Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Religious Offences

  • Anthony W Jeremy (a1)
Extract

In the aftermath of the tragedies in the United States on 11 September 2001, the news media in the United Kingdom reported a great increase in crime and attacks on Muslims. A Director of the Central Mosque spoke publicly of the unprecedented backlash against the British Muslim community and whilst emphasising Islam to be a religion of peace and opposed to terrorism, urgently stressed the need for greater protection. The police chiefs were responsive. The government had to act.

Copyright
References
Hide All

1 Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001, Pt 5.

2 Seide v Gillette Industries Ltd [1980] IRLR 427, EAT.

3 Mandla v Dowell Lee [1983] 2 AC 548, [1983] 1 All ER 1062, [1983] 2 WLR 620. HL.

4 See Plato, , Apologia of Socrates.

5 Exodus 20: 7.

6 Whitehouse v Lemon, Whitehouse v Gay News Ltd [1979] AC 617 at 658, sub nom R v Lemon, R v Gay News Ltd [1979] 1 All ER 898 at 921, HL. per Lord Scarman.

7 R v Taylor (1676) 1 Vent 293.

8 R v Ramsay and Foote (1883) 15 Cox CC 231.

9 See generally Cambridge Cultural History of Britain, Vol 9 (Cambridge University Press, 1995).

10 R v Lemon, R v Gay News Ltd [1979] QB 10, [1978] 3 All ER 175, CA (Crim Div).

11 Stephen, , Digest of the Criminal Law (9th edn, 1950);R v Lemon, R v Gay News Ltd [1979] AC 617, [1979] 1 All ER 898, HL.

12 R v Chief Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate, Ex parte Choudhury [1991] 1 QB 429, [1991] 1 All ER 306, [1990] 3 WLR 986. DC.

13 Spencer, J R in the Cambridge Law Journal, November 1979.

14 Crime and Disorder Act 1998, ss 28–32.

15 Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Disorder Act 2001, s 39.

16 Addison, N, Racially Aggravated Offences http:/www.harassment/law.co.uk

17 Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001, s 39(7).

18 Public Order Act 1986, s 18.

19 In Bowman v Secular Society Ltd [1917] AC 406 at 459, HL, Lord Summer said ‘Blasphemy serves to protect the fabric of society’.

20 Gay News Ltd and Lemon v United Kingdom (1982) 5 EHRR 123.

21 X v Germany 9234/81: T v Belgium 9777/82

22 Whitehouse v Lemon, Whitehouse v Gay News Ltd [1979] AC 617 at 665, sub nom R v Lemon, R v Gay News Ltd [1979] 1 All ER 898 at 927, HL.

23 Otto-Preminger Institute v Austria (1995) 19 EHRR 34, ECom HR.

24 Wingrove v United Kingdom (1997) 24 EHRR 1.

25 http//www.bnp.net

26 The Times. 25 Febuary 2003.

27 Lee Bowyer and Jonathan Woodgate case cited in Statewatch March/April 2001

28 R v Joseph Brian Saunders [2000] 1 Cr App R 458, CA.

29 Crown Prosecution Service v Weeks (14 June 2000). See also Brennan, Fernne ‘Racially Motivated Crime the Response of the Criminal Justice System’ 1999 CLR 17.

30 R v Gunn [1999] Lawtel 28 October 1999.

31 R v Scott The Times 16 July 2002.

32 For a general discussion, see Hill, Mark, ‘A sledgehammer for the nut-cases’ in Church Times, 19 October 2001, p 8.

33 See Doe, Norman and Jeremy, Anthony ‘Religious Justifications for Religious Autonomy’ in Current Legal Issues Law and Religion, edited by O'Dair, and Lewis, (Oxford University Press, 2001).

34 The New Delhi Report: The Third Assembly of the World Council of Churches 1961, p 159.

35 Stephens, , ‘The Law on Blasphemy and Blasphemous Libel’ Fortnightly Review, March 1884, p 289.

36 Seide v Gillette Industries Ltd [1980] IRLR 427, EAT.

37 Mandla v Dowell Lee [1983] 2 AC 548, [1983] 1 All ER 1062, [1983] 2 WLR 620. HL.

38 Commission for Racial Equality v Preston Manufacturing Services Ltd (Coit 4106/91)

39 See the discussion in Rivers, Julian ‘Religious Liberty as a Collective Right in Law and Religion’ in Current Legal Issues Law and Religion, edited by O'Dair, and Lewis, (Oxford University Press), p 237.

40 Dr Peter Jepheson. Tackling Militant Racism, Ashgate Publishing.

41 See European Union Directive Establishing General Framework of Equal Treatment in Employment (27 November 2000).

42 Whitehouse v Lemon. Whitehouse v Gay News Ltd [1979] AC 617 at 658. sub nom R v Lemon, R v Gay News Ltd [1979] 1 All ER 898 at 921, HL, per Lord Scarman.

43 Williams, Rowan, Writing in the Dust (Hodder and Stoughton, 2002).

44 See the Report (HL Paper 95 I) and the oral evidence (HL Paper 95 II) and the written evidence (HL Paper 95 III).

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Ecclesiastical Law Journal
  • ISSN: 0956-618X
  • EISSN: 1751-8539
  • URL: /core/journals/ecclesiastical-law-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed