Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Juridical Ecumenism

  • Norman Doe (a1)
Abstract

The ecumenical movement seeks to achieve Christian unity through greater visible communion between the separated (or divided) institutional Churches of Christianity worldwide. The practice of ecumenism and ecumenical theology have developed principally at the doctrinal and theological levels. The juridical instruments of Churches have not thus far played a central role in ecumenical discourse – they are occasionally seen as the ‘missing link’ in ecumenism. This article examines for the first time, in a wide comparative compass, the treatment of ecumenism in the juridical instruments of separated Christian traditions and their institutional Churches worldwide. It proposes that these instruments should have a more prominent place in ecumenical practice and theology in so far as they tell us much about the scope of both the commitment of Churches to and their participation in the ecumenical enterprise. Juridical instruments define what ecclesial communion is possible and what is not, either enabling or restricting the development of greater visible communion between separated Churches in the quest for Christian unity. As such, this ‘juridical ecumenism’ offers both a theoretical and a practical framework for the global transformation of ecumenism to complement but not replace the current dominance of the doctrinal and theological focus in contemporary ecumenical method and practice.

Copyright
References
Hide All

1 See generally Lossky, N, Bonino, J, Pobee, J, Stransky, T, Wainwright, G and Webb, P (eds), Dictionary of the Ecumenical Movement (Geneva, 2002).

2 ‘Juridical instruments’ is used here to embrace the variety of regulatory forms used by Churches of different Christian traditions, ranging from canon law (in the Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican traditions) to the systems of church order and polity (in the Reformed Protestant traditions), though Lutheran, Presbyterian, Baptist and Methodist churches often use the word ‘law’ for their regulatory systems. See generally Doe, N, ‘Modern church law’, in Witte, J and Alexander, F (eds), Christianity and Law (Cambridge, 2008), pp 271291. The study also examines ecclesiastical quasi-legislation (informal administrative norms which complement formal laws).

3 ‘Catholic’ is used here for the Latin (or Roman) and Eastern (or Oriental) Catholic Church(es). Catholic scholars include Robert Ombres OP: see Hill, M et al. ‘A decade of ecumenical dialogue in canon law’, (2009) 11 Ecc LJ 284328. See also the Protestant scholar Koffeman, L, Het Goed Recht van de Kerk: een theologische inleiding op het kerkrecht (Kampen, 2009).

4 See Doe, N, Canon Law in the Anglican Communion (Oxford, 1998), ch 12; H Dombois, ‘Ökumenisches Kirchenrecht heute’, (1979) 24 Zeitschrift für Evangelisches Kirchenrecht 225–249, which states that church law is ecumenical in nature because Churches are united in using juridical forms to express their place in the Church universal.

5 World Council of Churches, Faith and Order Commission, Document IV.8 (1974), ‘The ecumenical movement and church law’: see Reuver, M, Faith and Law: juridical perspectives for the ecumenical movement (Geneva, 2000), p 5.

6 Namely Catholic (Latin and Oriental), Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran, Reformed (and Presbyterian), Baptist and Methodist; samples of the instruments of other churches (such as the United Churches) are also studied.

7 While the subjects in the first four sections involve norms created unilaterally by a tradition or individual Church, the final section studies norms created bilaterally or multilaterally through ecumenical collaboration.

8 See, in this issue, Ombres, R OP, ‘Canon law and theology’ (2012) 14 Ecc LJ 164194.

9 See typically Dulles, A, Models of the Church (second edition, Dublin, 1988).

10 Doe, N, ‘The concept of Christian law – a case study: the concept of “a church” in a comparative and ecumenical context’, in Doe, N and Sandberg, R (eds), Law and Religion: New Horizons (Leuven, 2010), pp 243274.

11 (Latin) Code of Canon Law (Codex Iuris Canonici) 1983 (CIC), Canon 204; Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (CCEO), Canon 7; Catechism of the Catholic Church 1994 (CCC), para 820; see also the Decree on Ecumenism, Unitatis redintegratio (1963), para 4.3.

12 Orthodox Church in America (OCA), Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness; Standing Conference of Orthodox Bishops in America, Guidelines for Orthodox Christians in Ecumenical Relations (GOCER), Introduction; Rodopoulos, P, An Overview of Orthodox Canon Law (Rollinsford, NH, 2007) pp 58.

13 Anglican Communion Legal Advisers' Network, Principles of Canon Law Common to the Churches of the Anglican Communion (Principles) (London, 2008), Definitions, p 95; Principles 9.2 and 93.1: ‘The church universal is indivisible’; the Anglican Communion Covenant, Arts 1.1, 3.2.3 (Body of Christ). The laws of Churches sometimes define each of the marks of the Church universal. See eg Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia: the Church is one ‘because it is one body, under one head, Jesus Christ’; it is holy ‘because the Holy Spirit dwells in its members and guides it in mission’; catholic ‘because it seeks to proclaim the whole faith to all people to the end of time’; and apostolic ‘because it presents the faith of the apostles and is sent to carry Christ's mission to all the world’.

14 Lutheran Church of Australia (LCA), Theses on the Church, paras 1, 17, 20; Evangelical Lutheran Church of Southern Africa (ELCSA), Guidelines 11.1 and 12.6; Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), Constitution, Introduction and ch 4; see also Lutheran World Federation as a Communion (Geneva, 2003), p 8: Lutherans affirm ‘the unity of the one universal church, which is the body of Christ in this world’.

15 United Reformed Church of Great Britain (URC), Manual, A.1, A.18.5, A.25; Reformed Church in America (RCA), Book of Church Order, Preamble; United Free Church of Scotland (UFCS), Manual of Practice and Procedure, Statement of the General Assembly, Special Constitutional Features of the UFCS: the UFCS ‘affirms the obligation of the Universal Church to make known the Gospel throughout the world’ (I.III.1.8); Presbyterian Church of Wales, Handbook of Order and Rules; Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, Book of Order, 1.1; Presbyterian Church in Ireland (PCI), Code, 1–4; Presbyterian Church in America, Book of Church Order, Preface II.3; Presbyterian Church (USA), Book of Order G-4.0201.

16 United Methodist Church USA, Constitution, Preamble; United Methodist Church in Northern Europe and Eurasia (UMCNEE), Book of Discipline, paras 5, 103–104, 129 and 215; Methodist Church in Ireland (MCI), Constitution, s 1; Methodist Church of New Zealand, Laws and Regulations, The Nature of New Zealand Methodism, s 1.2; Methodist Church of Great Britain, Constitutional Practice and Discipline (CPD), Deed of Union, para 4 and SO 701; Free Methodist Church of North America, Pastors and Church Leaders Manual, I.A.1, and Book of Discipline, 6010.

17 Canadian National Baptist Convention, Constitution, 3 (Statement of Faith, XIV); American Baptist Churches in the USA, The Covenant of Relationships and its Agreements among the General, National and Regional Boards of the American Baptist Churches, I.A.6.

