Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Fostering School Belonging in Secondary Schools Using a Socio-Ecological Framework

  • Kelly-Ann Allen (a1), Dianne Vella-Brodrick (a1) and Lea Waters (a1)

Abstract

The benefits of belonging and feeling connected to school for adolescent mental health and wellbeing are well documented, but how belonging is fostered is less understood. The present article puts forward a new conceptual framework of school belonging based on Bronfenbrenner's (1979) sociological model of human development, using evidence from a range of previous peer-reviewed studies to better understand the factors that occur across five levels that affect a students’ sense of school belonging (i.e., the individual level, the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosystem, and the macrosystem). The conceptual framework is used to present a range of evidence-based school belonging strategies (some with examples) that schools can use to enhance student belonging. This article makes an original contribution to the field of psychological and educational research by presenting a socio-ecological framework to explore the themes that influence school belonging within a secondary school system. It broadens the frame of reference of school belonging beyond the individual student to consider features of the broader school system and environment.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Fostering School Belonging in Secondary Schools Using a Socio-Ecological Framework
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Fostering School Belonging in Secondary Schools Using a Socio-Ecological Framework
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Fostering School Belonging in Secondary Schools Using a Socio-Ecological Framework
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Kelly Allen, c/– Toorak College, PO Box 150, Mount Eliza Vic 3930, Australia. Email: kellya@toorakc.vic.edu.au

References

Hide All
Aerts, S., Van Houtte, M., Dewaele, A., Cox, N., & Vincke, J. (2012). Sense of belonging in secondary schools: A survey of LGB and heterosexual students in Flanders. Journal of Homosexuality, 59, 90113.
Allen, J.P., Pianta, R.C., Gregory, A., Mikami, A.Y., & Lun, J. (2011). An interaction-based approach to enhancing secondary school instruction and student achievement. Science, 333, 10341037.
Allen, K., & Bowles, T. (2013). Belonging as a guiding principle in the education of adolescents. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 12, 108119.
Anderman, E.M. (2002). School effects on psychological outcomes during adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 795809.
Anderman, L.H. (2003). Academic and social perceptions as predictors of change in middle school students’ sense of school belonging. Journal of Experimental Education, 72, 522.
Appleton, J.J., Christenson, S.L., Kim, D., & Reschly, A.L. (2006). Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the student engagement instrument. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 427445.
Bailey, M., & McLaren, S. (2005). Physical activity alone and with others as predictors of sense of belonging and mental health in retirees. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 8290.
Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Watson, M., & Solomon, D. (1996). Prevention effects of the child development project early findings from an ongoing multisite demonstration trial. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11, 1235.
Baumeister, R.F., & Leary, M.R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 11, 497529.
Benner, A.D., Graham, S., & Mistry, R.S. (2008). Discerning direct and mediated effects of ecological structures and processes on adolescents’ educational outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 44, 840854.
Beyond Blue. (2014). SenseAbility communications portal. Retrieved from http://www.beyondblue.org.au/resources/schools-and-universities/secondary-schools-and-tertiary/senseability
Blomfield, C., & Barber, B.L. (2010). Australian adolescents’ extracurricular activity participation and positive development: Is the relationship mediated by peer attributes? Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 10, 114128.
Boerema, A.J. (2006). An analysis of private school mission statements. Peabody Journal of Education, 81, 180202.
Bowen, G., Richman, J.M., & Bowen, N.K. (1998). Sense of school coherence, perceptions of danger at school, and teacher support among youth at risk of school failure. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 15, 273286.
Brandon, C., & Ivens, C. (2012). Thinking skills for peak performance: Student workbook. Macmillan Education Australia. Retrieved from http://www.macmillan.com.au/secondary/onix/isbn/9781420229356
Brechwald, W.A., & Prinstein, M.J. (2011). Beyond homophily: A decade of advances in understanding peer influence processes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 166179.
