 2005;352 (25):26542655.
62.Chen, AC, Keith, VM, Leong, KJ. Hurricane Katrina: prior trauma, poverty and health among Vietnamese-American survivors. Int Nurs Rev. 2007;54 (4):324331.
63.Phillips, S. Current status of surge research. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13 (11):11031108.
64.Altered Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events: Bioterrorism and Other Public Health Emergencies. AHRQ Publication No. 05-0043, April 2005. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.
65.Ahern, M, Kovats, RS, Wilkinson, P, Few, R, Matthies, F. Global health impacts of floods: epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiol Rev. 2005;27 (1):3646.
66.Dominici, F, Levy, JI, Louis, TA. Methodological challenges and contributions in disaster epidemiology. Epidemiol Rev. 2005;27 (1):912.
67.Ebi, KL, Schmier, JK. A stitch in time: improving public health early warning systems for extreme weather events. Epidemiol Rev. 2005;27 (1):115121.
68.Noji, EK. Disasters: introduction and state of the art. Epidemiol Rev. 2005;25 (1):38.
69.Ramirez, M, Peek-Asa, C. Epidemiology of traumatic injuries from earthquakes. Epidemiol Rev. 2005;27 (1):4755.
70.Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999, Pub L No. 106-129, 113 Stat 1653.
71.Smedley, BD, Stith, AY, Nelson, ARInstitute of Medicine, Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2003.
72.Fowkes, V, Blossom, J, Anderson, HK, Sandrock, C. Emergency preparedness for health professionals in a statewide AHEC program: the first two years. Acad Med. 2007;82 (8):781787.
73.Payne, JW. At risk before the storm struck: prior health disparities due to race, poverty multiply death, disease. Washington Post.September 13, 2005:
74.Aronoff, M, Gunter, V. Defining disaster: local constructions for recovery in the aftermath of chemical contamination. Soc Probl. 1992;39 (4):345365.
75.Baum, A, Fleming, I. Implications of psychological research on stress and technological accidents. Am Psychol. 1993;48 (6):665672.
76.Edwards, MLK. An interdisciplinary perspective on disasters and stress: the promise of an ecological framework. Sociol Forum. 1998;13 (1):115132.
77.Appel, SJ, Giger, JN, Davidhizar, RE. Opportunity cost: the impact of contextual risk factors on the cardiovascular health of low-income rural southern African American women. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2005;20 (5):315324.
78.Eberhardt, MS, Ingram, D, Makuc, D. Urban and Rural Health Chartbook. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2001.
79.Zuniga, M, Anderson, D, Alexander, K. Heart disease and stroke in rural America: a literature review. In: Rural Health People 2010: A Companion Document to Healthy People 2010. Vol 2. College Station, TX: The Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, School of Rural Public Health, Southwest Rural Health Research Center; 2003.
80.Allan, J, Ball, P, Alston, M. Developing sustainable models of rural health care: a community development approach. Rural Remote Health. 2007;7 (4):818.
81.Armstrong, BK, Gillespie, JA, Leeder, SR, Rubin, GL, Russell, LM. Challenges in health and health care for Australia. Med J Aust. 2007;187 (9):485489.
82.Asante, AD, Zwi, AB. Public-private partnerships and global health equity: prospects and challenges. Indian J Med Ethics. 2007;4 (4):176180.
83.Clucas, DB, Carville, KS, Connors, C, Currie, BJ, Carapetis, JR, Andrews, RM. Disease burden and health-care clinic attendances for young children in remote aboriginal communities of northern Australia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86 (4):275281.
84.Dart, J. Australia's disturbing health disparities set Aboriginals apart. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86 (4):245247.
85.Gill, GF, Geraghty, DP, Fitzgerald, DG. Did general practice health assessments of older Australians improve equity. Aust Health Rev. 2008;32 (3):488493.
86.Johnstone, MJ, Kanitsaki, O. Ethnic aged discrimination and disparities in health and social care: a question of social justice. Australas J Ageing. 2008;27 (3):110115.
