Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 46
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Friedson, Michael 2016. Authoritarian parenting attitudes and social origin: The multigenerational relationship of socioeconomic position to childrearing values. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 51, p. 263.

    Gilderbloom, John I. Meares, Wesley L. and Riggs, William 2016. How brownfield sites kill places and people: an examination of neighborhood housing values, foreclosures, and lifespan. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, Vol. 9, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Gilster, Megan E. 2016. RACIAL AND ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT OF MASTERY. Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 44, Issue. 1, p. 38.

    Meloni, Maurizio Williams, Simon and Martin, Paul 2016. The biosocial: sociological themes and issues. The Sociological Review Monographs, Vol. 64, Issue. 1, p. 7.

    Riggs, William 2016. Inclusively walkable: exploring the equity of walkable housing in the San Francisco Bay Area. Local Environment, Vol. 21, Issue. 5, p. 527.

    Sampson, Robert J. 2016. The Characterological Imperative: On Heckman, Humphries, and Kautz'sThe Myth of Achievement Tests: The GED and the Role of Character in American Life†. Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 54, Issue. 2, p. 493.

    Bruce, Marino A. Griffith, Derek M. and Thorpe, Roland J. 2015. Stress and the Kidney. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Vol. 22, Issue. 1, p. 46.

    Freund, Peter 2015. The Palgrave Handbook of Social Theory in Health, Illness and Medicine.

    Hewstone, Miles 2015. Consequences of Diversity for Social Cohesion and Prejudice: The Missing Dimension of Intergroup Contact. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 71, Issue. 2, p. 417.

    Phelan, Jo C. and Link, Bruce G. 2015. Is Racism a Fundamental Cause of Inequalities in Health?. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 41, Issue. 1, p. 311.

    Gilster, Megan E. 2014. Neighborhood Stressors, Mastery, and Depressive Symptoms: Racial and Ethnic Differences in an Ecological Model of the Stress Process in Chicago. Journal of Urban Health, Vol. 91, Issue. 4, p. 690.

    Jones, Antwan 2014. Depression, race, gender and covenant marriage: An analysis of newly married couples. Health Sociology Review, Vol. 23, Issue. 3, p. 190.

    Klein, Sacha and Merritt, Darcey H. 2014. Neighborhood racial & ethnic diversity as a predictor of child welfare system involvement. Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 41, p. 95.

    Landrine, Hope and Corral, Irma 2014. Advancing Research on Racial–Ethnic Health Disparities: Improving Measurement Equivalence in Studies with Diverse Samples. Frontiers in Public Health, Vol. 2,

    Riggs, William 2014. Steps toward validity in active living research: Research design that limits accusations of physical determinism. Health & Place, Vol. 26, p. 7.

    Roxburgh, Susan and MacArthur, Kelly Rhea 2014. Childhood adversity and adult depression among the incarcerated: Differential exposure and vulnerability by race/ethnicity and gender. Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 38, Issue. 8, p. 1409.

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores Rosenfeld, Lindsay E. Hardy, Erin McArdle, Nancy and Osypuk, Theresa L. 2013. Future Directions in Research on Institutional and Interpersonal Discrimination and Children’s Health. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 103, Issue. 10, p. 1754.

    Brenner, Allison B. Zimmerman, Marc A. Bauermeister, Jose A. and Caldwell, Cleopatra H. 2013. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 42, Issue. 6, p. 792.

    Jones, Antwan 2013. Segregation and cardiovascular illness: The role of individual and metropolitan socioeconomic status. Health & Place, Vol. 22, p. 56.

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A. Loh, Ji Meng White, Kellee and Saldana, Nelson 2013. Retail Redlining in New York City: Racialized Access to Day-to-Day Retail Resources. Journal of Urban Health, Vol. 90, Issue. 4, p. 632.

  • Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, Volume 1, Issue 1
  • March 2004, pp. 7-25


  • Douglas S. Massey (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2004

Thirty years after the civil rights era, the United States remains a residentially segregated society in which Blacks and Whites inhabit different neighborhoods of vastly different quality. Given high levels of racial segregation and elevated rates of Black poverty, it is axiomatically true that African Americans will experience more neighborhood poverty than other groups. Moreover, because poverty is associated with crime and delinquency, they will also be exposed to far higher rates of social disorder and violence. In this article I argue that long-term exposure to social disorder and violence because of segregation produces a high allostatic load among African Americans, which leads, in turn, to a variety of deleterious health and cognitive outcomes. After summarizing recent research on stress and allostatic load, I specify a biosocial model of racial stratification and draw upon it to explicate well-documented racial differentials with respect to health and cognition.

Corresponding author
Professor Douglas S. Massey, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, 239 Wallace Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race
  • ISSN: 1742-058X
  • EISSN: 1742-0598
  • URL: /core/journals/du-bois-review-social-science-research-on-race
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *