Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Co-operative Wineries in Italy and Spain in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: Success or Failure of the Co-operative Business Model?

  • FRANCISCO J. MEDINA-ALBALADEJO (a1) and TITO MENZANI (a2)
Abstract

The evolution of the co-operative wine sector in traditional wine-producing countries in southern Europe, such as France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal, presents similar historical features in the first half of the twentieth century. However, the analysis of their current state shows that Spanish co-operatives are smaller in size than their French and Italian counterparts. Additionally, the analysis shows that Italian (and French) co-operatives have adopted a more modern business model. The main target of this work is to establish the reasons behind the differences between the Spanish and the more successful Italian co-operative wine sectors. This is carried out through comparative analysis and the examination of the development of both sectors. For this, the framework of the co-operative business life cycle is used.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Alimarket, . Informe anual de bebidas. Madrid: Alimarket, 1975, 2012.
Anderson, Kym. The World’s Wine Markets: Globalization at Work. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2004.
Battaglia, Filippo. Teoria dell’organizzazione e impresa cooperativa. Esperienze a confronto tra Europa e America Latina. Milan: Guerini, 2005.
Battilani, Patrizia. La creazione di un moderno sisteme di imprese: Il ruolo dei consorzi della cooperazione di consumo dell’Emilia Romagna. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1999.
Carbognin, Maurizio, and Masieroio, Attilio. Organizzare l’autogestione. Rome: Edizioni Lavoro, 1985.
Confederación de Cooperativas Agrarias de España (CCAE). Estudio sobre la comercialización agroalimentaria en el sector cooperativo español. Madrid: CCAE–MAPA (Ministerio de agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación de España [Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Food]), 2004.
Downs, Anthony. The Life Cycle of Bureaus. San Francisco: Little Brown and Company, 1967.
Evers, Adalbert, and Louis, Jean, Laville, , eds. The Third Sector in Europe. Cheltenham, UK: Elgar, 2004.
Earle, John. Italian Cooperative Movement. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1986.
Federazione Nazionale delle Cantine Sociali. La Federazione Nazionale delle Cantine Sociali, dal 1922 al 1928. Modena: Federazione Nazionale delle Cantine Sociali, 1931.
Federazione Nazionale delle Cantine Sociali. Statuto tipo e schema di Atto Costitutivo per Cantine Sociali Cooperative. Modena: Federazione Nazionale delle Cantine Sociali, 1931.
Fiorentini, Gianluca, and Scarpa, Carlo. Cooperative e mercato. Rome: Carocci, 1998.
Fornasari, Massimo, and Zamagni, Vera. Il movimento cooperativo in Italia: Un profilo storico-economico (1854–1992). Florence: Vallecchi, 1997.
General Committee for Agricultural Cooperation in the European Union. Agricultural Cooperatives in Europe: Main Issues and Trends, Brussels: General Committee for Agricultural Cooperation in the European Union, 2010.
General Committee for Agricultural Cooperation in the European Union. Development of Agricultural Cooperatives in the EU 2014. Brussels: General Committee for Agricultural Cooperation in the European Union, 2015.
Hansmann, Henry. The Ownership of Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1996.
Instituto Nacional de Denominaciones de Origen. Catastro Vitícola y Vinícola. Madrid: INDO, several years.
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica. Annuario dell’agricoltura italiana. Rome: ISTAT.
Kimberly, John R., and Miles, R. H.. The Organizational Life Cycle: Issues in the Creation, Transformation and Decline of Organizations, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1980.
Lachivier, Marcel. Vins, vignes et vignerons: Histoire du vignoble français. Paris: Fayard, 1988.
Leonardi, Andrea. Collaborare per competere: Il percorso imprenditoriale delle Cantine Mezzacorona. Bologna: Il Mulino, 2005.
Loubère, Leo A. The Wine Revolution in France: The Twentieth Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.
Menzani, Tito. La cooperazione in Emilia-Romagna: Dalla resistenza alla svolta degli anni settanta. Bologna: Il Mulino, 2007.
Ministerio de Agricultura. Anuario estadístico de producciones agrícolas. Madrid, 1954.
Mintzberg, Henry. The Structuring of Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1979.
Mitchell, Brian R. International Historical Statistics: Europe, 1750–2000. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Food Consumption Statistics. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1955–1984.
Panati, Giovanni, and Roncaccioli, Angela. Economia aziendale, organizzazione e impresa cooperativa. Rome: INECOOP, 1984.
Planas, Jordi. Viticultura i cooperativisme: La comarca d’Igualada, 1890–1939. Barcelona: Publicacions de l’Abadia de Montserrat, 2013.