87.Smith, JD, Margolis, SA, Ayton, J. Defining remote medical practice: a consensus viewpoint of medical practitioners working and teaching in remote practice. Med J Aust. 2008;188 (3):159161.
88.Sweet, M. Health care: for private profit or public good. Aust Nurs J. 2007;15 (5):2325.
89.How we can keep everyone in mind. Health Serv J.May 1, 20082627.
90.Berkman, L, Epstein, AM. Beyond health care: socioeconomic status and health. N Engl J Med. 2008;358 (23):25092510.
91.Crew, N. Health inequalities: up to the mark in primary care. Health Serv J.June 12, 20082829.
92.Crump, H. Local targets are the way to fight inequality, MPs told. Health Serv J.April 10, 200812.
93.Elger, BS. Towards equivalent health care of prisoners: European soft law and public health policy in Geneva. J Public Health Policy. 2008;29 (2):192206.
94.Evans, R. Practices' minimum income is a guarantee of health inequity. Health Serv J.March 27, 20083.
95.Fervers, B, Remy-Stockinger, M, Mazeau-Woynar, V. CoCanCPG: coordination of cancer clinical practice in Europe. Tumori. 2008;94 (2):154159.
96.Francisci, S, Gigli, A, Gesano, G, Folino-Gallo, P. Decomposing differences in acute myocardial infarction fatality in Italian regions. Health Care Manag Sci.Jun 200811 (2):111120.
97.Green, AR. The globalization of cross-cultural medical education and patient-centered care. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2008;109 (5):238.
98.Haugejorden, O, Klock, KS, Astrom, AN, Skaret, E, Trovik, TA. Socio-economic inequality in the self-reported number of natural teeth among Norwegian adults: an analytical study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2008;36 (3):269278.
99.Heuschmann, PU, Grieve, AP, Toschke, AM, Rudd, AG, Wolfe, CD. Ethnic group disparities in 10-year trends in stroke incidence and vascular risk factors: the South London Stroke Register (SLSR). Stroke. 2008;39 (8):22042210.
100.Hunter, DJ. Health needs more than health care: the need for a new paradigm. Eur J Public Health. 2008;18 (3):217219.
101.Lumme, S, Leyland, AH, Keskimaki, I. Multilevel modeling of regional variation in equity in health care. Med Care. 2008;46 (9):976983.
102.Mackenbach, JP, Stirbu, I, Roskam, AJ.Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries. N Engl J Med. 2008;358 (23):24682481.
103.Mackie, P, Sim, F. Water, water, everywhere, nor any drop to drink. Public Health. 2008;122 (5):443445.
104.Razum, O, Altenhoner, T, Breckenkamp, J, Voigtlander, S. Social epidemiology after the German reunification: East vs West or poor vs rich. Int J Public Health. 2008;53 (1):1322.
105.Stephenson, J. Poll reveals chasm in care standards. Health Serv J.May 15, 20087.
106.Stephenson, J. PCTs told to target London reforms at the vulnerable. Health Serv J.May 22, 200812.
107.Themessl-Huber, M, Lazenbatt, A, Taylor, J. Overcoming health inequalities: a participative evaluation framework fit for the task. J R Soc Promot Health. 2008;128 (3):117122.
108.Winocour, PH, Gosden, C, Walton, C.Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) and Diabetes-UK survey of specialist diabetes services in the UK, 2006, 1: the consultant physician perspective. Diabet Med. 2008;25 (6):643650.
109.Afek, A. Utilization of healthcare services by groups in the Israeli population as a measurement reflecting equity in the healthcare system [in Hebrew]. Harefuah. 2008;147 (4):309310, 375, 374.
110.Anwar, I, Sami, M, Akhtar, N. Inequity in maternal health-care services: evidence from home-based skilled-birth-attendant programs in Bangladesh. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86 (4):252259.
111.Baqui, AH, Rosecrans, AM, Williams, EK. NGO facilitation of a government community-based maternal and neonatal health programme in rural India: improvements in equity. Health Policy Plan. 2008;23 (4):234243.
112.Bhat, M. Access in India [letter]. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139 (2):129130.
113.Das, A. Public-private partnerships for providing healthcare services. Indian J Med Ethics. 2007;4 (4):174175.
114.Gupta, M, Thakur, JS, Kumar, R. Reproductive and child health inequities in Chandigarh Union Territory of India. J Urban Health. 2008;85 (2):291299.
115.Halder, AK, Kabir, M. Child mortality inequalities and linkage with sanitation facilities in Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr. 2008;26 (1):6473.
116.Halder, AK, Saha, UR, Kabir, M. Inequalities in reproductive healthcare utilization: evidence from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. World Health Popul. 2007;9 (2):4863.
117.Roy, K, Chaudhuri, A. Influence of socioeconomic status, wealth and financial empowerment on gender differences in health and healthcare utilization in later life: evidence from India. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66 (9):19511962.
118.Sathyamala, C. Binayak Sen: redefining health care in an unjust society [editorial]. Indian J Med Ethics. 2007;4 (3):104105.
119.Tirosh, A, Calderon-Margalit, R, Mazar, M, Stern, Z. Differences in quality of diabetes care between Jews and Arabs in Jerusalem. Am J Med Qual. 2008;23 (1):6065.
120.Van Minh, H, Ng, N, Juvekar, S. Self-reported prevalence of chronic diseases and their relation to selected sociodemographic variables: a study in INDEPTH Asian sites, 2005. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5 (3):A86.
121.Antunes, JL, Pegoretti, T, de Andrade, FP, Junqueira, SR, Frazao, P, Narvai, PC. Ethnic disparities in the prevalence of dental caries and restorative dental treatment in Brazilian children. Int Dent J. 2003;53 (1):712.
122.Baraldi, AC, Daud, ZP, Almeida, AM, Gomes, FA, Nakano, AM. Adolescent pregnancy: a comparative study between mothers who use public and private health systems. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2007;15 (Spec No.):799805.
123.Barata, RB, de Almeida, MF, Montero, CV, da Silva, ZP. Gender and health inequalities among adolescents and adults in Brazil, 1998. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2007;21 (5):320327.
124.Blay, SL, Fillenbaum, GG, Andreoli, SB, Gastal, FL. Equity of access to outpatient care and hospitalization among older community residents in Brazil. Med Care. 2008;46 (9):930937.
125.Chaves, SC, Vieira-da-Silva, LM. Inequalities in oral health practices and social space: an exploratory qualitative study. Health Policy. 2008;86 (1):119128.
126.Etchegoyen, G, Paganini, JM. The relationship between socioeconomic factors and maternal and infant health programs in 13 Argentine provinces [in Spanish]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2007;21 (4):223230.
127.Gabardo, MC, da Silva, WJ, Moyses, ST, Moyses, SJ. Water fluoridation as a marker for sociodental inequalities. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2008;36 (2):103107.
128.Lansky, S, Franca, E, Kawachi, I. Social inequalities in perinatal mortality in Belo Horizonte, Brazil: the role of hospital care. Am J Public Health. 2007;97 (5):867873.
129.Matijasevich, A, Victora, CG, Barros, AJ. Widening ethnic disparities in infant mortality in southern Brazil: comparison of 3 birth cohorts. Am J Public Health. 2008;98 (4):692 668.
130.Sena, RR, Seixas, CT, Silva, KL. Practices in community health toward equity: contributions of Brazilian nursing. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2007;30 (4):343352.
131.Torres Vigil, I, Aday, LA, De Lima, L, Cleeland, CS. What predicts the quality of advanced cancer care in Latin America? a look at five countries: Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2007;34 (3):315327.
132.Vargas, LA, Veloso de Oliveira, TF, Garbois, JA. The right to health and environment in times of social exclusion. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2007;15 (Spec No.):850856.
133.Logue, JN, Hansen, H, Struening, E. Emotional and physical distress following Hurricane Agnes in Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. Public Health Rep. 1979;94 (6):495502.
134.Ibrahim, MA. Editorial: Unfortunate, but timely. Epidemiol Rev. 2005;27 (1):12.
135.Dhara, VR, Dhara, R. The Union Carbide disaster in Bhopal: a review of health effects. Arch Environ Health. 2002;57 (5):391404.
136.Pachter, L, Weller, S, Baer, R. Variation in asthma beliefs and practices among mainland Puerto Ricans, Mexican-Americans, and Guatemalans. J Asthma. 2002;39 (2):119134.
137.Savitz, DA, Oxman, RT, Metzger, KB. Epidemiologic research on man-made disasters: strategies and implications of cohort definition for World Trade Center worker and volunteer surveillance program. Mt Sinai J Med. 2008;75 (2):7787.
138.Stepanova, E, Karmaus, W, Naboka, M. Exposure from the Chernobyl accident had adverse effects on erythrocytes, leukocytes, and, platelets in children in the Narodichesky region, Ukraine: A 6-year follow-up study. Environ Health. 2008;7:21doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-7-21.
139.Adams, RE, Boscarino, JA, Galea, S. Alcohol use, mental health status and psychological well-being 2 years after the World Trade Center attacks in New York City. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2006;32 (2):203224.
140.Adams, RE, Boscarino, JA, Galea, S. Social and psychological resources and health outcomes after the World Trade Center disaster. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62 (1):176188.
141.Bromet, EJ, Havenaar, JM. Mental health consequences of disasters. In: Sartorius N, Gaebel W, Lopez-Ibor JJ, Maj M, eds. Psychiatry in Society. Wiley, Chichester; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2002:241-261141.
142.Epstein, R, Fullerton, C, Ursano, R. Posttraumatic stress disorder following an air disaster: a prospective study. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155 (7):934938.
143.Groenjian, AK, Steinberg, AM, Najarian, LM, Fairbanks, LA, Tashjian, M, Pynoos, RS. Prospective study of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive reactions after earthquake and political violence. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157 (6):911916.
144.Herman, D, Felton, C, Susser, E. Mental health needs in New York State following the September 11th attacks. J Urban Health. 2002;79 (3):322331.
145.Kessler, RC, Sonnega, A, Bromet, EJ, Hughes, M, Nelson, CB. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52 (12):10481060.
146.North, CS, Hong, BA, Suris, A, Spitznagel, EL. Distinguishing distress and psychopathology among survivors of the Oakland/Berkeley firestorm. Psychiatry. 2008;71 (1):3545.
147.North, CS, Kawasaki, A, Spitznagel, EL, Hong, BA. The course of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse, and somatization after a natural disaster. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2004;192 (12):823829.
148.North, CS, McCutcheon, V, Spitznagel, EL, Smith, EM. Three-year follow-up of survivors of a mass shooting episode. J Urban Health. 2002;79 (3):383391.
149.North, CS, Smith, EM. Post-traumatic stress disorder in disaster survivors. Compr Ther. 1990;16 (12):39.
150.Rubonis, AV, Bickman, L. Psychological impairment in the wake of disaster: the disaster-psychopathology relationship. Psychol Bull. 1991;109 (3):384399.
151.Shore, JH, Tatum, EL, Vollmer, WM. Psychiatric reactions to disaster: the Mount St. Helens experience. Am J Psychiatry. 1986;143 (5):590595.
152.Warheit, GJDisasters and Their Mental Health Consequences: Issues, Findings, and Future Trends. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel; 1988.
153.Robert, TStafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, Pub L No. 93-288, as amended, 42 USC §5121-5207, and Related Authorities.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The Impact of Disasters on Populations With Health and Health Care Disparities

  • Jennifer R. Davis, Sacoby Wilson, Amy Brock-Martin, Saundra Glover and Erik R. Svendsen...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.