1 This is a revised version of a paper delivered at the Ecclesiastical Law Society's Conference on Establishment, Leeds, April 2011.
2 See Munoz, V, God and the Founders: Madison, Washington and Jefferson (Cambridge, 2009).
3 Waldron, J, God, Locke and Equality: Christian foundations in Locke's political thought (Cambridge, 2002), p 11.
5 Leyla Sahin v Turkey  ECHR 4474/98 at para 107.
6 Folgerø and others v Norway  ECHR 15472/02 at para 95.
7 See Ronchi, P, ‘Crucifixes, margin of appreciation and consensus: the Grand Chamber ruling in Lautsi v Italy’ (2011) 13 Ecc LJ 287–297.
8 Lautsi and others v Italy  ECHR 30814/06 at para 47.
10 Concurring judgment of Judge Bonello in ibid at para 2.3.
12 McFarlane v Relate Avon Ltd  EWCA Civ 880 at para 21.
16 For a discussion of this in connection with religion, see articles in Biggar, N and Hogan, L (eds), Religious Voices in Public Places (Oxford, 2009) and also Trigg, R, Rationality and Religion: does faith need reason? (Oxford, 1998), ch 1.
17 See Ayer, A, Language, Truth and Logic (second edition, London, 1946).
18 See Trigg, R, Rationality and Science: can science explain everything? (Oxford, 1993), ch 1.
19 R (Johns) v Derby City Council  EWHC 375 (Admin) at para 36.
24 I wrote against different forms of relativism, and their internal inconsistencies, in Trigg, R, Reason and Commitment (Cambridge, 1973).
25 Parochial Church Council of Aston Cantlow v Wallbank  1 AC 546 HL at para 61.
26 Morris, R (ed), Church and State in 21st Century Britain: the future of church establishment (Basingstoke, 2009).
28 See Trigg, Rationality and Science, especially ch. 5.
29 For a further discussion of these issues see Trigg, R, Religion in Public Life: must faith be privatised? (Oxford, 2007) and R Trigg, Equality, Freedom, and Religion (Oxford, forthcoming).