Behrens Angela, Uggen Christopher, and Manza Jeff (2003). Ballot Manipulation and the ‘Menace of Negro Domination’: Racial Threat and Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States, 1850–2002. American Journal of Sociology, 109: 559–605.
Bobo Lawrence and Johnson Devon (2004). A Taste for Punishment: Black and White Americans’ Views on the Death Penalty and the War on Drugs. Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 1: 151–180.
Bowers Melanie and Preuhs Robert (2009). Collateral Consequences of a Collateral Penalty: The Negative Effect of Felon Disenfranchisement Laws on the Political Participation of Non-Felons. Social Science Quarterly, 90: 722–743.
Darley John M. and Pittman Thane S. (2003). The Psychology of Compensatory and Retributive Justice. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7: 324–336.
Dawson-Edwards C. (2008). Enfranchising Convicted Felons: Current Research on Opinions Towards Felon Voting Rights. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 46(3–4): 13–30.
Dawson-Edwards Cherie and Higgins George E. (2013). Knowledge and Attitudes towards Felon-Voting Rights: An Examination of the Untapped Perspectives of HBCU College Students. Criminal Justice Studies, 26: 393–407.
Dhami Mandeep K. and Cruise Paula A. (2013). Prisoner Disenfranchisement: Prisoner and Public Views of an Invisible Punishment. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 13: 211–227.
Dinan John (2007). The Adoption of Criminal Disenfranchisement Provisions in the United States: Lessons from the State Constitutional Convention Debates. Journal of Policy History, 19: 282–312.
Eberhardt Jennifer L., Atiba Goff Phillip, Purdie Valerie J., and Davies Paul G. (2004). Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87: 876–893.
Entman Robert M. and Rojecki Andrew (2001). The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Feather Norman T. (2006). Deservingness and Emotions: Applying the Structural Model of Deservingness to the Analysis of Affective Reactions to Outcomes. European Review of Social Psychology, 17: 38–70.
Feather Norman T. (2008). Perceived Legitimacy of a Promotion Decision in Relation to Deservingness, Entitlement, and Resentment in the Context of Affirmative Action and Performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38: 1230–1254.
Feather Norman T. and Sherman Rebecca (2002). Envy, Resentment, Schadenfreude, and Sympathy: Reactions to Deserved and Undeserved Achievement and Subsequent Failure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28: 953–961.
Feldman Stanley and Huddy Leonie (2005). Racial Resentment and White Opposition to Race-Conscious Programs: Principles or Prejudice? American Journal of Political Science, 49(1): 168–183.
Gilens Martin (1996). “Race Coding” and White Opposition to Welfare. American Political Science Review, 90: 593–604.
Gilens Martin (1999). Why Americans Hate Welfare Policy: Race, Media, and the Politics of Anti-Poverty Policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Gilens Martin, Sniderman Paul M., and Kuklinski James K. (1998). Affirmative Action and the Politics of Realignment. British Journal of Political Science, 28: 159–183.
Gilliam Frank D. and Iyengar Shanto (2000). Prime Suspects: The Influence of Local Television News on the Viewing Public. American Journal of Political Science, 44: 560–573.
Heumann Milton, Pinaire Brian K., and Clark Thomas (2005). Beyond the Sentence: Public Perceptions of Collateral Consequences for Felony Offenders. Criminal Law Bulletin, 41: 24–46.
Holloway Pippa (2014). Living in Infamy: Felon Disenfranchisement and the History of American Citizenship. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hurwitz Jon and Peffley Mark A. (1997). Public Perceptions of Race and Crime: The Role of Racial Stereotypes. American Journal of Political Science, 41: 375–401.
Hurwitz Jon and Peffley Mark A. (2005). Explaining the Great Racial Divide: Perceptions of Fairness in the U.S. Criminal Justice System. Journal of Politics, 67: 762–783.
Immerwahr John and Johnson Jean (2002). The Revolving Door: Exploring Public Attitudes toward Prisoner Reentry. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Johnson Devon (2008). Racial Prejudice, Perceived Injustice, and the Black-White Gap in Punitive Attitudes. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36: 198–206.
Johnson Devon (2009). Anger about Crime and Support for Punitive Criminal Justice Policies. Punishment & Society, 11: 51–66.
Katzenstein Mary Fainsod, Mohsen Ibrahim Leila, and Rubin Katherine D. (2010). The Dark Side of American Liberalism and Felony Disenfranchisement. Perspectives on Politics, 8: 1035–1054.
Keyssar Alexander (2009). The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in America. New York: Basic Books.
Kinder Donald R. and Sanders Lynn M. (1996). Divided by Color: Racial Politics and Democratic Ideals. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
King Ryan D. and Mauer Marc (2004). .
King Ryan and Wheelock Darren (2007). Group Threat and Social Control: Race, Perceptions of Minorities and the Desire to Punish. Social Forces, 85: 1255–1280.
Krysan Maria (1998). Privacy and the Expression of White Racial Attitudes: A Comparison Across Three Contexts. Public Opinion Quarterly, 62: 506–544.
Lakoff George (2002). Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Manville Michael (2012). People, Race and Place: American Support for Person- and Place-based Urban Policy, 1973–2008. Urban Studies, 49: 3101–3119.
Manza Jeff, Brooks Clem, and Uggen Christopher (2004). Public Attitudes Towards Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States. Public Opinion Quarterly, 68: 275–286.
Manza Jeff and Uggen Christopher (2006). Locked Out: Felon Disenfranchisement and American Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Marshall Thomas H. (1950). Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Mauer Marc and Chesney-Lind Meda (2002). Invisible Punishment: The Collateral Consequences of Mass Imprisonment. New York: New Press.
Mele Christopher and Miller Teresa A. (Eds.) (2005). Civil Penalties, Social Consequences. New York: Routledge.
Owens Michael Leo and Smith Adrienne R. (2012). “Deviants” and Democracy: Punitive Policy Designs and the Social Rights of Felons. American Politics Research, 40: 531–567.
Pager Devah (2007). Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Peffley Mark A., and Hurwitz Jon (2002). The Racial Components of ‘Race-Neutral’ Crime Policy Attitudes. Political Psychology, 23: 59–75.
Peffley Mark A. and Hurwitz Jon (2010). Justice in America: The Separate Realities of Blacks and Whites. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Peffley Mark A., Hurwitz Jon, and Sniderman Paul M. (1997). Racial Stereotypes and Whites’ Political Views of Blacks in the Context of Welfare and Crime. American Journal of Political Science, 41: 30–60.
Pinaire Brian, Heumann Milton, and Bilotta Laura (2003). Barred from the Vote: Public Attitudes Toward the Disenfranchisement of Felons. Fordham Urban Law Review, 30: 1519–1550.
Rose Dina R. and Clear Todd R. (2004). Who Doesn’t Know Someone in Jail? The Impact of Exposure to Prison on Attitudes Toward Formal and Informal Controls. The Prison Journal, 84: 228–247.
Schuman Howard and Presser Stanley (1981). Questions and Answers in Attitude Surveys: Experiments on Question Form, Wording, and Context. New York: Wiley.
Sniderman Paul M. and Carmines Edward G. (1997). Reaching Beyond Race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sniderman Paul M. and Piazza Thomas (1993). The Scar of Race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Tabachnick Barbara G. and Fidell Linda S. (2006). Using Multivariate Statistics. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Tessler Michael A. and Sears David O. (2010). Obama’s Race: The 2008 Election and the Dream of a Post-Racial America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Travis Jeremy (2002). “Invisible Punishment”: An Instrument of Social Exclusion. In Mauer Marc and Chesny-Lind Meda (Eds.), Invisible Punishment: The Collateral Consequences of Mass Imprisonment, pp. 15–36. New York: New Press.
Uggen Christopher and Manza Jeff (2002). Democratic Contraction? The Political Consequences of Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States. American Sociological Review, 67: 777–803.
The Pew Charitable Trusts (2010). Collateral Costs: Incarceration’s Effect on Economic Mobility. Washington, DC: The Pew Charitable Trusts.
Welch Kelly (2007). Black Criminal Stereotypes and Racial Profiling. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 23: 276–288.
Wilson David C. and Davis Darren W. (2011). Reexamining Racial Resentment: Conceptualization and Content. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 634: 117–133.
Wilson David C., Moore David W., McKay Patrick F., and Avery Derek R. (2008). Affirmative Action Programs for Women and Minorities: Support Affected by Question Order. Public Opinion Quarterly, 73: 514–522.