Brendtro, L., Brokenleg, M., & Van Bockern, S. (2002). Reclaiming youth at risk: Our hope for the future (rev. ed.). Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.
Brewster, A.B., & Bowen, G.L. (2004). Teacher support and the school engagement of Latino middle and high school students at risk of school failure. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21, 4767.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Brookmeyer, K.A., Fanti, K.A., & Henrich, C.C. (2006). Schools, parents, and youth violence: A multilevel, ecological analysis. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 35, 504514.
Brophy, J. (2004). Motivating students to learn (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Brown Kirschman, K.J., & Karazsia, B.T. (2014). The role of pediatric psychology in health promotion and injury prevention. In Roberts, M.C., Aylward, B., & Wu, Y. (Eds.), Clinical practice of pediatric psychology (pp. 136138). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Brown, R., & Evans, W.P. (2002). Extracurricular activity and ethnicity: Creating greater school connection among diverse student populations. Urban Education, 37, 4158. doi:10.1177/0042085902371004
Bryson, J.M. (2004). What to do when stakeholders matter: Stakeholder identification and analysis techniques. Public management review, 6, 2153.
Caraway, K., Tucker, C.M., Reinke, W.M., & Hall, C. (2003). Self-efficacy, goal orientation, and fear of failure as predictors of school engagement in high school students. Psychology in the Schools, 40, 417428.
Carter, M., McGee, R., Taylor, B., & Williams, S. (2007). Health outcomes in adolescence: Associations with family, friends and school engagement. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 5162.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2009). School connectedness: Strategies for increasing protective factors among youth. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Cemalcilar, Z. (2010). Schools as socialization contexts: Understanding the impact of school climate factors on students’ sense of school belonging. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 59, 243272.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Cole, P., Llera, S., & Pemberton, C. (2009). Emotional instability, poor emotional awareness, and the development of borderline personality. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 12931310.
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). (2003). Safe and sound: An educational leaders’ guide to evidence-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs. Retrieved from www.casel.org
Connell, J.P., & Wellborn, J.G. (1991). Competence, autonomy and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In Gunnar, M.R. & Sroufe, L.A. (Eds.), Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology (vol. 23, pp. 4377). Hillsdale, MI: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Daley, A.J., & Buchanan, J. (1999). Aerobic dance and physical self-perceptions in female adolescents: Some implications for physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70, 196200.
Davis, K. (2012). Friendship 2.0: Adolescents’ experiences of belonging and self-disclosure online. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 15271536.
Dollaghan, C. (2004). Evidence-based practice: Myths and realities. The ASHA Leader, 12, 4–5. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/publications/leader/2004/040413/f040413a1.htm
Donovan, J. (2011). The role for marketing in public health change programs. Australian Review of Public Affairs, 10, 2340.
Dotterer, A.M., McHale, S.M., & Crouter, A.C. (2007). Implications of out-of-school activities for school engagement in African American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 391401.
Drolet, M., & Arcand, I. (2013). Positive development, sense of belonging, and support of peers among early adolescents: Perspectives of different actors. International Education Studies, 6, 2938.
Dweck, C.S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 10401048.
Education Development Center. (2008). School connectedness and meaningful student participation. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/training/connect/index.html
Faircloth, B.S. (2009). Making the most of adolescence: Harnessing the search for identity to understand classroom belonging. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24, 321348.
Finn, J.D., & Voelkl, K.E. (1993). School characteristics related to student engagement. Journal of Negro Education, 62, 249268.
Friedman, M. (2007). The role of government in education. In Current, R. (Ed.), Philosophy of education (pp. 194199). Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell.
Frydenberg, E. (2011). Coping for Success Program: Skills for everyday living. Retrieved from http://www.coop.com.au/coping-for-success-program-skills-for-everyday-living/9780734027412
Frydenberg, E., Care, E., Freeman, E., & Chan, E. (2009). Interrelationships between coping, school connectedness and wellbeing. Australian Journal of Education, 53, 261276.