18 Uniting Churches in Australia (Congregational, Methodist and Presbyterian), Constitution, 2; United Church of Canada (UCC), Manual, Basis of Union, 2.15.

19 CIC, Canon 204 §2; Lumen Gentium, 8; see also CCEO, Canon 7.2.

20 CIC, Canon 369; see also Canon 368 and Lumen Gentium, 26: the Church universal is present in congregations.

21 GOCER, pt 1, Orthodox Ecumenical Guidelines, 1 and 6; see also OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness: ‘The Holy Orthodox Church alone has preserved in full and intact “the faith once delivered unto the saints”’.

22 Limouris, G (ed), Orthodox Visions of Ecumenism (Geneva, 1994), p 29.

23 Principles, 10.1; see also Anglican Communion Covenant, Art 1.1.1.

24 Church of India, Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon, Constitution, Prefatory Statement, 1; Scottish Episcopal Church, Canon 1.1; Anglican Church of Canada, Constitution, Declaration of Principles, 1; Church of England, Canon A 1.

25 Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, Constitution, Art IV.1; ELCA, Constitution, Introduction.

26 LCA, Theses on the Church, 10; ELCA, Constitution, ch 3: Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, Constitution, Art III.1–3; ELCSA, Guidelines, 11.1: ‘The Congregation is the body of Christ’, 12.6: ‘The Church is present where people gather around the Word and Sacrament’ (see also 2.1: ‘The risen Lord acts within His congregation through Word and Sacrament’); Lutheran Church in Great Britain, Rules and Regulations, p 2.

27 United Congregational Church of Southern Africa, Constitution, Preamble; UFCS, Manual of Practice and Procedure, IV.III.8; UCC, Constitution, 2, 3: the congregation is ‘the embodiment in one place of the one holy catholic and apostolic church’; URC, Manual, A.11; Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand, Book of Order 1.1(1): the church is ‘part’ of the church universal; Presbyterian Church (USA), Book of Order, G-4.0102; American Baptist Convention, Bylaws, Prologue: the American Baptist Churches in the USA are ‘a manifestation of the church universal’.

28 United Methodist Church USA, Constitution, I, Art VI; UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, para 214; MCI, Constitution, ss 1 and 2; Methodist Church (GB), CPD, Deed of Union, 4; Methodist Church New Zealand, Laws and Regulations, The Nature of New Zealand Methodism and s 1.

29 Methodist Church (GB), CPD, SO 500: ‘The Circuit is the primary unit in which the Local Churches express and experience their inter-connexion in the Body of Christ’; UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, para 201.

30 Directory for the Application of Norms and Principles of Ecumenism 1993 (Ecumenical Directory), 9, 17, 18 and 19, see also 106: ‘other Communions’; CIC, Canon 383 §3; Canon 1170: ‘non-catholics’; CCEO, Canon 906.

31 GOCER, pt I, Orthodox Ecumenical Guidelines, 1, 7, 13; OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, B.5 (see also A Selection of Clergy Disciplines, 1); Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain (Greek Orthodox), Instructions, Baptism; Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America, Statutes, Art II.6; Romanian Orthodox Church, Statutes.

32 Statement of Orthodox Delegates, 2nd Assembly of World Council of Churches (Evanston, 1954) in Limouris, Orthodox Visions, p 29.

33 Principles, 94.1, 95 and 98.1; Church in the Province of the West Indies, Canon 33: ‘other Churches’.

34 LCA, Theses on the Church, 24–25; ELCSA, Guidelines, 3.9, 11.8; ELCA, Constitution, ch 8.72.12, ch 11.32, ch 12.04; Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, Constitution, Art IV.2.

35 Presbyterian Church in America, Book of Church Order, 1.2.2–3; see also Presbyterian Church (USA), Book of Order, G-4.0201; PCI, Code, 4.1; URC, Manual, A.7: divisions; UFCS, Manual, IV.III.III.4; United Church of Christ, Bylaws, 229; United Congregational Church of Southern Africa, Constitution, Arts 6.4.9 and 6.4.11; Presbyterian Church of Wales, Handbook of Order and Rules, IV.4.18; UCC, Manual, BU, 8.6.9–10; RCA, Book of Church Order, Preamble, ch 1, pt 1, Art 5, ss 2b and 3; PCI, Code, 106 and 108(a).

36 United Methodist Church USA, Constitution, Preamble; see also UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, Constitution, Preamble, paras 101 and 333; Methodist Church (GB), CPD, Deed of Union, 8(e); SO 051–053; Free Methodist Church of North America, Book of Discipline, 3401; MCI, Regulations, Discipline and Government, 2.03, 4B.36, 4E.04; Methodist Church New Zealand, Laws and Regulations, s 3.1.

37 Baptist Union (GB), Constitution, 1.4.6; Jamaica Baptist Union, Constitution, IV.10; Baptist Union of New Zealand, Ethical Principles and Guidelines for Pastors, 2.2; American Baptist Churches in the USA, Ordination Guidelines, II and Standing Rules, 1111.

38 Eg Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America, Statutes, Art II; Romanian Orthodox Church, Statutes, Art 14: the Holy Synod is ‘the highest authority’ of the Church; ELCA, Constitution, ch 12.10–11: Churchwide Assembly is ‘the highest legislative authority’; Methodist Church (GB), CPD, Deed of Union, 11: the authority of the Conference; URC, Manual, 2(6): the General Assembly is the ‘final authority’ in the church; United Church of Christ, Constitution, Art V.18: ‘The autonomy of the Local Church is inherent and modifiable only by its own action’; American Baptist Churches in the USA, Ordination Guidelines (2004), II.

39 CCC, para 820; CCEO, Canon 902; Ecumenical Directory, 9: ecumenism is ‘the plan of God’ and it seeks ‘to overcome what divides Christians’, 22: it is a grace of God.

40 Principles, 93.1; Anglican Communion Covenant, 2.1.5; Lambeth Conference 2008, Reflections 71, 73, 74; see also Anglican Church of Southern Africa, Resolution of Permanent Force of the Provincial Synod, 1 (1973): ‘it is God's will that His Church should be visibly one’.

41 LCA, Theses, 23; ELCSA, Guidelines, 11.8; Lutheran Church (GB), Rules and Regulations, Statement of Faith, 8.

42 United Methodist Church USA, Constitution, Preamble: the church is obedient ‘to the will of our Lord that his people be one, in humility for the present brokenness of the Church’; see also UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, Constitution, Preamble and para 104.

43 UCC, Manual, Basis of Union 2.15; United Congregational Church of Southern Africa, Constitution, Preamble; United Church in Australia, Regulations, 3.1.1(b)(i); Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand, Book of Order, 1.6: ‘Jesus’ prayer'; Presbyterian Church (USA), Book of Order G-4.0201.

44 American Baptist Churches in the USA, Covenant of Relationships, I.A.7.

45 GOCER, pt I, Orthodox Ecumenical Guidelines, 1, 7, 13; OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, B.5 (see also A Selection of Clergy Disciplines, 1); Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain (Greek Orthodox), Instructions, Baptism; Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America, Statutes, Art II.6; Romanian Orthodox Church, Statutes; Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, Charter: ‘any Christian denomination’.

46 Anglican Communion Covenant, Introduction, para 6; see also Lambeth Conference 2008, Reflections, paras 71, 73; Principles, 93.1; Church of England, Canon A 8; Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia, GS Standing Resolution [on] Intercommunion (1992).

47 United Methodist Church USA, Constitution, Preamble; UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, Constitution, Preamble.

48 CIC, Canon 755 §1; Ecumenical Directory, 20.

49 GOCER, Introduction and pt 1, Orthodox Ecumenical Guidelines, 7–8; OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness.

50 Lambeth Conference 2008, Reflections, 73, 76, 77, 80, 84; Anglican Church in Korea, Constitution, Fundamental Declaration of Faith and Rites.

51 Lutheran Church (GB), Rules and Regulations, Statement of Faith, 8; ELCA, Constitution, ch 8.70: church-to-church relationships.

52 United Methodist Church USA, Constitution, div 1, Art VI; see also UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, paras 5, 101 and 104, and para 2402 for ‘formal relations’.

53 Presbyterian Church of Wales, Handbook of Order and Rules, III.3.4.4; Baptist Union (GB), Baptists and Ecumenism (2006).

54 CIC, Canon 755.2; see also CCEO, Canon 902 and 903: ‘The Eastern Catholic Churches have a special duty of fostering unity among all Eastern Churches’ (ie to foster ecumenism with Orthodox churches).

55 OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness.

56 Principles, 93.3; Anglican Church in Korea, Constitution, Fundamental Declaration of Faith and Rites; Lusitanian Church, Canon X.

57 Anglican Communion Covenant, Introduction, para 6; 2.1.5; Lambeth Conference 2008, Reflections, 72.

58 LCA, Constitution, Art III; see also ELCA, Constitution, ch 4.03; Lutheran Church (GB), Rules and Regulations, Statement of Faith, 8; ELCSA, Guidelines, 10.11 and 11.8; Lutheran Church Missouri Synod, Constitution, Art III; Lutheran Church in Ireland, Constitution, 3.

59 UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, para 104; Methodist Church of New Zealand, Laws and Regulations, Introductory Documents, II, Pastoral Resolutions.

60 Presbyterian Church (USA), Book of Order, G-15.0102; see also G-4.0201: the Church is ‘committed to the reduction of that obscurity’ of the visible oneness of the Church universal.

61 United Congregational Church of Southern Africa, Constitution, Preamble; World Communion of Reformed Churches, Constitution, Art III.F; UFCS, Manual of Practice and Procedure, Appendix 3, V.

62 United Church of South India, Constitution, II.2.

63 See eg Baptist Union (GB), Constitution, 1.4.6: the union is ‘to confer and cooperate with other Christian communities as occasion may require’. For a similar formula, see Jamaica Baptist Union, Constitution, XII.

64 Ecumenical Directory, 106 and 107; CCEO, Canon 905.

65 OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness: ‘unity in faith, sacramental life and the wholeness of truth’; GOCER, pt 1, Orthodox Ecumenical Guidelines, 13, Orthodoxy and Other Churches, 3, Preaching on Ecumenical Occasions, and 4: ‘the principle of reciprocity’.

66 Principles, 93.3, quoted above.

67 ELCA, Constitution, ch 4.03: the church is to ‘Foster Christian unity by participating in ecumenical activities, contributing to its witness and work and cooperating with other churches which confess God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit’ and to establish dialogue and conversations on matters of ‘faith, doctrine and practice’, pulpit and altar fellowship; ch 8.60: ‘dialogue and common action’; ch 8.70–71: agreements. See also LCA, Some Pastoral Guidelines for Responsible Communion Practice (2001) and Guidelines for Dialogue with Other Churches (2001).

68 Methodist Church (GB), CPD, SO 729: communion, and SO 330: inter-communion; UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, para 104.

69 World Communion of Reformed Churches, Constitution, Art III.F; United Church of Christ, Bylaws 239; United Reformed Church, Manual, B.2(5).

70 Ecumenical Directory, 6, 20, 23, 106; 107: ‘Catholics ought to show a sincere respect for the liturgical and sacramental discipline of other Churches and ecclesial Communities and these in turn are asked to show the same respect for Catholic discipline’. For ‘indifferentism’, see CIC, Canon 844.2. See also CCEO, Canon 905: ‘due prudence has to be kept avoiding the dangers of false irenicism, indifferentism and immoderate zeal’.

71 GOCER, Introduction, pt 1, Ecumenical Guidelines, 7–8; OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness.

72 Principles, 98.1; Lambeth Conference 1968, Res 47; Lambeth Conference 1998, Res IV.1: the process to visible unity may entail temporary anomalies which may be bearable when there is an agreed goal of visible unity; Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia, General Synod Standing Resolution [on] Intercommunion: ‘inter-communion does not require the acceptance of all doctrinal opinion, sacramental devotion or liturgical practice characteristic of the other, but implies that each believes the other to hold all the essentials of the faith’; Lambeth Conference 1998, Res IV.2 (Chicago–Lambeth Quadrilateral (1888)).

73 ELCA, Constitution, ch 8.60: adopted policies; LCA, Theses of the Church, 27: syncretism; Lutheran Church Missouri Synod, Constitution, Art VI, and Bylaws, 2.1–2.4; Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, Constitution, Art IX.

74 United Church of Christ, Bylaws, 295: ecumenism should be conducted in accordance with ‘policies’; UCC, Community Ministry Standards and Best Practice (2007) 35: ‘ecumenical partnership’; Presbyterian Church (USA), Book of Order, G-15.0101: ‘conversation, cooperation, and action with other ecclesiastical bodies’, and G.15.0201: ‘full communion’.

75 Canadian National Baptist Convention, Constitution, 3 (Statement of Faith, XIV): ‘Christian unity in the new testament sense is spiritual harmony and voluntary cooperation for common ends … when the end to be attained is itself justified, and when such cooperation involves no violation of conscience or compromise of loyalty to Christ and His Word as revealed in the New Testament’; see also Ecumenical Directory, 87, for respect for conscience.

76 Eg UFCS, Manual of Practice and Procedure, IV.III.1.8: scriptures are ‘the standards by which faith and conduct are tested’; Uniting Church in Australia, Constitution, 4; URC, Manual, A.12: Word and Sacraments; Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand, Book of Order, 1.1(2): scripture, and 1.3: sharing in mission; UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, paras 101 and 103, and para 104: the church is ‘a congregation of faithful men in which the pure Word of God is preached, and the Sacraments duly administered according to Christ's ordinance’, para 301: the Bible as the ‘sacred canon for Christian people’, para 125: ‘Ministry in the Christian Church is derived from the ministry of Christ’, and para 106: ministry is a gift of God; Methodist Church (GB), CPD, Deed of Union, 4.

77 Anglican Communion Covenant, 1.1.8, and see also 2.1, 2.2; 3.2.4; Lambeth Conference 2008, Reflections, 75; Principles, 93.2: ‘The mission of a church is part of the wider mission of all Christians’. For Lutheranism, see eg ELCA, Constitution, ch 4.03; Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, Constitution, IV.2: ‘The mission of this church, as an expression of the universal Church’ is to share the gospel, etc.

78 RCA, Book of Church Order, Preamble. See also Anglican Church of Australia, Constitution, I.I.1–3: ‘The Anglican Church of Australia, being a part of the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church of Christ, holds the Christian Faith’, receives the scriptures, and ‘will ever obey the commands of Christ, teach His doctrine, administer His sacraments, follow and uphold His discipline and preserve the three orders of bishops, priests and deacons in the sacred ministry’.

79 LCA, Constitution, Art VI.1: ‘The Church acknowledges that Jesus Christ is its one Lord and Head’; ELCSA, Guidelines, 11.8; RCA, Book of Church Order, Preamble; Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand, Book of Order, 1.1; United Methodist Church USA, Constitution, Preamble; Free Methodist Church of North America, Book of Discipline, Introduction and 6010; Anglican Communion Covenant, Preamble: churches are ‘under the Lordship of Jesus Christ’.

80 Methodist Church (GB), CPD, Deed of Union, 46: The Conference has powers over the ‘unification, amalgamation or association of the Methodist Church or any body thereof with any other Christian church or organisation’; United Congregational Church of Southern Africa, Model Constitution for Local Churches, 11: ‘The Church has the right to negotiate a union with another local church, either of UCCSA or another denomination, and to take steps necessary to give effect thereto’ (see also Constitution, Art 6.4.11); URC, Manual, A.3(2): ‘union with other churches’.

81 United Church of North India, Constitution, II.IV.35: the Synod ‘shall have power to enter into negotiations with other Churches with a view to wider union and to do all that is necessary to bring such wider union to consummation’; UCC, Manual, BU 1.2: ‘It shall be the policy of the United Church to foster the spirit of unity in the hope that this sentiment of unity may in due time, so far as Canada is concerned, take shape in a Church which may fittingly be described as national’; Presbyterian Church of America, Book of Church Order, 26.5: ‘full organic union’ with ‘any other ecclesiastical body’ (with the approval of three-quarters of the General Assembly).

82 CIC, Canon 755 §2.

83 For the bishop, see Canon 383 §3; for invitations, see Canon 463 §3. See also Ecumenical Directory, 37, which suggests that it is important to know the ‘highest religious authority of other Churches and ecclesial Communities’.

84 CCEO, Canons 902, 903 and 192 §2 on the episcopal responsibility; Canon 904 on particular laws. The Pope directs the movement for the universal Church.

85 GOCER, pt 1, Orthodox Ecumenical Witness, 1: Ecumenical Patriarch; Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America, Statutes, Art II.6: the Holy Synod has competence over ‘the establishment of general policies in relation to … non-Orthodox religious bodies’.

86 Principles 96.1–3: such authority shall be exercised in such manner as may be prescribed by the law of that church; see eg Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia, Canon G.XIII.6: the General Synod is empowered to determine if and when it is in full communion with another church; Church of the Province of Central Africa, Resolution of Provincial Synod 1972: the bishops make the decision. The Scottish Episcopal Church has a list of churches with which it is in full communion.

87 Principles, 95.1–3.

88 LCA, Handbook, B38–39: the General Synod makes decisions ‘about entering into formal relations with another church’; ELCA, Constitution, ch 8.70–71: church-to-church relationships of full communion may be recommended, reviewed by the Conference of Bishops and adopted by the Church Council (see also 8.14: the Church-wide organisation shall implement the mission of the church by ‘entering into relationship with … ecumenical … agencies’); Lutheran Church Missouri Synod, Bylaws, 1.1.1: the Synod shall ‘work through its official structure toward fellowship with other Christian church bodies’; Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, Administrative Bylaws, Part IX: the National Church Council is ‘responsible for the implementation of all ecumenical and inter-church relations of this church and its agencies, which have been approved by the convention’.

89 Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Constitution, ch 10.31 and 13.21–22: the bishop as chief ecumenical officer. See also LCA, Bylaws, VIII.F.3(b): the president ‘officially represents the church in relations with other church bodies’.

90 RCA, Book of Church Order, ch 1, pt IV, Art 2.5. See also PCI, Code, 113; United Church of Christ, Constitution, Art IX.54: the General Synod is ‘to encourage conversations with other communions and where appropriate to authorize and guide negotiations with them, looking to formal union’; United Congregational Church of Southern Africa, Constitution, Art 6.4.9: the Assembly is ‘to encourage co-operation and conversations with other communions of the Christian church and to enter negotiations with them with a view to full organic union’; URC, Manual, 2(6): the General Assembly is ‘to conduct and foster the ecumenical relationships’ of the URC.

91 Presbyterian Church (USA), Book of Order, G-15.0103. See also World Communion of Reformed Churches, Bylaws, I.C.6: the General Council consists of ‘ecumenical delegates’ to represent ‘a recognized ecumenical fraternal organization’.

92 Methodist Church (GB), CPD, Deed of Union, 46: the Conference has authority of ‘association’ with other churches, and SO 300: the Conference Secretary leads on ‘the Church's vision of unity’; UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, para 403, and see also para 414: the bishop must provide leadership ‘in the search for strengthened relationships with other living faith communities’.

93 In the Catholic Church, the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity cultivates relations with other churches and ecclesial communities implementing the principles of ecumenism. It organises official dialogues with these on the ‘international level’, and issues guidelines and directives: see Ecumenical Directory, 53. The Inter-Anglican Standing Commission on Unity, Faith and Order monitors and enables Anglican participation in multilateral and bilateral dialogues.

94 Ecumenical Directory, 41–46, 50: within their rules of life etc they should contribute to ecumenical understanding, organise ecumenical meetings for spiritual exercises etc, maintain relations with monasteries etc in other ‘Christian Communions’, engage in ecumenical work for social justice, for the protection of creation and for peace, and, on the level of their central authorities, establish ecumenical commissions.

95 Standing Conference of Orthodox Bishops in America, Constitution, IV.2.4: the American Orthodox Committee on Relations with Non-Orthodox Bodies.

96 Principles, 96.3. See eg The Episcopal Church (USA), Canon I.1(2): the General Convention's Standing Commission on Ecumenical Relations is ‘to develop a comprehensive and coordinated policy and strategy on relations between this Church and other Churches’, and makes recommendations to General Convention; Episcopal Church in the Philippines, Canon I.2.2; Church in the Province of the West Indies, Canon 33: the Provincial Standing Commission on Ecumenism.

97 For the Constitution of the Commission on Theology and Inter-Church Relations, see LCA, Handbook, B38f. See also ELCA, Constitution, ch 15.12.B10: ‘the executive for ecumenical’ relations must assist the bishop, and 15.31.A07: the conference of bishops must study ecumenical documents and promote ‘ecumenical worship, fellowship and interaction’.

98 UFCS, Manual of Practice and Procedure, Appendix 3, V (General Assembly Committees): Ecumenical Relations Committee; United Church of Christ, Bylaws, 229, 295: Council for Ecumenism, and 239–240: the Office of General Ministries is to nurture ecumenical relations; Presbyterian Church of Wales, Handbook of Order and Rules, III.3.4.4: the function of the Ecumenical Panel of the General Assembly is ‘to promote further discussions on “church unity” according to the decisions of the General Assembly’; UCC, Manual, Bylaws 570–572: the Conference has a Committee on Inter-Church and Inter-Faith Relations; RCA, Book of Church Order, ch 3, pt 1, Art 5, s 2: ‘ecumenical observers’ are permitted on the Commission on Christian Action.

99 MCI, Regulations, Discipline and Government, 41: the Conference shall appoint a Committee for Ecumenical Relations, which reports annually to the Conference, addresses issues concerning relations with other churches and keeps itself informed on national, international and world level ecumenical issues; Methodist Church of New Zealand, Laws and Regulations, s 5.4.2: the Mission and Ecumenical Committee is to ‘promote the ecumenical relationships’ of the church; Methodist Church (GB), CPD, SO 330: the Faith and Order Committee of the Conference deals ‘with proposals and projects for inter-communion’ (see SO 334 for the ‘ecumenical officer’ of the Methodist Council).

100 American Baptist Churches in the USA, Standing Rules, 11.11: the General Board of the American Baptist Churches has a Committee on Christian Unity. The Baptist Union (GB) has a Baptists and Ecumenism, Faith and Order Department.

101 Ecumenical Directory, 67.

102 GOCER, pt 1, Council of Churches, 10.

103 Principles, 21.6; Church in Wales, Constitution, VI.22(2).

104 Lutheran Church (GB), Rules and Regulations, The Church Session, 1 and 2; ELCA, Constitution, ch 8.16, 8.75, 9.10–11, 9.41, and Model Constitution for Congregations, ch 4: congregations.

105 UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, 202: the local church is ‘to cooperate in ministry with other local churches’. See also Methodist Church of New Zealand, Laws and Regulations, ss 3.1 and 3.3: the congregational Leaders' Meeting is to ‘foster participation and partnership with other Churches within the area’; Methodist Church (GB), CPD, SO 412: the District Synod designates local ecumenical partnerships, SO 604: Local Church committees are to engage in their activities ‘ecumenically’, and SO 614.

106 Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand, Book of Order, 8.4. See also PCI, Code, 70(c); URC, Manual, B.1(2)(a) and B.2; UCC, Manual, Bylaw 385.

107 American Baptist Churches in the USA, Covenant of Relationships, I.A.4.

108 CCEO, Canon 902.

109 OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, B.1: laity; GOCER, pt 1, Orthodox Ecumenical Witness, 6: chaplains.

110 Principles, 98.1, 98.2: ‘Ministers should in ecumenical affairs collaborate, co-operate and where appropriate consult with ministers of other faith communities and in all dealings with them act courteously and with respect for their corporate traditions. 3. Ministers (a) should minister to members of other faith communities if authorised by the discipline of their own church and of the other community; and (b) should not solicit membership of their own church from a member of another faith community.’

111 Lutheran Church (GB), Rules and Regulations, The Role of the Bishops, 3; Responsibilities and Duties of Pastors, 1–24. Compare ELCA, Constitution, ch 7.31.12, where no ecumenical duty is listed.

112 UCC, Ethical Standards and Standards of Practice for Ministry, Personnel, Standards of Practice, 4(d), and Ethical Standards, 4(a); URC, Manual, K.

113 Baptist Union of New Zealand, Ethical Principles and Guidelines for Pastors (2008), 2.2.

114 UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, paras 303 (covenant) and 340; Methodist Church of New Zealand, Laws and Regulations, Introductory Documents, III, Ethical Standards for Ministry: ministers must ‘promote co-operation and mutuality’ with colleagues ‘outside the Methodist Connexion’; Methodist Church (GB), CPD, book VI, pt 1, Resolutions on Pastoral Work (1971).

115 Ecumenical Directory, 57, 72–78: there should be an ecumenical dimension in doctrinal formation and theological disciplines, with formation in ‘the elements of the Christian patrimony of truth and holiness which are common to all Churches and ecclesial Communities’ (including liturgy, spirituality and doctrine proper to each communion and points of disagreement on matters of faith and morals); also formation in ‘canon law, which must distinguish clearly between divine law and those ecclesiastical laws which change with time, culture, or local tradition’.

116 CIC, Canon 256. See also Congregation for Catholic Education, Basic Norms for Priestly Formation 1985, no 96; Congregation for Catholic Education, The Ecumenical Dimension in the Formation of Those Engaged in Pastoral Work (1995).

117 CCEO, Canon 906.

118 Ecumenical Directory, 55–56; CCEO, Canon 625: ‘Catechesis must have an ecumenical dimension, presenting a true image of other Churches and Ecclesial Communities’; CCEO, Canon 350 §4: ‘ecumenism should be one of the necessary dimensions of any theological discipline’. See also Unitatis redintegratio, 10.

119 Ecumenical Directory, 70.

120 GOCER, pt 1, 3 and 7: Orthodoxy and other Churches and Orthodox Ecumenical Witness; OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, B.1.

121 North American Lutheran Church, Standards for Pastoral Ministry (2011), p 2.

122 Uniting Church in Australia: Regulations, 2.2.18(h): UCC, Manual, Bylaw 385.

123 Ecumenical Directory, 17, 18; Unitatis redintegratio, 15.

124 The Catholic Church's Response to the Final Report of ARCIC I (1991), <http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/chrstuni/angl-comm-docs/rc_pc_chrstuni_doc_1991_catholic-response-arcici_en.html>, accessed 9 February 2012.

125 Dominus Iesus (2000), 17; Decree on the Catholic Churches of the Eastern Rite – Orientalium ecclesiarum (1964), 1–4; Ecumenical Directory, 122f.

126 Ecumenical Directory, 129.

127 Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland, One Bread, One Body (London, 1998), p 53. See also House of Bishops, Church of England, response to One Bread, One Body (2001): ‘the Church of England is not correctly referred to as one of those “Christian communities rooted in the Reformation”. The Church of England traces its origins back to the beginnings of Christianity in England and is continuous with the Church of the Apostles and Fathers. The particular churches of the Anglican Communion belong to the [Church Universal], reformed and renewed at the Reformation (though not, of course, only then)’.

128 Unitatis redintegratio, 23.

129 Dominus Iesus, 16–17.

130 For the various official statements, see Limouris, Orthodox Visions, pp 2–9, 29, 31, 66 and 103.

131 Principles, 94.1–5. Establishing communion with another church is determined by each Anglican church individually: see Doe, Anglican Communion, pp 256–258.

132 Avis, P, The Christian Church: an introduction to the major traditions (London, 2002), p 150.

133 LCA, Theses on the Church, 26; ELCA, Constitution, 8.60 and 70–71: ‘official church-to-church relationships’.

134 United Congregational Church of Southern Africa, Model Constitution for Local Churches, 3.3; RCA, Book of Church Order, ch 1, pt I, Art 2, s 4: recognised by the General Synod; Presbyterian Church (USA), Book of Order, G-150201: full communion with Churches recognised by ecumenical agreements approved by the General Assembly.

135 United Methodist Church USA, Constitution, div I, Art VI; UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, paras 5 and 2402.

136 UCC, Manual, Basis of Union, 2.15.

137 American Baptist Churches in the USA, Covenant of Relationships, I.A.6.

138 On the basis that baptism, theologically and juridically, is incorporation into the Church Universal.

139 Ecumenical Directory, 104; Lumen Gentium, 15; but: ‘Christ … founded one church … yet many Christian communities present themselves as the true inheritors of Jesus Christ … such division openly contradicts the will of Christ’.

140 CIC, Canon 861. For the prohibition on administration of the sacraments to and by non-Catholics, see Canon 844 §1. For the presumption of validity and the general prohibition against conditional baptism (to which there are exceptions) see Canon 869 §2. See also Ecumenical Directory, 95: baptism by immersion or pouring, with the Trinitarian formula.

141 CIC, Canon 874 §1.3 and §2 (this does not apply to the eastern Churches). See also Ecumenical Directory, 98.

142 Ecumenical Directory, 96: they may also pledge ‘to cooperate with the grace of the Holy Spirit in striving to heal the divisions which exist among Christians’.

143 Ibid, 99ff.

144 For the Orthodox Churches, see Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain (Greek Orthodox), Instructions, Baptism: Reception of Non-Orthodox; OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, The Reception of Converts, 2: catechumens previously baptised in the name of the Holy Trinity ‘in a manner recognised as authenticate by the Church’ may be received. For the Anglican Communion, see Principles, 99.

145 OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, The Reception of Converts, 2.

146 GOCER, pt 1, Sacraments and Other Liturgical Services, II.1–2. For baptisms administered by non-Orthodox, see OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, B.12.

147 GOCER, pt 1, Sacraments and Other Liturgical Services, III.4; Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain (Greek Orthodox), Instructions, Baptism, 3; Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America, Instructions, Baptisms; American Carthpartho-Russian Orthodox Diocese of the USA, Spiritual and Sacramental Guidelines, Baptisms.

148 For Anglicanism, see Doe, Anglican Communion, pp 241–255.

149 LCA and the Australian (Catholic) Episcopal Conference, decision 1977.

150 ELCSA, Guidelines, 1.7.

151 LCA, Pastoral Practice in Reference to Holy Baptism (1984). See also ELCSA, Guidelines, 1.9: at least one sponsor should be a Lutheran.

152 UFCS, Manual of Practice and Procedure, I.III.5. Compare Presbyterian Church of Wales, Handbook of Order and Rules, IX.9.2: baptism may also be administered to the children of ‘non-members’.

153 MCI, Regulations, Discipline and Government, 3.04. See also Methodist Church (GB), CPD, SO 010A; Methodist Church of New Zealand, Laws and Regulations, s 1.

154 URC, Manual, E.

155 Nigerian Baptist Convention, Policies and Practices, Baptism, C.

156 See the studies in Doe, N (ed), The Formation and Ordination of Clergy in Anglican and Roman Catholic Canon Law (Cardiff, 2009). The Catholic Church considers Anglican orders null and void.

157 GOCER, pt 1, Sacraments and Other Liturgical Services, V.1–2.

158 Principles, 94.2. See eg The Episcopal Church (USA), Canons I.16.2; III.10–11: this deals with ministers ordained ‘by other than a Bishop in the Historical Succession to minister in a Christian body not in communion with this Church’.

159 ELCA, Constitution, Art VII.4–5; ch 7.31.20–21 and ch 8.72; see also Art IX: ordained ministers of other Churches with which there is a ‘communion agreement’ have the same rights as ministers of the host Church. See also Uniting Church in Australia, Regulations, 2.7.22: secondment of ministers from other churches ‘recognised by the Church’.

160 Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America, Statutes, Art II.6; ELCSA, Guidelines, 9.3; UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, para. 225; MCI, Regulations, Discipline and Government, 2.03; Methodist Church (GB), CPD, Deed of Union 8(e) and SO 051–053; URC, Manual, K; Presbyterian Church of Wales, Handbook of Order and Rules, II.2.2 and IV.4.18: the Church does not encourage the transfer of ministers from other Churches; RCA, Book of Church Order, ch 1 pt 1 Art 5, s 2.b; United Church North India, Constitution, III.VIII.1–3.

161 Lutheran Church of Ireland, Constitution, 5. See also UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, para 227: affiliate membership for a member of another denomination; Uniting Church in Australia, Regulations, 1.1.11: associate members from ‘another Christian denomination’.

162 UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, paras 207–211, 333 and 346; Methodist Church (GB), CPD, SO 729: ‘a person ordained to the ministry of the word and sacraments in a church whose ministry is recognised by the Methodist Church’. See also Methodist Church of New Zealand, Laws and Regulations, 2.6; UCC, Manual, Bylaw 001 and 348: ecumenical shared ministries.

163 RCA, Book of Church Order, ch 1, pt I, Art 2, s 17.

164 Statement of the General Assembly, Special Constitutional Features of the UFCS; and Manual of Practice and Procedure, IV.III.1.8: ‘not exclusively to a denomination’. See also United Church of Christ, Constitution, Art VII.31ff: mutual recognition of ordinations.

165 Nigerian Baptist Convention, Policies and Practices, Pastors Attending Non-Baptist Theological Institutions.

166 CIC, Canon 844 §§1 and 2. For recognition of sacraments and orders, see Ecumenical Directory, 132: those churches that have ‘preserved the substance of the Eucharist, the Sacrament of Orders and apostolic succession’; see also 104–106.

167 CIC, Canon 844 §3; see also Ecumenical Directory, 125. See also the encyclical Ecclesia de eucharistia (2003), 30: the Reformation ecclesial communities ‘have not preserved the genuine and total reality of the Eucharistic mystery’. The diocesan bishop should make general norms (taking into account any made by the bishops' conference) to judge situations of grave and pressing need: Ecumenical Directory, 130.

168 CIC, Canon 908, and Canon 933: breach is ‘against religion and the unity of the church’. See also CCEO, Canons 670–671.

169 GOCER, pt 1, Preaching on Ecumenical Occasions, 1; Sacraments and other Liturgical Services, 1.1 and 2. See also Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain (Greek Orthodox), Instructions, Holy Communion: admission is restricted to those baptised members in good standing in Churches ‘in Eucharistic communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate or a patriarchate in communion with our Mother Church’.

