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The Ghost in the Attic? The Italian National Innovation System in Historical Perspective, 1861–2011

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 May 2015

ALESSANDRO NUVOLARI
Affiliation:
Alessandro Nuvolari is Professor of Economic History, Institute of Economics, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy.Contact information: Piazza Martiri della Libertà 33, I-56127 Pisa, Italy. E-mail: alessandro.nuvolari@sssup.it.
MICHELANGELO VASTA
Affiliation:
Michelangelo Vasta is Professor of Economic History in the Department of Economics and Statistics at the University of Siena. Contact information: Piazza San Francesco 7, I-53100 Siena, Italy. E-mail: vasta@unisi.it.

Abstract

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Copyright © The Author 2015. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Business History Conference. All rights reserved. 

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References

Bibliography of Works Cited

Allen, Robert C. The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Antonelli, Cristiano, and Amidei, Federico Barbiellini. The Dynamics of Knowledge Externalities. Localized Technical Change in Italy. Aldershot, UK: Edward Elgar, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bardini, Carlo. Senza carbone nell’ età del vapore. Milan: Bruno Mondadori, 1998.Google Scholar
Becattini, Giacomo, ed. Mercato e forze locali: il distretto industriale. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1987.Google Scholar
Cohen, Jon, and Federico, Giovanni. The Development of Italian Economy, 1820–1960. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Solla Price, Derek. Little Science, Big science… And Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
Freeman, Christopher. Technology Policy and Economic Performance: Lessons from Japan. London: Pinter Pub. Ltd., 1987.Google Scholar
Freeman, Christopher, and Soete, Luc. The Economics of Industrial Innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997.Google Scholar
Giannetti, Renato. Tecnologia e sviluppo economico italiano 1870–1990. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1998.Google Scholar
Hall, Peter A. and Soskice, David. Varieties of Capitalism. The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lundvall, Bengt-Ake, ed. National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning. London: Pinter Publishers, 1992.Google Scholar
Mokyr, Joel. The Lever of Riches. Technological Creativity and Economic Progress. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
Nelson, Richard R., ed. National Innovation Systems. A Comparative Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
Nesi, Edoardo. Storia della mia gente. Milan: Bompiani, 2010.Google Scholar
Petri, Rolf. Storia economica d’Italia. Dalla Grande guerra al miracolo economico (1918–1963). Bologna: Il Mulino, 2002.Google Scholar
Pivato, Marco. Il miracolo scippato. Le quattro occasioni sprecate dalla scienza italiana negli anni sessanta. Rome: Donzelli, 2011.Google Scholar
Russo, Lucio, and Santoni, Emanuela. Ingegni minuti. Una storia della scienza in Italia. Milan: Feltrinelli, 2012.Google Scholar
Soria, Lorenzo. Informatica: un’ occasione perduta. La divisione elettronica dell’Olivetti nei primi anni del centrosinistra. Turin: Einaudi, 1979.Google Scholar
Vasta, Michelangelo. Innovazione tecnologica e capitale umano in Italia (1880–1914). Le traiettorie tecnologiche della seconda rivoluzione industriale. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1999.Google Scholar
Abramovitz, Moses. “Catching Up, Forging Ahead and Falling Behind.” Journal of Economic History 46 (1986): 385406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adamo, Stefano. “The Crisis of the Prato Industrial District in the Works of Edoardo Nesi: a blend of Nostalgia and Self-complacency.” Icer Working Paper 9 (2014).
Akkermans, Dirk, Castaldi, Carolina, and Los, Bart. “Do ‘Liberal Market Economies’ Really Innovate More Radically Than ‘Coordinated Market Economies’? Hall and Soskice Reconsidered.” Research Policy 38 (2009): 181191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amatori, Franco. “Entrepreneurial Typologies in the History of Industrial Italy (1880–1960): A Review Article.” Business History Review 54 (1980): 359386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amatori, Franco. “Italy: The Tormented Rise of Organizational Capabilities between Government and Families.” In Big Business and the Wealth of Nations, edited by Chandler, Alfred D. Jr., Amatori, Franco, and Hikino, Takashi, 246276. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amatori, Franco. “Entrepreneurial Typologies in the History of Industrial Italy: Reconsiderations.” Business History Review 85 (2011): 151180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barbiellini Amidei, Federico, Cantwell, John, and Spadavecchia, Anna. “Innovation and Foreign Technology.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Italian Economy since Unification, edited by Toniolo, Gianni, 378416. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Brusco, Sebastiano, and Paba, Sergio. “Per una storia dei distretti industriali italiani dal secondo dopoguerra agli anni novanta.” In Storia del capitalismo italiano dal dopoguerra a oggi, edited by Barca, Fabrizio, 265333 . Rome: Donzelli, 1997.Google Scholar
de Zwart, Pim, van Leeuwen, Bas, and van Leeuwen-Li, Jieli, “Real Wages since 1820.” In How Was Life? Global Well-Being since 1820, edited by van Zanden, Jan-Luiten et al., 7386. Paris: OECD, 2014.Google Scholar
Fagerberg, Jan. “Technology and International Differences in Growth Rates.” Journal of Economic Literature 32 (1994): 11471175.Google Scholar
Federico, Giovanni. “Italy, 1860–1940: A Little-Known Success Story.” Economic History Review 49 (1996): 764786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Felice, Emanuele. “State Ownership and International Competitiveness: The Italian Finmeccanica from Alfa Romeo to Aerospace and Defense (1947–2007).” Enterprise & Society 11 (2010): 594635.Google Scholar
Forman, Paul, Heilbron, John L., and Weart, Spencer. “Physics circa 1900: Personnel, Funding and Productivity of Research Establishments.” Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 5 (1975): 1185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gomellini, Matteo, and Pianta, Mario. “Commercio con l’estero e tecnologia in Italia negli anni Cinquanta e Sessanta.” In Innovazione tecnologica e sviluppo industriale nel secondo dopo guerra, edited by Antonelli, Cristiano et al., 359594. Bari: Laterza, 2007.Google Scholar
Govoni, Paola. “Dalla scienza popolare alla divulgazione. Scienziati e pubblico in età liberale.” In Storia d’Italia. Annali 26. Scienze e cultura dell’Italia unita, edited by Cassata, Francesco and Pogliano, Claudio, 6581. Turin: Einaudi, 2011.Google Scholar
Guagnini, Anna. “Patent Agents, Legal Advisers and Guglielmo Marconi’s Breakthrough in Wireless Telegraphy.” History of Technology 24 (2002): 171201.Google Scholar
Guagnini, Anna. “Dall’invenzione all’impresa. Marconi e la Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company.” In Storia, scienza e società. Ricerche sulla scienza in Italia nell’età moderna e contemporanea, edited by Govoni, Paola, 175212. Bologna: Università di Bologna, 2007.Google Scholar
King, David A. “The Scientific Impact of Nations: What Different Countries Get for Their Research Spending.” Nature 430 (2004): 311316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lerner, Josh. “150 Years of Patent Protection.” NBER Working Paper 7478, 2000.
Maiocchi, Roberto. “Il ruolo delle scienze nello sviluppo industriale italiano.” In Storia d’Italia. Annali 3. Scienza e Tecnica, edited by Micheli, Gianni, 863999. Turin: Einaudi, 1980.Google Scholar
Malerba, Franco. “The National System of Innovation: Italy.” In National Innovation Systems. A Comparative Analysis, edited by Nelson, Richard R., 230259. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
May, Robert M. “The Scientific Wealth of Nations.” Science 275, no. 5301 (1997): 793796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrisson, Christian, and Murtin, Fabrice. “The Century of Education.” Journal of Human Capital 3 (2009): 142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mowery, David. “IPRs and US Economic Catch-Up.” In Intellectual Property Rights, Development, and Catch-Up, edited by Odagiri, Hiroyuki, Goto, Akira, Sunami, Atsushi, and Nelson, Richard R., 3162. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Odagiri, Hiroyuki, Goto, Akira, Sunami, Atsushi, and Nelson, Richard R.. “Introduction.” In Intellectual Property Rights, Development, and Catch-Up, edited by Hiroyuki, Odagiri, Goto, Akira, Sunami, Atsushi, and Nelson, Richard R., 128. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pogliano, Claudio. “Le nuove macchine: inquietudine e seduzione” In Storia d’Italia. Annali 26. Scienze e cultura dell’Italia unita, edited by Cassata, Francesco and Pogliano, Claudio, 349381. Turin: Einaudi, 2011.Google Scholar
Richter, Ralf, and Streb, Jochen. “Catching-Up and Falling Behind. Knowledge Spillover from American to German Machine Tool Makers.” Journal of Economic History 71 (2011): 10061031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russo, Arturo. “Italian Science between the Two World Wars.” Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 16 (1986): 281320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soete, Luc, Verspagen, Bart, and ter Weel, Bas. “Systems of Innovation.” In Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, Vol. 2, edited by Hall, Bronwyn H. and Rosenberg, Nathan, 11601180. Dordrecht: Elsevier, 2010.Google Scholar