Galliher, R.V., Rostosky, S.S., & Hughes, H.K. (2004). School belonging, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms in adolescents: An examination of sex, sexual attraction status, and urbanicity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 235245.
Garcia-Reid, P. (2007). Examining social capital as a mechanism for improving school engagement among low income hispanic girls. Youth & Society, 39, 164181.
Garcia-Reid, P.G., Reid, R.J., & Peterson, N.A. (2005). School engagement among Latino youth in an urban middle school context: Valuing the role of social support. Education and Urban Society, 37, 257275.
Gillen-O'Neel, C., & Fuligni, A. (2013). A longitudinal study of school belonging and academic motivation across high school. Child Development, 84, 678692. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01862.x
Goodenow, C. (1992). Strengthening the links between educational psychology and the study of social contexts. Educational Psychologist, 27, 177196.
Goodenow, C., & Grady, K.E. (1993). The relationship of school belonging and friends’ values to academic motivation among urban adolescent students. Journal of Experimental Education, 62, 6071.
Guthrie, J.T., & Davis, M.H. (2003). Motivating struggling readers in middle school through an engagement model of classroom practice. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19, 5985.
Hagerty, B.M., Lynch-Sauer, J., Patusky, K., Bouwsema, M., & Collier, P. (1992). Sense of belonging: A vital mental health concept. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 6, 172177.
Hagerty, B.M., Williams, R.A., & Oe, H. (2002). Childhood antecedents of adult sense of belonging. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 793801.
Hale, C.J., Hannum, J.W., & Espelage, D.L. (2005). Social support and physical health: The importance of belonging. Journal of American College Health, 53, 276284.
Hamm, J.V., & Faircloth, B.S. (2005). The role of friendship in adolescents’ sense of school belonging. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2005, 6178. doi:10.1002/cd.121
Hardy, I., & Boyle, C. (2011). My School? Critiquing the abstraction and quantification of education. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 39, 211222. DOI: 10.1080/1359866X.2011.588312.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of meta-analyses relating to achievement. London, England: Routledge.
Hawkins, J.D., Von Cleve, E., & Catalano, R.F. Jr (1991). Reducing early childhood aggression: Results of a primary prevention program. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 208–17.
Hawkins, J.D., & Weis, J.G. (1985). The social development model: An integrated approach to delinquency prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 6, 7397.
Heaven, P.C., Mak, A., Barry, J., & Ciarrochi, J. (2002). Personality and family influences on adolescent attitudes to school and self-rated academic performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 453462.
Henrich, C.C., Brookmeyer, K.A., & Shahar, G. (2005). Weapon violence in adolescence: Parent and school connectedness as protective factors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, 306312.
Hirschkorn, M. & Geelan, D. (2008). Bridging the research-practice gap: Research translation and/or research transformation. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 54, 113.
Hurtado, S., & Carter, D.F. (1997). Effects of college transition and perceptions of the campus racial climate on Latino college students’ sense of belonging. Sociology of Education, 70, 324345.
Ingersoll, R., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of Education Research, 81, 201233.
Jennings, G. (2003). An exploration of meaningful participation and caring relationships as contexts for school engagement. The California School Psychologist, 8, 4352.
Johnson, L.S. (2009). School contexts and student belonging: A mixed methods study of an innovative high school. The School Community Journal, 19, 99119.
Juvonen, J. (2006). Sense of belonging, social bonds, and school functioning. In Alexander, P.A. & Winne, P.H. (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 655674). Mahwah, MH: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Kaminski, J.W., Puddy, R.W., Hall, D.M., Cashman, S.Y., Crosby, A.E., & Ortega, L.A. (2010). The relative influence of different domains of social connectedness on self-directed violence in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 460473.
Kelly, A.B., O'Flaherty, M., Toumbourou, J.W., Homel, R., Patton, G.C., White, A., & Williams, J. (2012). The influence of families on early adolescent school connectedness: Evidence that this association varies with adolescent involvement in peer drinking networks. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 437447.