170 OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, B.11.

171 Principles, 99. For the laws of individual Churches, see Doe, Anglican Communion, pp 369–372; eg New Zealand, Canons G.IX–XIII: all ‘baptised Anglicans’ are free to attend the Eucharist in other churches ‘as conscience dictates’, and all Christians duly baptised in the name of the Trinity are ‘welcome to receive the sacrament’ of Holy Communion.

172 LCA, Some Pastoral Guidelines for Responsible Communion Practice (1990, 2001), pp 914, and see pp 4–5 for detail on special situations. See also ELCSA, Guidelines, 3.9: ‘members of other churches may only be admitted as guests to the Lord's Supper’, decisions on this matter being taken by the minister; also Lutherans ‘are allowed to participate in Holy Communion in other Churches as guests’ provided there is a prior agreement with the host minister of the other Church.

173 UFCS, Statement of the General Assembly, ‘Special constitutional features of the UFCS’, Manual of Practice and Procedure, I.III.6.

174 PCI, Code, 84(2). See also Presbyterian Church in America, Book of Church Order, 56.4: ‘the minister, at the discretion of the Session, before the observance begins, may invite all those who profess the true religion, and are communicants in good standing of any evangelical church, to participate in the ordinance’; URC, Manual, F: there is a duty ‘to be sensitive to the ecumenical dimensions of presidency at the sacraments’ and so a minister must preside where possible; Presbyterian Church (USA), Book of Order, W-2.4006: celebration of the Lord's Supper at ‘ecumenical assemblies’.

175 UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, para 2402; MCI, Regulations, Discipline and Government, 4A.02: the general rule is that only members may receive communion; Methodist Church (GB), CPD, SO 011: a Circuit that considers ‘other Christians’ in the locality to be deprived of the reasonably frequent and regular celebration of the Lord's Supper may apply for persons other than ministers to preside.

176 CIC, Canon 1124; see also Paul VI, Matrimonia mixta (1970).

177 CIC, Canon 1125; Ecumenical Directory, 150. The Episcopal Conference is to prescribe the manner in which these declarations and promises (which are always required) are to be made, and to determine how they are to be established, and how the non-Catholic party is to be informed of them: CIC, Canon 1126 (see Canon 1127 §2 for dispensations and Canon 1127 §3 for double marriage celebrations). Local ordinaries and other pastors of souls must ensure that the Catholic spouse and the children born of a mixed marriage are not without the spiritual help needed to fulfil their obligations; they are to assist the spouses to foster the unity of conjugal and family life: CIC, Canon 1128. Ordinarily, a mixed marriage is celebrated outside the Eucharist, except for just cause: see Ecumenical Directory, 159.

178 Ecumenical Directory, 127.

179 Ibid, 136.

180 Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America, Joint Statement of Hierarchs, Living the Sacramental Life of the Church: Practical Instructions for the Diocesan Faithful, ‘Policy on marriages’, p 3.

181 OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, The Mystery of Marriage, A.1–4: a petition for a mixed marriage must be submitted to the bishop. Non-Orthodox clergy present in the church on the occasion of a wedding, funeral, baptism or other similar event may not participate in any part of the service. However, after a wedding, non-Orthodox clergy may offer a prayer or blessing at the reception or at another appropriate time outside the church. See also OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, B.12; GOCER, Sacraments and Other Liturgical Services, IV.9: the Orthodox priest may attend as a guest; Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain (Greek Orthodox), Instructions, Weddings: the non-Orthodox party should sign a declaration that ‘the children will be baptised and brought up within the Orthodox faith and in accordance with her traditions’; Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America, Instructions, Policy on Marriages, 9–12 and (for identical provisions) American Carthpartho-Russian Orthodox Diocese of the USA, Spiritual and Sacramental Guidelines, Marriages; Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia, Instructions, Weddings.

182 OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, The Mystery of Marriage, C.1–4. See also GOCER, pt 1, Sacraments and Other Liturgical Services, IV.

183 Doe, N, ‘Inter-church and inter-faith marriages in Anglican canon law’, in Doe, N (ed), Marriage in Anglican and Roman Catholic Canon Law (Cardiff, 2009), p 95. The Principles do not deal with the matter.

184 LCA, Guidelines for Inter-Church Marriages (1988, revised 2000). See also ELCSA, Guidelines, 7.6: if one party belongs to ‘a different denomination’, there must be instruction about ‘the problems that might follow’.

185 PCI, Code, 85(5).

186 Methodist Church (GB), CPD, Book VI, Part 2 Guidance, Section 9: Christian Preparation for Marriage, Methodist Church Policy and Guidelines, A, and Book VI, Section 10: Guidance for Inter-faith Marriages.

187 For preparation and publication of the Scriptures, ‘in cooperation with separated brethren’, see CIC, Canon 825 §2.

188 Ecumenical Directory, 62–63, 111–121, 126 and 133. For blessings see CIC, Canon 1170.

189 GOCER, pt 1, Worship with Non-Orthodox, 3 and Blessings etc.

190 OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, A.4; GOCER, pt 1, Worship with Non-Orthodox.

191 GOCER, pt 1, Worship with Non-Orthodox. See also OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, A.5: ‘Although a service of prayer may be tailored for a particular occasion, it must be clearly demonstrated that it is the prayer of the Orthodox to God for the spiritual enlightenment and wellbeing of all the participants’.

192 See eg Church of England, Canons B 43 and B 44.

193 Lutheran Church (GB), Rules and Regulations, Appendix A.

194 MCI, Regulations, Discipline and Government, 10.69.

195 RCA, Book of Church Order, ch 1, pt 1, Art 2, s 11.e: provided their character and standard are known. See also Presbyterian Church (USA), Book of Order, W-3.5301: common prayer.

196 GOCER, pt 1, Preaching on Ecumenical Occasions, 1: the bishop is consulted for exceptions; reciprocity requires extending invitations only if these can be reciprocated. OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, B.4: non-Orthodox clergy may not preach in an Orthodox church, but they may be invited to give lectures or presentations in the educational facilities of the church; the diocesan hierarch is to be consulted for his blessing.

197 OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, B.5.

198 CIC, Canon 1183 §3.

199 OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Funeral Guidelines, 14 and B.1, 15 and B.13.

200 Principles, 98.4.

201 For example, ELCSA, Guidelines, 8.5.

202 Ecumenical Directory, 137–140: the agreement should deal with reservation of the sacrament, finance and civil law matters; see also CCEO, Canon 670 §2.

203 Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, Regulations, Art II.1.

204 Local Orthodox clergy fellowships, under the guidance of their hierarchs, should come to one mind as to ecumenical activity and uniformity of practice: OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, C, and Ecumenical Religious Services.

205 In the UK the matter is governed by the Sharing of Church Buildings Act 1969, which applies not only to the Anglican churches but also, inter alia, to the buildings of the Roman Catholic Church and the Methodist Church.

