Alabama (1901). Journal of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Alabama. Montgomery, AL: Brown Printing Co.
Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press.
Beale, Calvin L. (1996). Rural Prisons: An Update. Rural Development Perspectives, 11: 25–27.
Beckett, Katherine (1997). Making Crime Pay: Law and Order in Contemporary American Politics. New York: Oxford Press.
Behrens, Angela, Uggen, Christopher, and Manza, Jeff (2003). Ballot Manipulation and the “Menace of Negro Domination”: Racial Threat and Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States, 1850-2002. American Journal of Sociology, 109: 559–605.
Burch, Traci R. (2012). Did Disenfranchisement Laws Help Elect President Bush? New Evidence on the Turnout Rates and Candidate Preferences of Florida’s Ex-Felons. Political Behavior, 34: 1–26.
Burch, Traci R. (2014). Effects of Imprisonment and Community Supervision on Neighborhood Political Participation in North Carolina. ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 651: 184–201.
Cain, Bruce E., Mac Donald, Karin, and McDonald, Michael (2005). From Equality to Fairness: The Path to Political Reform since Baker v. Carr. In Mann, T. and Cain, B. (Eds.), Party Lines: Competition, Partisanship, and Congressional Redistricting, pp. 6–30. Brookings Institute: Washington DC.
Chen, Jowei, and Rodden, Jonathan (2013). Unintentional Gerrymandering: Political Geography and Electoral Bias in Legislatures. Quarterly Journal of Political Science, 8: 239–269.
Clear, Todd R. (2007). Imprisoning Communities: How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse. New York: Oxford Press.
Cowan, Sarah K. (2015). Periodic Discordance Between Vote Equality and Representational Equality in the United States. Sociological Science, 2: 442–453.
Dahl, Robert A. (1989). Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Drake, John C. (2011). Locked Up and Counted Out: Bringing an End to Prison-Based Gerrymandering. Washington University Journal of Law and Policy, 37: 237–265.
Garland, David (2001). The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Goedert, Nicholas (2014). Gerrymandering or Geography? How Democrats Won the Popular Vote but Lost the Congress in 2012. Research and Politics, 1–8.
Goffman, Erving (1961). Asylums: Essays on the Social Situations of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. Garden City, New Jersey: Anchor Books.
Hamsher, David (2005). Counted Out Twice: Power, Representation and the “Usual Residence Rule” in the Enumeration of Prisoners: A State-Based Approach to Correcting Flawed Census Data. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 96: 299–328.
Ho, Dale (2011). Captive Constituents: Prison-Based Gerrymandering and the Current Redistricting Cycle. Stanford Law Review, 22(2): 355–394.
Jacobs, David, and Jackson, Aubrey (2010). On the Politics of Imprisonments: A Review of Systematic Findings. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 6: 129–149.
Lee, Hedwig, Porter, Lauren C., and Comfort, Megan (2014). Consequences of Family Member Incarceration: Impacts on Civic Participation and Perceptions of the Legitimacy and Fairness of Government. ANNALS of the American Academy of Political Science, 651: 44–73.
Logan, John R., and Stults, Brian J. (2011). The Persistence of Segregation in the Metropolis: New Findings from the 2010 Census. US2010 Project. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Lotke, Eric, and Wagner, Peter (2004). Prisoners of the Census: Electoral and Financial Consequences of Counting Prisoners Where They Go, Not Where They Come From. Pace Law Review, 24: 587–607.
Lublin, David (1999). The Paradox of Representation: Racial Gerrymandering and Minority Interests in Congress. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Manza, Jeff, and Uggen, Christopher (2006). Locked Out: Felon Disenfranchisement and American Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Massey, Douglas S., and Denton, Nancy (1993). American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McDonald, Michael P. (2011). Redistricting Developments of the Last Decade—and What’s on the Table in This One. Election Law Journal, 10: 313–318.
Mendelberg, Tali (2001). The Race Card: Campaign Strategy, Implicit Messages, and the Norm of Equality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
National Research Council Panel (2006). Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Pettit, Becky, and Western, Bruce (2004). Mass Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S. Incarceration. American Sociological Review, 69: 151–169.
Pettit, Becky (2012). Invisible Men: Mass Incarceration and the Myth of Black Progress. New York: Russell Sage.
Perman, Michael (2001). Struggle for Mastery: Disenfranchisement in the South, 1888-1908. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Powell, G. Bingham Jr. (2004). Political Representation in Comparative Politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 7: 273–296.
Redding, Kent (2003). Making Race, Making Power: North Carolina’s Road to Disenfranchisement. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Rios, Victor M. (2011). Punished: Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys. New York: NYU Press.
Robinson, Donald L. (1971). Slavery in the Structure of American Politics. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Sampson, Robert J. (2012). Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Schlosser, Eric (1998). The Prison-Industrial Complex. Atlantic Monthly, 282: 51–77.
Schnittker, Jason, Massoglia, Michael, and Uggen, Christopher (2011). Incarceration and the Health of the African American Community. Du Bois Review, 8: 1–9.
Shotts, Kenneth W. (2001). The Effect of Majority-Minority Mandates on Partisan Gerrymandering. American Journal of Political Science, 45(1): 120–135.
Stinebrickner-Kauffman, Taren (2004). Counting Matters: Prison Inmates, Population Bases, and One Person, One Vote. Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the Law, 11: 229–306.
Uggen, Christopher, and Manza, Jeff (2002). Democratic Contraction? The Political Consequences of Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States. American Sociological Review, 67: 777–803.
U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Federal Bureau of Prisons (2007). Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2004 [Computer file]. Compiled by U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research.
Wacquant, Loïc (2000). The New ‘Peculiar Institution’: On the Prison as Surrogate Ghetto.Theoretical Criminology, 4: 377–389.
Wacquant, Loïc (2001). Deadly Symbiosis: When Ghetto and Prison Meet and Mesh. Punishment and Society, 3: 95–133.
Wacquant, Loïc (2009). Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Wacquant, Loïc (2010). Class, Race, and Hyperincarceration in Revanchist America. Daedalus, 140: 74–90.
Wakefield, Sara, and Uggen, Christopher (2010). Incarceration and Stratification. Annual Review of Sociology, 36: 387–406.
Western, Bruce, and Beckett, Katherine (1999). How Unregulated is the U.S. Labor Market? The Penal System as a Labor Market Institution. American Journal of Sociology, 104: 1030–1060.
Wilson, William Julius (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner-City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.