Klem, A.M., & Connell, J.P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74, 262273.
Knifsend, C., & Graham, S. (2012). Too much of a good thing? How breadth of extracurricular participation relates to school-related affect and academic outcomes during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 379389. doi:10.1007/s10964-011-9737-4.
Kuperminc, G.P., Leadbeater, B.J., & Blatt, S.J. (2001). School social climate and individual differences in vulnerability to emotional instability among middle school students. Journal of School Psychology, 39, 141159.
Lee, R.M., & Robbins, S.B. (2000). Understanding social connectedness in college women and men. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78, 484491. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb01932.x
Legters, N., Balfanz, R., & McPartland, J. (2002). Solutions for failing high schools: Converging visions and promising models. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Libbey, H.P. (2004). Measuring student relationships to school: Attachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement. Journal of School Health, 74, 275283.
Lonczak, H.S., Abbott, R.D., Hawkins, J.D., Kosterman, R., & Catalano, R. (2002). The effects of the Seattle social development project: Behavior, pregnancy, birth, and sexually transmitted disease outcomes by age 21. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 156, 438447.
McClelland, J.L. (1987). The case for interactions in language processing. In Coltheart, M. (Ed.), Attention and performance XII: The psychology of reading (pp. 336). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
McMahon, S., Parnes, A., Keys, C. & Viola, J. (2008). School belonging among low-income urban youth with disabilities: Testing a theoretical model. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 387401.
McNeely, C.A., Nonnemaker, J.M., & Blum, R.W. (2002). Promoting school connectedness: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of School Health, 72, 136146.
Malti, T., & Noam, G.G. (2009). A developmental approach to the prevention of adolescents’ aggressive behavior and the promotion of resilience. International Journal of Developmental Science, 3, 235246.
Mo, Y., & Singh, K. (2008). Parents’ relationships and involvement: Effects on students’ school engagement and performance. Research in Middle Level Education Online, 31, 111.
National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine. (2004). Engaging schools: Fostering high school students’ motivation to learn. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Nielsen, T.W. (2011). A curriculum of giving for student wellbeing and achievement — ‘How to wear leather sandals on a rough surface’. In Wright, D., Camden-Pratt, C., & Hill, S. (Eds.), Social ecology: Applying ecological understanding to our lives and our planet (pp. 151164). Stroud, U.K.: Hawthorn Press.
Noble, T. (2006). Core components of a school-wide safe schools curriculum. In McGrath, H. & Noble, T. (Eds.), Bullying solutions. Evidence-based approaches to bullying in Australian schools (pp. 3662). Melbourne, Australia: Pearson Education.
Noble, T., & McGrath, H. (2008). The positive educational practices framework: A tool for facilitating the work of educational psychologists in promoting pupil wellbeing. Educational and Child Psychology, 25, 119134.
Nutbrown, C., & Clough, P. (2009). Citizenship and inclusion in the early years: understanding and responding to children's perspectives on ‘belonging’. International Journal of Early Years Education, 17, 191206. doi:10.1080/09669760903424523
O'Connor, M. (2010). Life beyond school: The role of school bonding in preparing adolescents for adulthood. Independence, 35, 2428.
O'Connor, M., Sanson, A., & Frydenberg, E. (2012). The relationship between positive development during the transition to adulthood and temperament, personality, and educational outcomes. In Frydenberg, E. & Reevy, G. (Eds.), Personality, stress, and coping: Implications for education (vol. vi, pp. 111130). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
Osterman, K.F. (2000). Students' need for belonging in the school community. Review of Educational Research, 70, 323367.
Owings, W.A., & Kaplan, L.S. (2003). Best practices, best thinking, and emerging issues in school leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Patton, G.C., Bond, L., Carlin, J.B., Thomas, L., Butler, H., Glover, S., . . . & Bowes, G. (2006). Promoting social inclusion in schools: a group-randomized trial of effects on student health risk behavior and well-being. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 15821587.