Toninelli, Pier Angelo, and Vasta, Michelangelo. “Opening the Black Box of Entrepreneurship: The Italian Case in a Historical Perspective.” Business History 56 (2014): 161186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vasta, Michelangelo. “Capitale umano, ricerca scientifica e tecnologica.” In Storia d’Italia. Annali 15, L’industria, edited by Amatori, Franco, Bigazzi, Duccio, Giannetti, Renato, and Segreto, Luciano, 10411124. Turin: Einaudi, 1999.Google Scholar
Zamagni, Vera. “La dinamica dei salari nel settore industriale.” In L’economia italiana nel periodo fascista, edited by Pierluigi, Ciocca, and Toniolo, Gianni, 329378. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1976.Google Scholar
Zamagni, Vera. “The Daily Wages of Italian Industrial Workers in the Giolittian Period (1898–1913), with an International Comparison for 1905.” Rivista di Storia Economica 1 (1984): 5993.Google Scholar
Zamagni, Vera. “L’industria chimica in Italia dalle origini agli anni’ 50.” In Montecatini 1888–1966. Capitoli di storia di una grande impresa, edited by Amatori, Franco and Bezza, Bruno, 69148. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1990.Google Scholar
Zamagni, Vera. “Italy: How to Lose the War and Win the Peace.” In The Economics of World War II. Six Great Powers in International Comparison, edited by Harrison, Mark, 177222. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williamson, Jeffrey G. “The Evolution of Global Labor Markets since 1830: Background Evidence and Hypotheses.” Exploration in Economic History 32 (1995): 141196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maddison, Angus. Historical Statistics of the World Economy: 1–2008 AD (Paris, 2009), http://www.ggdc.net/MADDISON/oriindex.htm.Google Scholar
OECD, A Study of Resources Devoted to R&D in OECD Member Countries in 1963/64, 2 Statistical Tables and Notes (Paris, 1968).
OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators Database . http://www.oecd.org/sti/msti.htm.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment & Forecast, Seventh Report (n.p., March 1977).
U.S. Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment & Forecast; for 1963-2010 on USPTO.GOV Extended Year Set .
USPTO.GOV Extended Year Set—Patents by Country, State, and Year Utility Patents (December 2012). http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/ac/ido/oeip/taf/cst_utlh.htm.
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). http://www.wipo.org.
Allen, Robert C. The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Antonelli, Cristiano, and Amidei, Federico Barbiellini. The Dynamics of Knowledge Externalities. Localized Technical Change in Italy. Aldershot, UK: Edward Elgar, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bardini, Carlo. Senza carbone nell’ età del vapore. Milan: Bruno Mondadori, 1998.Google Scholar
Becattini, Giacomo, ed. Mercato e forze locali: il distretto industriale. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1987.Google Scholar
Cohen, Jon, and Federico, Giovanni. The Development of Italian Economy, 1820–1960. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Solla Price, Derek. Little Science, Big science… And Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
Freeman, Christopher. Technology Policy and Economic Performance: Lessons from Japan. London: Pinter Pub. Ltd., 1987.Google Scholar
Freeman, Christopher, and Soete, Luc. The Economics of Industrial Innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997.Google Scholar
Giannetti, Renato. Tecnologia e sviluppo economico italiano 1870–1990. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1998.Google Scholar
Hall, Peter A. and Soskice, David. Varieties of Capitalism. The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lundvall, Bengt-Ake, ed. National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning. London: Pinter Publishers, 1992.Google Scholar
Mokyr, Joel. The Lever of Riches. Technological Creativity and Economic Progress. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
Nelson, Richard R., ed. National Innovation Systems. A Comparative Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
Nesi, Edoardo. Storia della mia gente. Milan: Bompiani, 2010.Google Scholar
Petri, Rolf. Storia economica d’Italia. Dalla Grande guerra al miracolo economico (1918–1963). Bologna: Il Mulino, 2002.Google Scholar
Pivato, Marco. Il miracolo scippato. Le quattro occasioni sprecate dalla scienza italiana negli anni sessanta. Rome: Donzelli, 2011.Google Scholar
Russo, Lucio, and Santoni, Emanuela. Ingegni minuti. Una storia della scienza in Italia. Milan: Feltrinelli, 2012.Google Scholar
Soria, Lorenzo. Informatica: un’ occasione perduta. La divisione elettronica dell’Olivetti nei primi anni del centrosinistra. Turin: Einaudi, 1979.Google Scholar
Vasta, Michelangelo. Innovazione tecnologica e capitale umano in Italia (1880–1914). Le traiettorie tecnologiche della seconda rivoluzione industriale. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1999.Google Scholar
Abramovitz, Moses. “Catching Up, Forging Ahead and Falling Behind.” Journal of Economic History 46 (1986): 385406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adamo, Stefano. “The Crisis of the Prato Industrial District in the Works of Edoardo Nesi: a blend of Nostalgia and Self-complacency.” Icer Working Paper 9 (2014).
Akkermans, Dirk, Castaldi, Carolina, and Los, Bart. “Do ‘Liberal Market Economies’ Really Innovate More Radically Than ‘Coordinated Market Economies’? Hall and Soskice Reconsidered.” Research Policy 38 (2009): 181191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amatori, Franco. “Entrepreneurial Typologies in the History of Industrial Italy (1880–1960): A Review Article.” Business History Review 54 (1980): 359386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amatori, Franco. “Italy: The Tormented Rise of Organizational Capabilities between Government and Families.” In Big Business and the Wealth of Nations, edited by Chandler, Alfred D. Jr., Amatori, Franco, and Hikino, Takashi, 246276. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amatori, Franco. “Entrepreneurial Typologies in the History of Industrial Italy: Reconsiderations.” Business History Review 85 (2011): 151180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barbiellini Amidei, Federico, Cantwell, John, and Spadavecchia, Anna. “Innovation and Foreign Technology.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Italian Economy since Unification, edited by Toniolo, Gianni, 378416. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
Brusco, Sebastiano, and Paba, Sergio. “Per una storia dei distretti industriali italiani dal secondo dopoguerra agli anni novanta.” In Storia del capitalismo italiano dal dopoguerra a oggi, edited by Barca, Fabrizio, 265333 . Rome: Donzelli, 1997.Google Scholar
de Zwart, Pim, van Leeuwen, Bas, and van Leeuwen-Li, Jieli, “Real Wages since 1820.” In How Was Life? Global Well-Being since 1820, edited by van Zanden, Jan-Luiten et al., 7386. Paris: OECD, 2014.Google Scholar
Fagerberg, Jan. “Technology and International Differences in Growth Rates.” Journal of Economic Literature 32 (1994): 11471175.Google Scholar
Federico, Giovanni. “Italy, 1860–1940: A Little-Known Success Story.” Economic History Review 49 (1996): 764786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Felice, Emanuele. “State Ownership and International Competitiveness: The Italian Finmeccanica from Alfa Romeo to Aerospace and Defense (1947–2007).” Enterprise & Society 11 (2010): 594635.Google Scholar
Forman, Paul, Heilbron, John L., and Weart, Spencer. “Physics circa 1900: Personnel, Funding and Productivity of Research Establishments.” Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 5 (1975): 1185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gomellini, Matteo, and Pianta, Mario. “Commercio con l’estero e tecnologia in Italia negli anni Cinquanta e Sessanta.” In Innovazione tecnologica e sviluppo industriale nel secondo dopo guerra, edited by Antonelli, Cristiano et al., 359594. Bari: Laterza, 2007.Google Scholar
Govoni, Paola. “Dalla scienza popolare alla divulgazione. Scienziati e pubblico in età liberale.” In Storia d’Italia. Annali 26. Scienze e cultura dell’Italia unita, edited by Cassata, Francesco and Pogliano, Claudio, 6581. Turin: Einaudi, 2011.Google Scholar
Guagnini, Anna. “Patent Agents, Legal Advisers and Guglielmo Marconi’s Breakthrough in Wireless Telegraphy.” History of Technology 24 (2002): 171201.Google Scholar
Guagnini, Anna. “Dall’invenzione all’impresa. Marconi e la Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company.” In Storia, scienza e società. Ricerche sulla scienza in Italia nell’età moderna e contemporanea, edited by Govoni, Paola, 175212. Bologna: Università di Bologna, 2007.Google Scholar
King, David A. “The Scientific Impact of Nations: What Different Countries Get for Their Research Spending.” Nature 430 (2004): 311316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lerner, Josh. “150 Years of Patent Protection.” NBER Working Paper 7478, 2000.
Maiocchi, Roberto. “Il ruolo delle scienze nello sviluppo industriale italiano.” In Storia d’Italia. Annali 3. Scienza e Tecnica, edited by Micheli, Gianni, 863999. Turin: Einaudi, 1980.Google Scholar
Malerba, Franco. “The National System of Innovation: Italy.” In National Innovation Systems. A Comparative Analysis, edited by Nelson, Richard R., 230259. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
May, Robert M. “The Scientific Wealth of Nations.” Science 275, no. 5301 (1997): 793796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morrisson, Christian, and Murtin, Fabrice. “The Century of Education.” Journal of Human Capital 3 (2009): 142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mowery, David. “IPRs and US Economic Catch-Up.” In Intellectual Property Rights, Development, and Catch-Up, edited by Odagiri, Hiroyuki, Goto, Akira, Sunami, Atsushi, and Nelson, Richard R., 3162. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Odagiri, Hiroyuki, Goto, Akira, Sunami, Atsushi, and Nelson, Richard R.. “Introduction.” In Intellectual Property Rights, Development, and Catch-Up, edited by Hiroyuki, Odagiri, Goto, Akira, Sunami, Atsushi, and Nelson, Richard R., 128. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pogliano, Claudio. “Le nuove macchine: inquietudine e seduzione” In Storia d’Italia. Annali 26. Scienze e cultura dell’Italia unita, edited by Cassata, Francesco and Pogliano, Claudio, 349381. Turin: Einaudi, 2011.Google Scholar
Richter, Ralf, and Streb, Jochen. “Catching-Up and Falling Behind. Knowledge Spillover from American to German Machine Tool Makers.” Journal of Economic History 71 (2011): 10061031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russo, Arturo. “Italian Science between the Two World Wars.” Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 16 (1986): 281320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soete, Luc, Verspagen, Bart, and ter Weel, Bas. “Systems of Innovation.” In Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, Vol. 2, edited by Hall, Bronwyn H. and Rosenberg, Nathan, 11601180. Dordrecht: Elsevier, 2010.Google Scholar
Toninelli, Pier Angelo, and Vasta, Michelangelo. “Opening the Black Box of Entrepreneurship: The Italian Case in a Historical Perspective.” Business History 56 (2014): 161186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vasta, Michelangelo. “Capitale umano, ricerca scientifica e tecnologica.” In Storia d’Italia. Annali 15, L’industria, edited by Amatori, Franco, Bigazzi, Duccio, Giannetti, Renato, and Segreto, Luciano, 10411124. Turin: Einaudi, 1999.Google Scholar
Zamagni, Vera. “La dinamica dei salari nel settore industriale.” In L’economia italiana nel periodo fascista, edited by Pierluigi, Ciocca, and Toniolo, Gianni, 329378. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1976.Google Scholar
Zamagni, Vera. “The Daily Wages of Italian Industrial Workers in the Giolittian Period (1898–1913), with an International Comparison for 1905.” Rivista di Storia Economica 1 (1984): 5993.Google Scholar
Zamagni, Vera. “L’industria chimica in Italia dalle origini agli anni’ 50.” In Montecatini 1888–1966. Capitoli di storia di una grande impresa, edited by Amatori, Franco and Bezza, Bruno, 69148. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1990.Google Scholar
Zamagni, Vera. “Italy: How to Lose the War and Win the Peace.” In The Economics of World War II. Six Great Powers in International Comparison, edited by Harrison, Mark, 177222. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williamson, Jeffrey G. “The Evolution of Global Labor Markets since 1830: Background Evidence and Hypotheses.” Exploration in Economic History 32 (1995): 141196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maddison, Angus. Historical Statistics of the World Economy: 1–2008 AD (Paris, 2009), http://www.ggdc.net/MADDISON/oriindex.htm.Google Scholar
OECD, A Study of Resources Devoted to R&D in OECD Member Countries in 1963/64, 2 Statistical Tables and Notes (Paris, 1968).
OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators Database . http://www.oecd.org/sti/msti.htm.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment & Forecast, Seventh Report (n.p., March 1977).
U.S. Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment & Forecast; for 1963-2010 on USPTO.GOV Extended Year Set .
USPTO.GOV Extended Year Set—Patents by Country, State, and Year Utility Patents (December 2012). http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/ac/ido/oeip/taf/cst_utlh.htm.
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). http://www.wipo.org.
9
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