Powell, Walter W. Expanding the Scope of Institutional Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
Powell, Walter W., and di Maggio, Paul. The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
Saumell, Antoni. Viticultura i associacionisme a Catalunya: Els cellers cooperatius del Penedès (1900–1936). Tarragona: Diputació de Tarragona, 2002.
Scott, B. R. Stages of Corporate Development , Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School, Case Clearing House, 1971.
Ufficio Studi Mediobanca. Indagine sul settore vinicolo. Milan: Ufficio Studi Mediobanca, 2007, 2013.
Vanek, Jaroslav. The General Theory of Labour-Managed Market Economies. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1970.
Warner, Charles K. The Winegrowers of France and the Government Since 1875. New York: Columbia, 1960.
Zamagni, Vera, Battilani, Patrizia, and Casali, Antonio. La cooperazione di consumo in Italia. Bologna: Il Mulino, 2004.
Zamagni, Vera, and Felice, Emanuele. Oltre il secolo: Le trasformazioni del sistema cooperativo Legacoop alla fine del secondo millennio. Bologna: Il Mulino, 2006.
Zan, Stefano. La cooperazione in Italia. Bari: De Donato, 1982.
Battilani, Patrizia. “I mille volti della cooperazione italiana: Obiettivi e risultati di una nuova forma di impresa dalle origini alla seconda guerra mondiale.” In Verso una nuova teoría economica della cooperazione, edited by Mazzoli, Enea and Zamagni, Stefano, 97139. Bologna: Il Mulino, 2005.
Battilani, Patrizia, and Schröter, Harm. G.. “Demutualization and Its Problems.” In The Cooperative Business Movement, 1950 to the Present, edited by Battilani, Patrizia and Schröter, Harm G., 150171. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Battilani, Patrizia, and Schröter, Harm. G., and Zamagni, Vera. “The Managerial Transformation of Italian Co-Operative Enterprises 1946–2010.” Business History 56, no. 6 (2012): 964985.
Ben-Ner, Avner. “Birth, Change and Bureaucratization in Nonprofits Organizations: An Economic Analysis.” In Politics, Public Policy and the Voluntary Sector, edited by Herman, Robert, 119137. Kansas City: University of Missouri, 1987.
Ben-Ner, Avner. “Comparative Empirical Observations on Worked-Owned and Capitalist Firms,” International Journal of Industrial Organization 6 (1988): 731.
Ben-Ner, Avner. “The Life Cycle of Worker-Owned Firms in Market Economics.” Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization 10 (1988): 287313.
Ben-Ner, Avner. “On the Stability of the Cooperative Type of Organization.” Journal of Comparative Economics 8 (1984): 247260.
Ben-Ner, Avner. “The Shifting Boundaries of the Mixed Economy and the Future of the Nonprofit Sector.” Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics 73, no. 1 (2002): 540.
Ben-Ner, Avner, and Gui, Benedetto. “The Theory of Nonprofit Organizations Revisited.” In The Study of the Nonprofit Enterprise, edited by Anheier, Helmut and Ben-Ner, Avner, 326. New York: Kluwer/Plenum, 2003.
Bonin, John P. “Innovation in a Labor-Managed Firm: A Membership Perspective.” Journal of Industrial Economics 31, no. 3 (1983): 313329.
Borgaza, Carlo, and Depredi, Sara. “Interpersonal Relations and Job Satisfaction: Some Empirical Results in Social and Community Care Services.” In Economics and Social Interaction Accounting for Interpersonal Relations, edited by Gui, Benedetto and Sugden, Robert, 125150. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Cabana, Ana, and Díaz-Geada, Alba. “Exploring Modernization: An Agrarian Fascism in Rural Spain, 1936–1951.” In Agriculture in the Age of Fascism: Authoritarian Technocracy and Rural Modernization, 1922–1945, edited by Fernández-Prieto, Lourenzo, Pan-Montojo, Juan, and Cabo, Miguel, 189217. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers.
Casson, Mark, and Giusta, Marina Della. “Co-Operatives as Entrepreneurial Institutions.” In Entrepreneurship, Theory, Networks, History, edited by Casson, Mark, 173199. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2010.
Chevet, Jean Michel. “Cooperative Cellars and the Regrouping of the Supply in France in the Twentieth Century.” In Exploring the Food Chain: Food Production and Food Processing in Western Europe, 1850–1990, edited by Segers, Yves, Bieleman, Jan, and Byust, Erik, 253279. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers, 2009.
Chiffoleau, Yuna, Dreyfus, Fabrice, Ewert, Joachim, and Touzard, Jean-Marc. “The Wine Cooperatives Face the Demand for Quality: Call for a Renewed Solidarity in Languedoc (France) and in the Western Cape (South Africa).” In Local Society & Global Economy: The Role of Co-Operatives, edited by Karafolas, Simeon, Spear, Roger, and Stryjan, Yohanan, 381394. Naoussa, Greece: Editions Hellin, 2002.
Cook, Michael L. “The Future of U.S. Agricultural Cooperatives: A Neo-Institutional Approach.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 77 (1995): 11531159.
Di Maggio, Paul J. “State Expansion and Organizational Fields.” Organizational Theory and Public Policy, edited by Hall, Richard. H. and Quinn, Robert E., 147161. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1983.
Di Maggio, Paul J., and Powell, Walter W.. “The Iron Case Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields.” American Sociological Review 48 (1983): 147160.
Fernández, Eva. “El fracaso del lobby viticultor en España frente al objetivo industrializador del Estado, 1920–1936.” Historia Agraria 45 (2008): 113141.
Fernández, Eva. “Especialización en baja calidad: España y el mercado internacional del vino, 1950-1990.” Historia Agraria 56 (2012): 4176.
Ferrucci, Luca. “La cooperazione di consume: dilemmi di governance e di crescita nella moderna distribuzione commercial.” In Lezioni cooperative: Contributi ad una teoría dell’impresa cooperative, edited by Salani, Mario P., 175203. Bologna: Il Mulino, 2006.
Furubotn, Eirik Grundtvig, and Pejovich, Svetozar. “Property Rights and the Behavior of the Firm in a Socialist State: The Example of Yugoslavia.” Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie 30 (1970): 431454.
Gavignaud-Fontaine, Geneviève. “Les caves cooperatives, bastion de la viticulture populaire en Roussillon au XXe siècle.” La revue de l’Economie Sociales 7 (1986): 1122.
Gray, Thomas W., Heffernan, William, and Hendrickson, Mary. “Agricultural Cooperatives and Dilemmas of Survival.” Journal or Rural Cooperation 29, no. 2 (2001): 167192.
Guinnane, Timothy W. “Cooperatives as Information Machines: German Rural Credit Cooperatives, 1883–1914.” Journal of Economic History 61, no. 2 (2001): 366389.
Greiner, Larry E. “Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Grow.” Harvard Business Review 50 (1972): 3746.
Helmberger, Peter G. “Co-Operative Enterprise and a Structural Dimension of Farm Markets.” Journal of Farm Economics 48, no. 5 (1966): 14271435.
Henriksen, Ingrid. “Avoiding Lock-In: Cooperative Creameries in Denmark, 1882–1903.” European Review of Economic History 3 (1999): 5778.
Henriksen, Ingrid, Lampe, Markus, and Sharp, Paul. “The Role of Technology and Institutions for Growth: Danish Creameries in the Late Nineteenth Century.” European Review of Economic History 15 (2011): 475493.
Henriksen, Ingrid, Hviid, Morten, and Sharp, Paul. “Law and Peace: Contracts and the Success of the Danish Dairy Cooperatives.” Journal of Economic History 72, no. 1 (2012): 197224.
Hind, Abigail M. “Co-Operative Life Cycles and Goals.” Journal of Agricultural Economics 50, no. 3 (1999): 536548.
Kremer, Michael. “Why Are Worker Cooperatives So Rare?” National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Working Paper no. 6118 (1997).
Le Vay, C. “Agricultural Co-Operatives Theory: A Review.” Journal of Political Economy 34, no. 1 (1983): 144.
Menzani, Tito, and Zamagni, Vera. “Cooperative Networks in the Italian Economy.” Enterprise & Society 11 (2009): 98127.
Martínez-Carrión, José Miguel, and Medina-Albaladejo, Francisco José. “Change and Development in the Spanish Wine Sector: 1950–2009.” Journal of Wine Research 21, no. 1 (2010): 7795.
Martínez-Carrión, José Miguel, and Medina-Albaladejo, Francisco José. “La competitividad internacional de la industria vinícola española durante la globalización del vino.” Revista de Historia Industrial 52 (2013): 139174.
Medina-Albaladejo, Francisco José. “Co-Operative Wineries: Temporal Solution or Efficient Firms? The Spanish Case During the Late Francoism, 1970–1981.” Business History 57, no. 4 (2015): 589613.
Meister, Albert. “Democrazia e partecipazione nelle associazioni.” Comunità 25, no. 163 (1971).
Milgrom, Paul, and Roberts, John. “An Economic Approach to Influence Activities in Organizations.” American Journal of Sociology 94 (1988): s154s179.
Miyazaki, Hajime. “On Success and Dissolution of the Labor-Managed Firm in the Capitalist Economy.” Journal of Political Economy 92, no. 5 (1984): 909931.
Murray, Gordon C. “Towards an Agricultural Co-Operative Classification.” Journal of Agricultural Economics 34, no. 2 (1983): 151161.
O’Rourke, Kevin. “Property Rights, Politics and Innovation: Creamery Diffusion in Pre-1914 Ireland.” European Review of Economic History 3 (2007): 395417.
O’Rourke, Kevin. “Culture, Conflict and Cooperation: Irish Dairying Before the Great War.” Economic Journal 117 (2007): 13571379.
Ortmann, Gerald F., and King, Robert P.. “Agricultural Cooperatives I: History, Theory and Problems.” Agekon 46, no. 1 (2007): 4068.
Pan-Montojo, Juan. “Las industrias vinícolas españolas: Desarrollo y diversificación productiva entre el siglo XVIII y 1960.” In Viñas, bodegas y mercados: El cambio técnico en la vitivinicultura española, 1850–1936, edited by Carmona, Juan, Colomé, Josep, Pan-Montojo, Juan, and Simpson, James, 313334. Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 2001.
Panjek, Giovanni. “L’industria vitivinicola in Fruili–Venecia Giulia.” In Las industrias agroalimentarias en Italia y España durante los siglos XIX y XX, edited by Barciela, Carlos and Di Vittorio, Antonio, 427441. Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, 2003.
Piqueras, Juan. “El viñedo español entre 1940 y 1990: Medio siglo de cambios hacia la modernización, la calidad y la eliminación de los excedentes.” In Medio siglo de agricultura en España, edited by Gil Olcina, Antonio, 85114. Alicante: Instituto de Geografía de la Universidad de Alicante, 1992.
Planas, Jordi. “El cooperativismo vitivinícola en tiempos de crisis: el Sindicato de Viticultores de Igualada (1921–1936).” Investigaciones de Historia Económica 9, no. 3 (2013): 155164.
Planas, Jordi, and Valls-Junyent, Françesc. “¿Por qué fracasaban las cooperativas agrícolas? Una respuesta a partir del análisis de un núcleo de la Cataluña rabasaire. Investigaciones de Historia Económica 7, no. 2 (2011): 310321.
Powell, Walter. “Institutional Effects on Organizational Structure and Performance.” In Institutional Patterns and Organizations: Culture and Environment, edited by Zucker, Lynne G., 115136. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1988.
Quinn, Robert, and Cameron, Kim. “Organizational Life Cycles and Shifting Criteria of Effectiveness.” Management Science 29, no. 1 (1983): 3351.
Rinaudo, Yves. “La naissance de la cooperative viticole: Les caves du Midi au début du XXème siècle.” La revue de l’Economie Sociales 3 (1985): 1730.
Segré, Andrea. “Marketing Italian Wine in the U.S. Market: A Case Study of Cantine Riunite.” In Vine and Wine Economy: Proceedings of the International Symposium, Kecskemét, Hungary, June 25–29, 1990, 245259. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1990.
Simpson, James. “Cooperation and Cooperatives in Southern European Wine Production: The Nature of Successful Institutional Innovation, 1880–1950.” Advances in Agricultural Economic History 1 (2000): 5126.
Tuason, Ramon V. “Corporate Life Cycle and the Evaluation of Corporate Strategy.” Boston: Academy of Management National Meetings, Division of Business Policy and Planning, 1973.
Ward, Benjamin. “The Firm in Illyria: Market Syndicalism.” American Economic Review 48, 4 (1958): 566589.
Whettem, David A. “Organizational Decline: A Neglected Topic in Organizational Science.” Academy of Management Review 5, no. 4 (1980): 353362.
Fomento de la Producción. Revista quincenal de la industria, el comercio y las finanzas : 1976, 1986.
La Cooperazione Italiana : December 31, 1951; January 21, 1953; May 13, 1965; December 31, 1970; January 13, 1972; April 13, 1972.
La Semana Vitivinícola : 1954.
Bollettino Ufficiale delle Societá per Azioni (Soc. Cooperative) .
Circular informativa no. 7/80 de la Junta Nacional de Cooperativas Vitivinícolas (Unión Nacional de Cooperativas del Campo) .
Estadística sobre cosechas de la Junta Nacional de Cooperativas Vitivinícolas (Unión Nacional de Cooperativas del Campo) .
Fernández, Eva. Productores, comerciantes y el estado: Regulación y redistribución de rentas en el mercado de vino en España, 1890–1990. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 2008.
Medina-Albaladejo, Francisco José. Cooperativismo y sector vitivinícola en España durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2011.
Cooperativas Agroalimentarias, http://www.agro-alimentarias.coop/inicio.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAOSTAT) database, http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/T/TP/E.
International Organisation of Vine and Wine OIV Statistics, http://www.oiv.int/oiv/info/esstatoivextracts2.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Enterprise & Society
  • ISSN: 1467-2227
  • EISSN: 1467-2235
  • URL: /core/journals/enterprise-and-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 62 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 494 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.