Poulton, R., Caspi, A., & Milne, B.J. (2002). Association between children's experience of socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health: A life-course study. Lancet, 360, 16401645.
Proctor, C., Tsukayama, E., Wood, A.M., Maltby, J., Eades, J.F., & Linley, P.A. (2011). Strengths gym: The impact of a character strengths-based intervention on the life satisfaction and well-being of adolescents. Journal of Positive Psychology, 6, 377388.
Quint, J., Bloom, H., Black, A., Stephens, L., & Akey, T. (2005). The challenge of scaling up educational reform. Findings and lessons from First Things First. New York, NY: MDRC.
Reschly, A.L., Busch, T.W., Betts, J., Deno, S.L., & Long, J.D. (2009). Curriculum-based measurement oral reading as an indicator of reading achievement: A meta-analysis of the correlational evidence. Journal of School Psychology, 47, 427469.
Reschly, A.L., Huebner, E.S., Appleton, J.J., & Antaramian, S. (2008). Engagement as flourishing: The contribution of positive emotions and coping to adolescents’ engagement at school and with learning. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 419431.
Roche, C., & Kuperminc, G.P. (2012). Acculturative stress and school belonging among Latino youth. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 34, 6176.
Roffey, S. (2012). Pupil wellbeing — teacher wellbeing: Two sides of the same coin? Educational & Child Psychology, 29, 817.
Rogers, C.R. (1951). Client-centered therapy; its current practice, implications, and theory. Oxford, England: Houghton Mifflin.
Rowe, F., & Stewart, D. (2011). Promoting connectedness through whole-school approaches: Key elements and pathways of influence. Health Education, 111, 4965.
Rowe, F., Stewart, D., & Patterson, C. (2007). Promoting school connectedness through whole-school approaches. Health Education, 107, 524542.
Rumberger, R. (1995). Dropping out of middle school: A multilevel analysis of students and schools. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 583625.
Ryan, M. (1995). Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes. Journal of Personality, 63, 397427.
Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and wellbeing. American Psychologist, 55, 6878.
Ryan, R.M., Stiller, J.D., & Lynch, J.H. (1994). Representations of relationships to teachers, parents, and friends as predictors of academic motivation and self-esteem. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 226249.
Ryzin, M.J., Gravely, A.A., & Roseth, C.J. (2009). Autonomy, belongingness, and engagement in school as contributors to adolescent psychological wellbeing. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 112.
Saab, H. (2009). The school as a setting to promote student health. Retrieved from http://qspace.library.queensu.ca
Sakiz, G. (2012). Perceived instructor affective support in relation to academic emotions and motivation in college. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 32, 6379.
Samdal, O., Nutbeam, D., Wold, B., & Kannas, L. (1998). Achieving health and educational goals through schools: A study of the importance of the climate and students’ satisfaction with school. Health Education Research, 3, 383397.
Sari, M. (2012). Sense of school belonging among elementary school students. Çukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 41, 111.
Schonert-Reichl, K. & Lawlor, M. (2010). The effects of a mindfulness-based education program on pre- and early adolescents’ well-being and social and emotional competence. Mindfulness, 1, 137151.
Seligman, M. (2011). Flourish. New York, NY: Free Press.
Sharma, M., & Romas, J.A. (2008). Theoretical foundations of health: Education and health promotion. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Sherin, M., & Han, S. (2004). Teacher learning in the context of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 163183.
Shochet, I.M., Dadds, M.R., Ham, D., & Montague, R. (2006). School connectedness is an underemphasized parameter in adolescent mental health: Results of a community prediction study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 170179.
Shochet, I.M., Smith, C.L., Furlong, M.J., & Homel, R. (2011). A prospective study investigating the impact of school belonging factors on negative affect in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40, 586595. doi:10.1080/15374416.2011.581616
Shochet, I.M., Smyth, T.L., & Homel, R. (2007). The impact of parental attachment on adolescent perception of the school environment and school connectedness. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 28, 109118.