206 LCA, Statement on the Use of Lutheran Churches by other Church Groups (1975, revised 2001).

207 UFCS, Manual of Practice and Procedure, I.III.23; UCC, Manual, appendix II, sch B, Model Trust Deed, 4(a); URC, Manual, D, Parts I and II; PCI, Code, 230(5).

208 Methodist Church of New Zealand, Laws and Regulations, s 1.5.1–3. See also Methodist Church (GB), CPD, Model Trusts 1492 and SO 920(2); UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, para 2550.

209 CCEO, Canon 908. See also Canon 930; Ecumenical Directory, 64.

210 CCEO, Canon 907.

211 Ecumenical Directory, 141–142.

212 OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, A.2; see also GOCER, pt 1, Secular Ecumenism, 1: inter-denominational activities as to ‘social, moral and political issues’.

213 UCC, Community Standards and Best Practices: administrative standards for community and social service ministries (2007), p 27.

214 Co-operation may include education, social justice, racial tensions, human development and moral issues: GOCER, pt 1, Council of Churches, 6.

215 PCI, Code, 113.

216 For membership of the World Council of Churches (WCC), see eg UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, para 1905 ff; ELCA, Constitution, ch 15.12.B10. The WCC itself, beyond the scope of this article, has a constitution that deals, inter alia, with the objects of the WCC, membership (the rules require submission of the principal juridical instrument of the applicant Church or communion) and the functions of its assemblies and bodies.

217 For Catholic norms, see Ecumenical Directory, 166f. For Orthodox norms see GOCER, pt 1, Council of Churches, 7–8 on ‘conciliar ecumenism’: ‘Where membership is considered desirable by a local congregation or parish, the Orthodox priest should encourage his parish council to enter into a working relationship or full membership in the Councils of Churches’; ‘When invited, orthodox priests may accept leadership positions in a council. It is desirable to enlist the support and interest of capable laity. Such elections or appointments must be brought to the attention of the bishop’. See also Greek Orthodox Archdiocese in America, Charter, Art 6.9: national representation in ecumenical relations; ELCA, Constitution, ch 15.12.B10: membership of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA; UCC, Manual, Bylaw 385: Canadian Council of Churches; URC, Manual, K: working with the Council for World Mission; MCI, Regulations, Discipline and Government, 20.02: ‘world level’ ecumenical issues.

218 See eg Ecumenical Directory, 172 ff; OCA, Guidelines for Clergy, Ecumenical Witness, B.2–3.

219 See eg UMCNEE, Book of Discipline, para 2402.

220 An Anglican–Methodist Covenant, Common Statement of the Formal Conversations between the Methodist Church of Great Britain and the Church of England (2001), p v.

221 Episcopal Church of the USA, Office of Ecumenism and Interfaith Relations, A Beginner's Guide to the Concordat of Agreement (2003).

222 Anglican Church of Australia, General Synod Resolution 78/04(a),(b).

223 Such as the Lutheran–Anglican–Roman Catholic (Virginia) Covenant 1990.

224 Australian Churches Covenanting Together (ACCT), p 4: The Covenanting Document, Part A, Declaration of Intent. The parties are: the Anglican Church of Australia, the Antiochian Orthodox Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Church of Christ in Australia, the Congregational Federation of Australia, the Coptic Orthodox Church, the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia, the Lutheran Church of Australia, the Religious Society of Friends, the Roman Catholic Church in Australia, the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Salvation Army, the Syrian Orthodox Church and the Uniting Church in Australia.

225 Such as the Kilcoy Covenant (Queensland, Australia) 2001.

226 ACCT, pp 3 and 7: Covenanting Document, Part B.

227 Anglican Church of Australia, General Synod Resolution 78/04; see also ACCT, p 11, Part C: the churches ‘pledge eg to continue to discuss and articulate within our churches the meaning and significance of our involvement in the quest for a more visible expression of unity and the possibilities for further engagement in ecumenical partnership’.

228 See eg Charta Oecumenica.

229 Episcopal Church of the USA, A Beginner's Guide to the Concordat of Agreement.

230 Community of Protestant Churches in Europe, The Leuenberg Agreement (1973), Preamble, 1.

231 In the Porvoo agreement Anglican and Lutheran churches recognise one another as churches belonging to the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church of Jesus Christ, and as truly participating in the apostolic mission of the whole people of God. They acknowledge that, in each of them, the Word of God is authentically preached, that the sacraments of baptism and the Eucharist are duly administered, and that each shares in the common confession of the apostolic faith.

232 ACCT, p 1: it is ‘permission-giving’ but also contains ‘commitments’. The Charta Oecumenica spells out mischiefs and curative commitments.

233 Church in Wales, Canon 28-9-1995, sch 1; The Anglican–Lutheran Covenant in Australia (pledges, commitments).

234 Church in Wales, Canon 28-9-1995 (Porvoo); Canon 1-5-1974: Covenant of Churches in Wales.

235 The Anglican–Lutheran Covenant in Australia: the ‘Anglican Church formally commits itself to enter into this Covenant with the Lutheran Church’. It was ‘adopted by the General Synod and provides that ‘Each church enacts the Covenant by whatever measures are appropriate for each church’: General Synod Resolution 78/04(d) and (f); General Synod, Motion A164 (2001): Waterloo Declaration for Full Communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada.

236 See the preambles of both instruments.

237 Cold Ash Statement (1983), Growth in Communion, para 113: in ‘this new relation, churches become interdependent while remaining autonomous’; para 117: ‘Full communion is understood as a relationship between two distinct churches or communions in which each maintains its own autonomy while recognising the catholicity and apostolicity of the other, and believing the other to hold the essentials of the Christian faith’. See Oppegaard, S and Cameron, G (eds), Anglican–Lutheran Agreements: regional and international agreements 1972–2002 (Geneva, 2004).

238 The Leuenberg Fellowship, The Church of Jesus Christ (Frankfurt-am-Main, 1996).

239 See also Covenant between Churches for Union in Wales (1975) for the notions of the Churches as called to covenant.

240 ACCT, The Covenanting Document, Part B, The Proposed Commitment, (a) General (for example, the Romanian Orthodox Church is not party to this but Anglicans, Lutherans and Roman Catholics are).

241 Ibid: Anglicans, Lutherans, Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholics, for example, are party to this.

242 Ibid: for example, the Romanian Orthodox Church is not party to this, but the Anglicans, Lutherans and Roman Catholics are.

243 Ibid: Anglicans, Lutherans, Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholics, for example, are party.

244 Ibid: Churches of Christ in Australia with Uniting Church in Australia.

245 Ibid: Anglican with Lutheran; Anglican with Uniting Church; Churches of Christ with Uniting Church; Lutheran with Uniting Church.

246 Ibid, Part C: The Future Pledge.

247 Ibid, Affirmation of Commitment.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Ecclesiastical Law Journal
  • ISSN: 0956-618X
  • EISSN: 1751-8539
  • URL: /core/journals/ecclesiastical-law-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed