1.The Committee for the Compilation of Materials on Damage Caused by the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings.New York: Basic Books; 1981.
2.Shirabe R Statistical Observations of Atomic Bomb Casualties in Nagasaki.In: Shibata Y, ed. Nagasaki, Japan: Showado Inc; 2006.
3.Yasuyama K Collection of Memoirs of the Atomic Bombardment of Nagasaki 1945-55.In: Yamashita S, ed. Nagasaki, Japan: Heiwadou Offset; 2005.
4.Beebe FW. Reflections on the work of the atomic bomb casualty commission in Japan. Epidemiol Rev. 1979;1:184–210.
5.Neel JV, Schull WJ The Effect of Exposure to the Atomic Bombs on Pregnancy Termination in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council; 1956.
6.Francis TJ, Jablon S, Moore FE Report of an Ad Hoc Committee for Appraisal of the ABCC Program 1955.Hiroshima, Japan: Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission; 1959.
7.Beebe G, Usagawa M The Major ABCC Samples.Hiroshima, Japan: Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission; 1968.
8.Pierce DA, Shimizu Y, Preston DL, Vaeth M, Mabuchi K. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part I. Cancer: 1950-1990. Radiat Res. 1996;146 (1):1–27.
9.Mabuchi K, Soda M, Ron E. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part I: Use of the tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for incidence studies. Radiat Res. 1994;137 2(Suppl)S1–S16.
10.Thompson DE, Mabuchi K, Ron E. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: Solid tumors, 1958-1987. Radiat Res. 1994;137 2(Suppl)S17–S67.
11.Lindee MS Suffering Made Real: American Science and the Survivors at Hiroshima.Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1994.
12.Schull WJ Effects of Atomic Radiation: A Half-century of Studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki.New York: Wiley-Liss; 1995.
13.Reassessment of the Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki—Dosimetry System 2002.Hiroshima, Japan: Radiation Effects Research Foundation; 2005.
14.Reassessment of the Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki—Dosimetry System 1986. Final Report.Hiroshima, Japan: Radiation Effects Research Foundation; 1987.
15.Cullings HM, Fujita S, Funamoto S, Grant EJ, Kerr GD, Preston DL. Dose estimation for atomic bomb survivor studies: its evolution and present status. Radiat Res. 2006;166:219–254.
16.National Research Council, Committee on Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86).Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001.
17.Eden L Whole World on Fire: Organizations, Knowledge, and Nuclear Weapons Devastation.Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press; 2003.
18.Glasstone S, Dolan PJ The Effects of Nuclear Weapons.3rd ed. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 1977.
19.Solomon F, Marston RQ The Medical Implications of Nuclear War.Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1986.
20.Pierce DA, Stram DO, Vaeth M. Allowing for random errors in radiation dose estimates for the atomic bomb survivor data. Radiat Res. 1990;123 (3):275–284.
21.Kodama Y, Pawel DJ, Nakamura N. Stable chromosome aberrations in atomic bomb survivors: results from 25 years of investigation. Radiat Res. 2001;156 (4):337–346.
22.Nakamura N, Miyazawa C, Sawada S, Akiyama M, Awa AA. A close correlation between electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry from tooth enamel and cytogenetic dosimetry from lymphocytes of Hiroshima atomic-bomb survivors. Int J Radiat Biol. 1998;73 (6):619–627.
23.Mabuchi K, Fujiwara S, Preston DL Atomic-bomb survivors: long-term health effects of radiation.In: Shrieve DC, Loeffler JS, eds. Human Radiation Injury. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011:89-113.
24.Preston DL, Ron E, Tokuoka S. Solid cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors: 1958-1998. Radiat Res. 2007;168 (1):1–64.
25.Finch SC, Hrubec Z, Nefzger MD Detection of Leukemia and Related Disorders. Hiroshima and Nagasaki Research Plan.Hiroshima, Japan: Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission; 1965.
26.Furukawa K, Cologne JB, Shimizu Y, Ross NP. Predicting future excess events in risk assessment. Risk Anal. 2009;29 (6):885–899.
27.Preston DL, Pierce DA, Shimizu Y. Effect of recent changes in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on cancer mortality risk estimates. Radiat Res. 2004;162 (4):377–389.
28.Richardson D, Sugiyama H, Nishi N. Ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality among Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors, 1950-2000. Radiat Res. 2009;172 (3):368–382.
29.Iwanaga M, Hsu W-L, Soda M. Risk of myelodysplastic syndromes in people exposed to ionizing radiation: a retrospective cohort study of nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29 (4):428–434.
30.Preston DL, Shimizu Y, Pierce DA, Suyama A, Mabuchi K. Studies of mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 13: Solid cancer and noncancer disease mortality: 1950-1997. Radiat Res. 2003;160 (4):381–407.
31.National Research Council, Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2.Washington, DC: National Research Council; 2005.
32.United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Effects of Ionizing Radiation. UNSCEAR 2006 Report. Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes A and B.New York: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation; 2008.
33.International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 103: The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2007.
34.Suzuki G, Cullings H, Fujiwara S. Low-positive antibody titer against Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) may predict future gastric cancer better than simple seropositivity against H. pylori CagA or against H. pylori. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16 (6):1224–1228.
35.Sauvaget C, Lagarde F, Nagano J, Soda M, Koyama K, Kodama K. Lifestyle factors, radiation and gastric cancer in atomic-bomb survivors (Japan). Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16 (7):773–780.
36.Cogan DG, Martin SF, Kimura SJ. Atom bomb cataracts. Science. 1949;110 (2868):65415396017.
37.Miller RJ, Fujino T, Nefzger MD. Lens findings in Atomic bomb survivors. A review of major ophthalmic surveys at the atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (1949-1962). Arch Ophthalmol. 1967;78 (6):697–704.
38.Choshi K, Takaku I, Mishima H. Ophthalmologic changes related to radiation exposure and age in adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Radiat Res. 1983;96 (3):560–579.
39.Otake M, Neriishi K, Schull WJ. Cataract in atomic bomb survivors based on a threshold model and the occurrence of severe epilation. Radiat Res. 1996;146 (3):339–348.
40.International Commission on Radiological Protection. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press; 1990.
41.National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Limitations of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation. Report 116.Bethesda, MD: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements; 1993.
42.Neriishi K, Nakashima E, Minamoto A. Postoperative cataract cases among atomic bomb survivors: radiation dose response and threshold. Radiat Res. 2007;168 (4):404–408.
43.Imaizumi M, Usa T, Tominaga T. Radiation dose-response relationships for thyroid nodules and autoimmune thyroid diseases in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors 55-58 years after radiation exposure. JAMA. 2006;295 (9):1011–1022.
44.Shimizu Y, Kato H, Schull WJ, Hoel DG. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 9. Mortality, 1950-1985: Part 3. Noncancer mortality based on the revised doses (DS86). Radiat Res. 1992;130 (2):249–266.
45.Shimizu Y, Pierce DA, Preston DL, Mabuchi K. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, part II. Noncancer mortality: 1950-1990. Radiat Res. 1999;152 (4):374–389.
46.Wong FL, Yamada M, Sasaki H. Noncancer disease incidence in the atomic bomb survivors: 1958-1986. Radiat Res. 1993;135 (3):418–430.
47.Yamada M, Wong FL, Fujiwara S, Akahoshi M, Suzuki G. Noncancer disease incidence in atomic bomb survivors, 1958-1998. Radiat Res. 2004;161 (6):622–632.
48.Shimizu Y, Kodama K, Nishi N. Radiation exposure and circulatory disease risk: Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor data, 1950-2003. BMJ.2010; Jan 14;340:b5349 (doi:10.1136/bmj.65349)20075151.
49.Sasaki H, Wong FL, Yamada M, Kodama K. The effects of aging and radiation exposure on blood pressure levels of atomic bomb survivors. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002;55 (10):974–981.
50.Wong FL, Yamada M, Sasaki H, Kodama K, Hosoda Y. Effects of radiation on the longitudinal trends of total serum cholesterol levels in the atomic bomb survivors. Radiat Res. 1999;151 (6):736–746.
51.Akahoshi M, Amasaki Y, Soda M. Effects of radiation on fatty liver and metabolic coronary risk factors among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. Hypertens Res. 2003;26 (12):965–970.
52.Neriishi K, Matuso N, Ishimaru T. Relationship between radiation exposure and serum protein alpha and beta globulin fractions. Nagasaki Med J. 1986;61:449–454.
53.Sawada H, Kodama K, Shimizu Y Adult Health Study Report 6. Results of Six Examination Cycles, 1968-1980.Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Radiation Effects Research Foundation; 1986.
54.Neriishi K, Nakashima E, Delongchamp RR. Persistent subclinical inflammation among A-bomb survivors. Int J Radiat Biol. 2001;77 (4):475–482.
55.Hayashi T, Kusunoki Y, Hakoda M. Radiation dose-dependent increases in inflammatory response markers in A-bomb survivors. Int J Radiat Biol. 2003;79 (2):129–136.
56.Lifton RJ Death in Life—Survivors of Hiroshima.New York: Random House; 1967.
57.Yamada M, Izumi S. Psychiatric sequelae in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki two decades after the explosions. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2002;37 (9):409–415.
58.Cologne JB, Preston DL. Longevity of atomic-bomb survivors. Lancet. 2000;356 (9226):303–307.
59.Kusunoki Y, Yamaoka M, Kubo Y. T-cell immunosenescence and inflammatory response in atomic bomb survivors. Radiat Res. 2010;174 (6):870–876.
60.Kusunoki Y, Hirai Y, Hakoda M, Kyoizumi S. Uneven distributions of naïve and memory T cells in the CD4 and CD8 T-cell populations derived from a single stem cell in an atomic bomb survivor: implications for the origins of the memory T-cell pools in adulthood. Radiat Res. 2002;157 (5):493–499.
61.Kusunoki Y, Hayashi T. Long-lasting alterations of the immune system by ionizing radiation exposure: implications for disease development among atomic bomb survivors. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008;84 (1):1–14.
62.Delongchamp RR, Mabuchi K, Yoshimoto Y, Preston DL. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero or as young children, October 1950-May 1992. Radiat Res. 1997;147 (3):385–395.
63.Preston DL, Cullings H, Suyama A. Solid cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero or as young children. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100 (6):428–436.
64.Jablon S, Kato H. Childhood cancer in relation to prenatal exposure to atomic-bomb radiation. Lancet. 1970;2 (7681):1000–1003.
65.Otake M, Schull WJ. In utero exposure to A-bomb radiation and mental retardation; a reassessment. Br J Radiol. 1984;57 (677):409–414.
66.Otake M, Schull WJ, Lee S. Threshold for radiation-related severe mental retardation in prenatally exposed A-bomb survivors: a re-analysis. Int J Radiat Biol. 1996;70 (6):755–763.
67.Schull WJ, Nishitani H, Hasuo K Brain Abnormalities Among the Mentally Retarded Prenatally Exposed Atomic Bomb Survivors.RERF Technical Report 13-91. Hiroshima, Japan: Radiation Effects Research Foundation; 1991.
68.International Commission on Radiological Protection. Biological effects after prenatal irradiation (embryo and fetus). Publication 90. Ann ICRP. 2003;33:1–200.
69.Schull WJ, Norton S, Jensh RP. Ionizing radiation and the developing brain. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1990;12 (3):249–260.
70.Dunn K, Yoshimaru H, Otake M, Annegers JF, Schull WJ. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;131 (1):114–123.
71.National Academy of Sciences. The Children of Atomic Bomb Survivors. A Genetic Study.Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1991.
72.Awa AA, Bloom AD, Yoshida MC, Meriishi S, Archer PG. Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atom bomb survivors. Nature. 1968;218 (5139):367–368.
73.Neel JV, Satoh C, Goriki K. Search for mutations altering protein charge and/or function in children of atomic bomb survivors: final report. Am J Hum Genet. 1988;42 (5):663–676.
74.Nakamura N. Genetic effects of radiation in atomic-bomb survivors and their children: past, present and future. J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2006;47(Suppl B)B67–B73.
75.Kato H, Schull WJ, Neel JV. A cohort-type study of survival in the children of parents exposed to atomic bombings. Am J Hum Genet. 1966;18 (4):339–373.
76.Yoshimoto Y, Neel JV, Schull WJ. Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors. Am J Hum Genet. 1990;46 (6):1041–1052.
77.Izumi S, Koyama K, Soda M, Suyama A. Cancer incidence in children and young adults did not increase relative to parental exposure to atomic bombs. Br J Cancer. 2003;89 (9):1709–1713.
78.Izumi S, Suyama A, Koyama K. Radiation-related mortality among offspring of atomic bomb survivors: a half-century of follow-up. Int J Cancer. 2003;107 (2):292–297.
79.Fujiwara S, Suyama A, Cologne JB. Prevalence of adult-onset multifactorial disease among offspring of atomic bomb survivors. Radiat Res. 2008;170 (4):451–457.