Sirin, S.R., & Rogers-Sirin, L. (2004). Exploring school engagement of middle-class African American adolescents. Youth & Society, 35, 323340.
Soria, K.M., Lingren Clark, B., & Coffin Koch, L. (2013). Investigating the academic and social benefits of extended new student orientations for first-year students. The Journal of College Orientation and Transition, 20, 3345.
Stemler, S., Bebell, D., & Sonnabend, L.A. (2011). Using school mission statements for reflection and research. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47, 383420.
Stoddard, S.A., McMorris, B.J., & Sieving, R.E. (2011). Do social connections and hope matter in predicting early adolescent violence? American Journal of Community Psychology, 48, 247256.
Teddlie, C., & Reynolds, D. (2000). The international handbook of school effectiveness research. New York, NY: Falmer Press.
Thompson, G. (2013). NAPLAN, My School and accountability: Teacher perceptions of the effects of testing. The International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 12, 6284.
Tillery, A.D., Varjas, K., Roach, A.T., Kuperminc, G.P., & Meyers, J. (2013). The importance of adult connections in adolescents’ sense of school belonging: Implications for schools and practitioners. Journal of School Violence, 12, 134155. doi:10.1080/15388220.2012.762518
Vallerand, R.J. (1997). Towards a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 29, 271360.
Wadsworth, M.E., Thomsen, A.H., Saltzman, H., Connor-Smith, J.K., & Compas, B.E. (2001). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: Problems, progress, and potential in theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 87127.
Walker, C.O. (2012). Student perceptions of classroom achievement goals as predictors of belonging and content instrumentality. Social Psychology of Education, 15, 97107.
Wallace, T.L., Ye, F., & Chhuon, V. (2012). Subdimensions of adolescent belonging in high school. Applied Developmental Science, 16, 122139.
Wang, M., & Eccles, J.S. (2012). Social support matters: Longitudinal effects of social support on three dimensions of school engagement from middle to high school. Child Development, 83, 877895.
Waters, S., Cross, D., & Runion, K. (2009). Social and ecological structures supporting adolescent connectedness to school: A theoretical model. Journal of School Health, 79, 516524. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2009.00443.x
Waters, S., Cross, D., & Shaw, T. (2010). Does the nature of schools matter? An exploration of selected school ecology factors on adolescent perceptions of school connectedness. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 381402. doi:10.1348/000709909X484479.
Wentzel, K.R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 202209.
West, P., Sweeting, H., & Leyland, A. (2004). School effect on pupils’ health behaviours: Evidence in support of the health promoting school. Research Papers in Education, 19, 261291. doi:10.1080/0267152042000247972
Whitlock, J. (2006). The role of adults, public space, and power in adolescent community connectedness. Journal of Community Psychology, 35, 499518.
Wilkinson-Lee, A.M., Zhang, Q., Nuno, V.L., & Wilhelm, M.S. (2011). Adolescent emotional distress: The role of family obligations and school connectedness. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 221230. doi:10.1007/s10964-009-9494-9
Williams, K.L., & Galliher, R.V. (2006). Predicting depression and self-esteem from social connectedness, support, and competence. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25, 855874. doi:10.1521/jscp.2006.25.8.855
Wingspread Declaration on School Connections. (2004). Journal of School Health, 74, 233234.
Wyn, J., Cahill, H., Holdsworth, R., Rowling, L., & Carson, S. (2000). MindMatters, a whole-school approach promoting mental health and wellbeing. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 594601.
Zimmer-Gembeck, M., Chipuer, H., Hanisch, M., Creed, P., & McGregor, L. (2006). Relationships at school and stage-environment fit as resources for adolescent engagement and achievement. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 911933.

Keywords

Fostering School Belonging in Secondary Schools Using a Socio-Ecological Framework

  • Kelly-Ann Allen (a1), Dianne Vella-Brodrick (a1) and Lea Waters (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed